Deep Look
DEEP LOOK is a science video series that explores big science by going very, very small, from KQED and PBS Digital Studios. We use macro photography and microscopy in glorious 4K resolution, to see science up close... really, really close. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook On Twitter: Lauren Sommer: Host/Writer @lesommer Joshua Cassidy: Lead Producer / Cinematographer @Jkcassidy Teodros Hailye: Animator Elliott Kennerson: Producer / Editor @elliott_KQED Gabriela Quiros: Coordinating Producer Craig Rosa: Series Producer @craigrosa Seth G. Samuel: Composer @sethgsamuel Kia Simon: Editor and Motion Graphics: @KiaSimon -- KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media.

79 videos
You've Heard of a Murder of Crows. How About a Crow Funeral? | Deep Look You've Heard of a Murder of Crows. How About a Crow Funeral? | Deep Look
6 days ago En
Support Deep Look on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook They may be dressed in black, but crow funerals aren't the solemn events that we hold for our dead. These birds cause a ruckus around their fallen friend. Are they just scared, or is there something deeper going on? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * It’s a common site in many parks and backyards: Crows squawking. But groups of the noisy black birds may not just be raising a fuss, scientists say. They may be holding a funeral. Kaeli Swift, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Washington’s Avian Conservation Lab in Seattle, is studying how crows learn about danger from each other and how they respond to seeing one of their own who has died. Unlike the majority of animals, crows react strongly to seeing a fellow member of their species has died, mobbing together and raising a ruckus. Only a few animals like whales, elephants and some primates, have such strong reactions. To study exactly what may be going on on, Swift developed an experiment that involved exposing local crows in Seattle neighborhoods to a dead taxidermied crow in order to study their reaction. “It’s really incredible,” she said. “They’re all around in the trees just staring at you and screaming at you.” Swift calls these events ‘crow funerals’ and they are the focus of her research. --- What do crows eat? Crows are omnivores so they’ll eat just about anything. In the wild they eat insects, carrion, eggs seeds and fruit. Crows that live around humans eat garbage. --- What’s the difference between crows and ravens? American crows and common ravens may look similar but ravens are larger with a more robust beak. When in flight, crow tail feathers are approximately the same length. Raven tail feathers spread out and look like a fan. Ravens also tend to emit a croaking sound compared to the caw of a crow. Ravens also tend to travel in pairs while crows tend to flock together in larger groups. Raven will sometimes prey on crows. --- Why do crows chase hawks? Crows, like animals whose young are preyed upon, mob together and harass dangerous predators like hawks in order to exclude them from an area and protect their offspring. Mobbing also teaches new generations of crows to identify predators. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1923458/youve-heard-of-a-murder-of-crows-how-about-a-crow-funeral/ ---+ For more information: Kaeli Swift’s Corvid Research website https://corvidresearch.blog/ University of Washington Avian Conservation Laboratory http://sefs.washington.edu/research.acl/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dATZsuPdOnM Upside-Down Catfish Doesn't Care What You Think | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eurCBOJMrsE Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-0SFWPLaII ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Why Climate Change is Unjust | Hot Mess https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5KjpYK12_c Is Breakfast the Most Important Meal? | Origin Of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxIOGqHQqZM How the Squid Lost Its Shell | PBS Eons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4vxoP-IF2M ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble? | Deep Look Why Do Tumbleweeds Tumble? | Deep Look
2 weeks ago En
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at https://curiositystream.com/deeplook . The silent star of classic Westerns is a plant on a mission. It starts out green and full of life. It even grows flowers. But to reproduce effectively it needs to turn into a rolling brown skeleton. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Tumbleweeds might be the iconic props of classic Westerns. But in real life, they’re not only a noxious weed, but one that moves around. Pushed by gusts of wind, they can overwhelm entire neighborhoods, as happened recently in Victorville, California, or become a threat for drivers and an expensive nuisance for farmers. “They tumble across highways and can cause accidents,” said Mike Pitcairn, who tracks tumbleweeds at the California Department of Food and Agriculture in Sacramento. “They pile up against fences and homes.” And tumbleweeds aren’t even originally from the West. Genetic tests have shown that California’s most common tumbleweed, known as Russian thistle, likely came from Ukraine, said retired plant population biologist Debra Ayres, who studied tumbleweeds at the University of California, Davis. A U.S. Department of Agriculture employee, L. H. Dewey, wrote in 1893 that Russian thistle had arrived in the U.S. through South Dakota in flaxseed imported from Europe in the 1870s. “It has been known in Russia many years,” Dewey wrote, “and has quite as bad a reputation in the wheat regions there as it has in the Dakotas.” This is where the name Russian thistle originates, said Ayres, although tumbleweeds aren’t thistles. The weed spread quickly through the United States — on rail cars, through contamination of agricultural seeds and by tumbling. “They tumble to disperse the seeds,” said Ayres, “and thereby reduce competition.” A rolling tumbleweed spreads out tens of thousands of seeds so that they all get plenty of sunlight and space. Tumbleweeds grow well in barren places like vacant lots or the side of the road, where they can tumble unobstructed and there’s no grass, which their seedlings can’t compete with. --- Where does a tumbleweed come from? Tumbleweeds start out attached to the soil. Seedlings, which look like blades of grass, sprout at the end of winter. By summer, Russian thistle plants take on their round shape and grow flowers. Inside each flower, a fruit with a seed develops. Other plants attract animals with tasty fruits, and get them to carry away their seeds and disperse them when they poop. Tumbleweeds developed a different evolutionary strategy. Starting in late fall, they dry out and die, their seeds nestled between prickly leaves. Gusts of wind easily break dead tumbleweeds from their roots and they roll away, spreading their seeds as they go. --- How big do tumbleweeds grow? Mike Pitcairn, of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, said that in the state’s San Joaquin Valley they can grow to be more than 6 feet tall. --- Are tumbleweeds dangerous? Yes. They can cause traffic accidents or be a fire hazard if they pile up near buildings. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1922987/why-do-tumbleweeds-tumble/ ---+ For more information on the history and biology of Russian thistle, here’s a paper by Debra Ayres and colleagues: https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/28657/PDF ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IoOJu2_FKE This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycUNj_Hv4_Y Upside-Down Catfish Doesn't Care What You Think https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eurCBOJMrsE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Why Is Vaping So Popular? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9zps5LsVXs Hot Mess: What Happened to Nuclear Power? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jEXZZDU6Gk ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the Templeton Religion Trust and the Templeton World Charity Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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Help Deep Look Win a 2018 Webby Award! Help Deep Look Win a 2018 Webby Award!
1 month ago En
VOTE!!: http://bit.ly/2J8bBIi Deep Look is a 🎇2018 WEBBY NOMINEE 🎇 for Best Science & Education Channel!! And in order to win the People's Voice competition, we need your vote! For those of you who don't know, the Webbys are kind of like the Oscars of the internet. And you helped us *win* last year - one of our videos "How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood" won Best Science & Education Video of 2017! And we need you - our super awesome fans - to rally us to victory again! VOTE! Seriously! The Webbys are the Oscars of the Internet. Voting ends this Thursday, April 19, at midnight! Do it now. Because time is.... TICKING. Thanks! -- The Deep Look team DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Upside-Down Catfish Doesn't Care What You Think Upside-Down Catfish Doesn't Care What You Think
1 month ago En
You might suppose this catfish is sick, or just confused. But swimming belly-up actually helps it camouflage and breathe better than its right-side-up cousins. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Normally, an upside-down fish in your tank is bad news. As in, it’s time for a new goldfish. That’s because most fish have an internal air sac called a “swim bladder” that allows them to control their buoyancy and orientation. They fill the bladder with air when they want to rise, and deflate it when they want to sink. Fish without swim bladders, like sharks, have to swim constantly to keep from dropping to the bottom. If an aquarium fish is listing to one side or flops over on its back, it often means it has swim bladder disease, a potentially life-threatening condition usually brought on parasites, overfeeding, or high nitrate levels in the water. But for a few remarkable fish, being upside-down means everything is great. In fact, seven species of catfish native to Central Africa live most of their lives upended. These topsy-turvy swimmers are anatomically identical to their right-side up cousins, despite having such an unusual orientation. People’s fascination with the odd alignment of these fish goes back centuries. Studies of these quizzical fish have found a number of reasons why swimming upside down makes a lot of sense. In an upside-down position, fish produce a lot less wave drag. That means upside-down catfish do a better job feeding on insect larvae at the waterline than their right-side up counterparts, who have to return to deeper water to rest. There’s something else at the surface that’s even more important to a fish’s survival than food: oxygen. The gas essential to life readily dissolves from the air into the water, where it becomes concentrated in a thin layer at the waterline — right where the upside-down catfish’s mouth and gills are perfectly positioned to get it. Scientists estimate that upside-down catfishes have been working out their survival strategy for as long at 35 million years. Besides their breathing and feeding behavior, the blotched upside-down catfish from the Congo Basin has also evolved a dark patch on its underside to make it harder to see against dark water. That coloration is remarkable because it’s the opposite of most sea creatures, which tend to be darker on top and lighter on the bottom, a common adaptation called “countershading” that offsets the effects of sunlight. The blotched upside-down catfish’s “reverse” countershading has earned it the scientific name negriventris, which means black-bellied. --- How many kinds of fish swim upside down? A total of seven species in Africa swim that way. Upside-down swimming may have evolved independent in a few of the species – and at least one more time in a catfish from Asia. --- How do fish stay upright? They have an air-filled swim bladder on the inside that that they can fill or deflate to maintain balance or to move up or down in the water column. --- What are the benefits of swimming upside down? Upside down, a fish swims more efficiently at the waterline, where there’s more oxygen and better access to some prey. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1922038/the-mystery-of-the-upside-down-catfish ---+ For more information: The California Academy of Sciences has upside-down catfish in its aquarium collection: https://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/steinhart-aquarium ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning https://youtu.be/O-0SFWPLaII This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards https://youtu.be/E2unnSK7WTE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k Origin of Everything: The Origin of Race in the USA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVxAlmAPHec ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning | Deep Look Take Two Leeches and Call Me in the Morning | Deep Look
1 month ago En
Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook (FYI - This episode is a *bit* more bloody that usual – especially a little after the 2-minute mark. Just letting you know in case flesh wounds aren’t your thing) The same blood-sucking leeches feared by hikers and swimmers are making a comeback... in hospitals. Once used for questionable treatments, leeches now help doctors complete complex surgeries to reattach severed body parts. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Leeches get a bad rap—but they might not deserve it. Yes, they’re creepy crawly blood-suckers. And they can instill an almost primal sense of disgust and revulsion. Humphrey Bogart’s character in the 1951 film The African Queen even went so far as to call them “filthy little devils.” But the humble leech is making a comeback. Contrary to the typical, derogatory definition of a human “leech,” this critter is increasingly playing a key role as a sidekick for scientists and doctors, simply by being its bloodthirsty self. Distant cousins of the earthworm, most leech species are parasites that feed on the blood of animals and humans alike. They are often found in freshwater and navigate either by swimming or by inching themselves along, using two suckers—one at each end of their body—to anchor themselves. Upon reaching an unsuspecting host, a leech will surreptitiously attach itself and begin to feed. It uses a triangular set of three teeth to cut in, and secretes a suite of chemicals to thin the blood and numb the skin so its presence goes undetected. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1921659/take-two-leeches-and-call-me-in-the-morning ---+ For more information: David Weisblat at UC Berkeley studies leeches development and evolution https://mcb.berkeley.edu/labs/weisblat/research.html Biologists recently reported that leeches in that region can provide a valuable snapshot of which animals are present in a particular area https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14772000.2018.1433729?journalCode=tsab20& ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpJNeGqExrc For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfoYD8pAsMw Praying Mantis Love is Waaay Weirder Than You Think | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHf47gI8w04&t=83s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Cow Burps Are Warming the Planet | Reactions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnRFUSGz_ZM What a Dinosaur Looks Like Under a Microscope | Eons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rvgiDXc12k Hawking Radiation | Space Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPKj0YnKANw ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks | Deep Look How Ticks Dig In With a Mouth Full of Hooks | Deep Look
2 months ago En
Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Why can't you just flick a tick? Because it attaches to you with a mouth covered in hooks, while it fattens up on your blood. For days. But don't worry – there *is* a way to pull it out. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Spring is here. Unfortunately for hikers and picnickers out enjoying the weather, the new season is prime time for ticks, which can transmit bacteria that cause Lyme disease. How they latch on – and stay on – is a feat of engineering that scientists have been piecing together. Once you know how a tick’s mouth works, you understand why it’s impossible to simply flick a tick. The key to their success is a menacing mouth covered in hooks that they use to get under the surface of our skin and attach themselves for several days while they fatten up on our blood. “Ticks have a lovely, evolved mouth part for doing exactly what they need to do, which is extended feeding,” said Kerry Padgett, supervising public health biologist at the California Department of Public Health in Richmond. “They're not like a mosquito that can just put their mouth parts in and out nicely, like a hypodermic needle.” Instead, a tick digs in using two sets of hooks. Each set looks like a hand with three hooked fingers. The hooks dig in and wriggle into the skin. Then these “hands” bend in unison to perform approximately half-a-dozen breaststrokes that pull skin out of the way so the tick can push in a long stubby part called the hypostome. “It’s almost like swimming into the skin,” said Dania Richter, a biologist at the Technische Universität Braunschweig in Germany, who has studied the mechanism closely. “By bending the hooks it’s engaging the skin. It’s pulling the skin when it retracts.” The bottom of their long hypostome is also covered in rows of hooks that give it the look of a chainsaw. Those hooks act like mini-harpoons, anchoring the tick to us for the long haul. “They’re teeth that are backwards facing, similar to one of those gates you would drive over but you're not allowed to back up or else you'd puncture your tires,” said Padgett. --- How to remove a tick. Kerry Padgett, at the California Department of Public Health, recommends grabbing the tick close to the skin using a pair of fine tweezers and simply pulling straight up. “No twisting or jerking,” she said. “Use a smooth motion pulling up.” Padgett warned against using other strategies. “Don't use Vaseline or try to burn the tick or use a cotton swab soaked in soft soap or any of these other techniques that might take a little longer or might not work at all,” she said. “You really want to remove the tick as soon as possible.” --- What happens if the mouth of a tick breaks off in your skin? Don’t worry if the tick’s mouth parts stay behind when you pull. “The mouth parts are not going to transmit disease to people,” said Padgett. If the mouth stayed behind in your skin, it will eventually work its way out, sort of like a splinter does, she said. Clean the bite area with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://www.kqed.org/science/1920972/how-ticks-dig-in-with-a-mouth-full-of-hooks ---+ For more information: Centers for Disease Control information on Lyme disease: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/ Mosquito & Vector Control District for San Mateo County, California: https://www.smcmvcd.org/ticks ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU So … Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWdCMFvgFbo Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACrLMtPyRM0 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above the Noise: Are Energy Drinks Really that Bad? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5l0cjsZS-eM It’s Okay To Be Smart: Inside an ICE CAVE! - Nature's Most Beautiful Blue https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7LKm9jtm8I ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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So ... Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies | Deep Look So ... Sometimes Fireflies Eat Other Fireflies | Deep Look
2 months ago En
Most firefly flashes are pure romance, a sexy form of skywriting. But one variety copies the mating signals of others to lure them to their demise. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Most of the blinking signals that fireflies send out are intended to attract mates. But researchers are finding out that in some cases, these romantic overtures are not all wine and roses. Females of one firefly group, the genus Photuris, have learned to copy other fireflies’ flashes to attract the males of those species. When one arrives, she pounces, first sucking his blood, then devouring his insides. These “femme fatale” fireflies live throughout the Eastern U.S alongside the fireflies they target. They can develop widely varying light shows to target whatever species are in the area. The predatory habits of Photuris are just one example of how much individual firefly signals can differ from one another. The male Common Eastern Firefly, for example, is known for his fish hook-shaped aerial maneuver, which he repeats at six-second intervals. That characteristic move has earned the species the nickname “Big Dipper.” The male Big Dipper hopes this bit of skywriting will get him noticed by females hiding in the grass. If the female likes what she sees, her reply comes as a single pulse from her smaller, heart-shaped lantern. That’s his invitation to land and mate. Most firefly interactions follow the same pattern, with roving males advertising themselves to concealed females. Within a species, the back-and-forth signals are so reliable that it’s easy to attract the male fireflies with even a simple decoy. Firefly light is biochemical. But fireflies like the Big Dippers do much more with chemistry than just make light. They can mix together an array of other compounds, including invisible pheromones for mating, and others called lucibufagins (“loosa-BOOF-ajins”) that ward off predators like spiders and birds. At some point, the Photuris “femme fatale” fireflies lost the ability to make their own lucibufagins. So instead of chemistry, these bigger, stronger fireflies became adept at imitation, and evolved to turn into insect vampires to take these valuable compounds from other fireflies to boost their own defenses. And it works. In experiments, predators avoided Photuris fireflies that had recently preyed on other fireflies. --- Where do fireflies live? There are fireflies worldwide, but in the U.S., you’ll find them in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. There are a few species in the West, including the California Pink Glow-worm. --- Why do fireflies flash? Mostly, it’s to attract mates. One sex, usually the male, uses a more elaborate flash pattern to get the attention of the opposite sex. Then the female signals her interest with a simpler flash. --- Why do fireflies glow after they die? The chemicals in the firefly that make light, luciferin and luciferase, remain viable after it dies, and the reaction that creates the light thrives on oxygen, which is of course plentiful in the air. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/2018/02/27/so-sometimes-fireflies-eat-other-fireflies ---+ For more information: Join Fireflyers International: https://fireflyersinternational.net/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://youtu.be/UOcLaI44TXA Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker https://youtu.be/NpJNeGqExrc ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Giant Fungi Ruled https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-G64DagHuOg Origin Of Everything: Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look For Pacific Mole Crabs It's Dig or Die | Deep Look
3 months ago En
Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, make their living just under the surface of the sand, where they're safe from breaking waves and hungry birds. Some very special physics help them dig with astonishing speed. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Among the surfers and beach-casting anglers, there’s a new visitor to San Francisco’s Ocean Beach shoreline. Benjamin McInroe is there for only one reason -- to find Pacific mole crabs, a creature commonly known as “sand crabs” -- and the tiny animals whose burrowing causes millions of small bubbles to appear on the beach as the tide comes in and out. McInroe is a graduate student from UC Berkeley studying biophysics. He wants to know what makes these little creatures so proficient at digging their way through the wet sand. McInroe hopes that he can one day copy their techniques to build a new generation of digging robots. -- What are Pacific Mole Crabs? Pacific mole crabs, also known as sand crabs, are crustaceans, related to shrimp and lobsters. They have four pairs of legs and one pair of specialized legs in the front called uropods that look like paddles for digging in sand. Pacific mole crabs burrow through wet sand and stick their antennae out to catch bits of kelp and other debris kicked up by the breaking waves. -- What makes those holes in the sand at the beach? When the waves recede, mole crabs burrow down into the sand to keep from being exposed. They dig tail-first very quickly leaving holes in the wet sand. The holes bubble as water seeps into the holes and the air escapes. -- What do birds eat in the wet beach sand? Shore birds like seagulls rush down the beach as the waves recede to catch mole crabs that haven’t burrowed down quickly enough to escape. The birds typically run or fly away as the next wave breaks and rolls in. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/13/for-pacific-mole-crabs-its-dig-or-die/ ---+ For more information: Benjamin McInroe, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, studies how Pacific mole crabs burrow https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~bmcinroe/ Professor Robert Full directs the Poly-PEDAL Lab at UC Berkeley, where researchers study the physics of how animals and use that knowledge to build mechanical systems like robots based on their findings. http://polypedal.berkeley.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look https://youtu.be/OwQcv7TyX04 These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look https://youtu.be/j5F3z1iP0Ic Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look https://youtu.be/ak2xqH5h0YY There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Why Do We Eat Artificial Flavors? | Origin of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNaJ31EV13U The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOeFRg_1_Yg Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g246c6Bv58 ---+ Follow KQED Science KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat | Deep Look This Giant Plant Looks Like Raw Meat and Smells Like Dead Rat | Deep Look
3 months ago En
With rows of Dr. Seuss-like flowers hidden deep inside, the corpse flower plays dead to lure some unusual pollinators. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * For a plant that emits an overpowering stench of rotting carcass, you’d think the corpse flower would have a PR problem. But it’s quite the opposite: Anytime a corpse flower opens up at a botanical garden somewhere in the world visitors flock to catch a whiff and get a glimpse of the giant plant, which can grow up to 10 feet tall when it blooms and generally only does so every two to 10 years. A corpse flower’s whole survival strategy is based on deception. It’s not a flower and it’s not a rotting dead animal, but it mimics both. Pollination remains out of sight, deep within the plant. KQED’s Deep Look staff was able to film inside a corpse flower, revealing the rarely-seen moment when the plant’s male flowers release glistening strings of pollen. It’s not that the corpse flower is the only plant to attract pollinators like flies and beetles by putting out bad smells. Nor is it the only one that produces male and female flowers at the same time. “The fact that it does all of this at this outsized scale – all of this together – is what’s so unique about it, biologically,” said Pati Vitt, senior scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden. When a titan arum is ready to flower, a stalk starts to grow out of the soil. Once it has reached four to 10 feet, a red “skirt” unfurls. Though it has the appearance of a petal, it’s really a modified leaf called a spathe that looks like a raw steak. The yellow stalk underneath is called the spadix and it gives the plant its scientific name, Amorphophallus titanum, or roughly “giant deformed phallus.” In its native Sumatra, the corpse flower opens for only 24 hours. In captivity, it often lasts longer. With just a day to reproduce, the stakes are high. --- How many chemicals make up the smell of the corpse flower? More than 30 chemicals make up the scent of the corpse flower, according to the 2017 paper “Studies on the floral anatomy and scent chemistry of titan arum” by researchers at the University of Mississippi, University of Florida, Gainsville, and Anadolu University in Turkey: http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-17-41-1/bot-41-1-6-1604-34.pdf Some of the chemicals have a pleasant scent. But mostly, the corpse flower at first smells like funky cheese and rotting garlic, as a result of sulphur-smelling compounds. Hours later, the stink changes to what Vanessa Handley, at the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley describes as “dead rat in the walls of your house.” ---+ Read the entire article: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/01/23/this-giant-plant-looks-like-raw-meat-and-smells-like-dead-rat/ ---+ For more information: Great illustration on the lifecycle of the corpse flower by the Chicago Botanic Garden: https://www.chicagobotanic.org/titan/faq University of California Davis Botanical Conservatory: http://greenhouse.ucdavis.edu/conservatory/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6a3Q5DzeBM ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: How to Figure Out the Day of the Week For Any Date Ever https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=714LTMNJy5M Above The Noise: Can Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Help Fight Disease? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CB_h7aheAEM ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Fuhs Family Foundation Fund and the members of KQED.
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Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look
4 months ago En
Sure, the female black widow has a terrible reputation. But who’s the real victim here? Her male counterpart is a total jerk — and might just be getting what he deserves. Learn more about CuriosityStream at http://curiositystream.com/deeplook SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. We’ve all heard the stories. She mates and then kills. Her venom is 15 times stronger than a rattlesnake’s. One bite could kill you. With a shiny black color and a glaring red hourglass stomach, she has long inspired fear and awe. But most species of widow spider (there are 31), including the western black widow found in the U.S., don’t kill their mates at all. Only two widow spider species always eat their mate, the Australian redback and the brown widow, an invasive species in California. And the male seems to be asking for it. In both of these species, he offers himself to her, somersaulting into her mouth after copulation. He may even deserve it. During peak mating season, thousands of males will prowl around looking for females. Females set up their webs, stay put and wait. Once the male arrives at her silken abode, he starts to wreck it, systematically disassembling her web one strand at a time. In a process scientists call web reduction, he bunches it into a little ball and wraps it up with his own silk. Then, while mating, he will wrap her in fine strands that researchers refer to as the bridal veil. He drapes his silk over her legs, where her smell receptors are most concentrated. After all of that, he is most likely to crawl away, alive and unscathed. --- Why does the black widow spider eat her mate? No one really knows, but scientists assume his body supplies her with nutrition for laying eggs. Sometimes she eats him by accident, not recognizing him as a mate. --- How harmful are black widows to people? We couldn’t find a documented case of a human death from a black widow spider in the U.S., but a bite will make you sick with extreme flu-like symptoms. Luckily, black widows aren’t aggressive to people. --- Why do black widows have a red hourglass? It’s a warning sign, a phenomenon common in nature that scientists call aposematicism, which is the use of color to ward off enemies. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/01/09/why-the-male-black-widow-spider-is-a-real-home-wrecker/ ---+ For more information: Black widow researcher Catherine Scott’s website: http://spiderbytes.org/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4 Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOcLaI44TXA ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Origin of Everything: Why Does Santa Wear Red? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fajNM5OPVnA PBS Eons: 'Living Fossils' Aren't Really a Thing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPvZj2KcjAY ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Praying Mantis Love is Waaay Weirder Than You Think | Deep Look Praying Mantis Love is Waaay Weirder Than You Think | Deep Look
6 months ago En
Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook These pocket-sized predators are formidable hunters. But when it comes to hooking up, male mantises have good reason to fear commitment. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Mike Maxwell recently finished a ninth season studying the love life of the praying mantises that live around Bishop, a town in California’s Eastern Sierra. Over that time, he’s seen some unsettlingly strange behaviors. It’s pretty common knowledge that female mantises sometimes eat males during or after mating — a habit that biologists call “sexual cannibalism.” But among the bordered mantises that Maxwell researches, it gets weirder than that. As it turns out, when a male mantis loses his head, it doesn’t mean he loses the urge to procreate. You read that right. Not only can some male bordered mantises continue mating even while being attacked by their female counterparts, some males are able to mount a female and initiate mating even after getting their heads completely bitten off. “It’s a really weird, strange behavior,” said Maxwell, “So what’s going on? Why do they do it?” -- What do praying mantises eat? Praying mantises are mostly ambush predators that typically eat small animals like grasshoppers, crickets, bees, crickets and butterflies . They use camouflage to hide themselves and wait for their prey to come within striking distance. Then they use their raptorial forelimbs to grab their prey. Spikes on their forelimbs help them hold their prey while they eat. -- Why do praying mantises eat each other? Female praying mantises sometimes eat males that approach them to mate. They are only able to do this because mantises are predators and the female mantises are bigger and stronger than the males. -- Do praying mantises bite? Most mantises will not bite people but they will pinch people with their forelimbs to defend themselves. It feels a lot like getting bit, trust me. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/11/14/praying-mantis-love-is-waaay-weirder-than-you-think-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: Dr. Michael Maxwell, National University https://www.nu.edu/OurPrograms/CollegeOfLettersAndSciences/MathematicsAndNaturalSciences/Faculty/MichelRMaxwell.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: It’s a Goopy Mess When Pines and Beetles Duke it Out | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wR5O48zsbnc These Whispering, Walking Bats Are Onto Something | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2py029bwhA&t=3s There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE&t=1s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! How Your Rubber Ducky Explains Colonialism | Origin of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWjzOcIIxgM When Whales Walked | PBS Eons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OSRKtT_9vw The Cheerios Effect | It’s OK To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbKAwk-OG_w ---+ Follow KQED Science KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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It’s a Goopy Mess When Pines and Beetles Duke it Out | Deep Look It’s a Goopy Mess When Pines and Beetles Duke it Out | Deep Look
6 months ago En
An onslaught of tiny western pine beetles can bring down a mighty ponderosa pine. But the forest fights back by waging a sticky attack of its own. Who will win the battle in the bark? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Bark beetles are specialized, with each species attacking only one or a few species of trees. Ponderosa pines are attacked by dark brown beetles the size of a grain of rice called western pine beetles (Dendroctonus brevicomis). In the spring and summer, female western pine beetles fly around ponderosa pine stands looking for trees to lay their eggs in. As they start boring into a ponderosa, the tree oozes a sticky, viscous clear liquid called resin. If the tree is healthy, it can produce so much resin that the beetle gets exhausted and trapped as the resin hardens, which can kill it. “The western pine beetle is an aggressive beetle that in order to successfully reproduce has to kill the tree,” said U.S. Forest Service ecologist Sharon Hood, based in Montana. “So the tree has very evolved responses. With pines, they have a whole resin duct system. You can imagine these vertical and horizontal pipes.” But during California’s five-year drought, which ended earlier this year, ponderosa pines weren’t getting much water and couldn’t make enough resin to put up a strong defense. Beetles bored through the bark of millions of trees and sent out an aggregating pheromone to call more beetles and stage a mass attack. An estimated 102 million trees – most of them ponderosa – died in California between 2010 and 2016. -- What is resin? Resin – sometimes also called pitch – is a different substance from sap, though trees produce both. Resin is a sticky, viscous liquid that trees exude to heal over wounds and flush out bark beetles, said Sharon Hood, of the Forest Service. Sap, on the other hand, is the continuous water column that the leaves pull up to the top of the tree from its roots. --- Are dead trees a fire hazard? Standing dead trees that have lost their needles don’t increase fire risk, said forest health scientist Jodi Axelson, a University of California extension specialist based at UC Berkeley. But “once they fall to the ground you end up with these very heavy fuel loads,” she said, “and that undoubtedly is going to make fire behavior more intense.” And dead – or living – trees can fall on electric lines and ignite a fire, which is why agencies in California are prioritizing the removal of dead trees near power lines, said Axelson. ---+ Read the entire article about who’s winning the battle between ponderosa pines and western pine beetles in California, on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/10/24/with-california-drought-over-fewer-sierra-pines-dying/ ---+ For more information: Check out the USDA’s “Bark Beetles in California Conifers – Are Your Trees Susceptible?” https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5384837.pdf ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY&t=57s The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 There’s Something Very Fishy About These Trees … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZWiWh5acbE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Vascular Plants = Winning! - Crash Course Biology #37 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9oDTMXM7M8&index=37&list=PL3EED4C1D684D3ADF Julia Child Remixed | Keep On Cooking https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80ZrUI7RNfI ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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These Whispering, Walking Bats Are Onto Something | Deep Look These Whispering, Walking Bats Are Onto Something | Deep Look
7 months ago En
Bats have a brilliant way to find prey in the dark: echolocation. But to many of the moths they eat, that natural sonar is as loud as a jet engine. So some bats have hit on a sneakier, scrappier way to hunt. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Bats have been the only flying mammals for about 50 million years. Most species, with the exception of the fruit bats, use echolocation -- their built-in sonar -- to detect prey and snatch it from the air. But not pallid bats. They hunt insects and arachnids that live on the ground by tracking their movements with another sense: hearing. In the final moments of their attack, they land and pluck their prey from the ground, a behavior called gleaning. It took millions of years for bats to develop the lethal pairing of flight and echolocation. Why would a bat “go back” to a more primitive hunting style? Many scientists believe the answer may have less to do with the bats alone than with moths, their principal food. In what these scientists describe as an “arms race” of evolution, many moth species have adapted to hear when they’re being tracked and to deploy counter-measures to bat echolocation. These developments have driven some bats to seek alternate means of catching a meal – in part by keeping their sonar volume down. Pallid bats and other so-called “whispering bats” still use their echolocation to navigate. The volume navigational sonar is much quieter, more like a dishwasher. For the pallid bat, part of occupying that niche has also meant evolving immunity scorpion venom. Another arms race. --- Do all bats drink blood? No, only three bat species are exclusive “hemovores” (blood-eaters), and only one of those, the common vampire bat, prefers mammals. --- Why can’t humans hear echolocation? Bat echolocation calls, whether for hunting or navigation – are too high-pitched for our ears to hear. --- Do all bats carry rabies? Only ½ to one percent of bats carry rabies. If a bat seems sick, rabies could be the cause. You should never touch any bat that you find. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/10/10/these-whispering-walking-bats-are-onto-something ---+ For more information: Visit the Razak Lab at UC Riverside: http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~khaleel/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6a3Q5DzeBM How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Origin Of Everything: The True Origin of Killer Clowns https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5_Li2whOHA Physics Girl: Fire in Freefall https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAA_dNq_-8c ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look There's Something Very Fishy About These Trees ... | Deep Look
7 months ago En
Salmon make a perilous voyage upstream past hungry eagles and bears to mate in forest creeks. When the salmon die, a new journey begins – with maggots. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * For salmon lovers in California, October is “the peak of the return” when hundreds of thousands of Chinook salmon leave the open ocean and swim back to their ancestral streams to spawn and die. All along the Pacific coast, starting in the early summer and stretching as late as December, salmon wait offshore for the right timing to complete their journey inland. In Alaska, the season starts in late June, when salmon head to streams in lush coastal forests. Although this annual migration is welcomed by fishermen who catch the salmon offshore, scientists are finding a much broader and holistic function of the spawning salmon: feeding the forest. Millions of salmon make this migratory journey -- called running -- every year, and their silvery bodies all but obscure the rivers they pass through. This throng of salmon flesh coming into Alaska’s forests is a mass movement of nutrients from the salt waters of the ocean to the forest floor. Decomposing salmon on the sides of streams not only fertilize the soil beneath them, they also provide the base of a complex food web that depends upon them. --- Why Do Salmon Swim Upstream? Salmon run up freshwater streams and rivers to mate. A female salmon will dig a depression in the gravel with her tails and then deposit her eggs in the hole. Male salmon swim alongside the female and release a cloud of sperm at the same. The eggs are fertilized in the running water as the female buries them under a layer of gravel. When the eggs hatch, they spend the first part of their lives hunting and growing in their home stream before heading out to sea to spend their adulthood. --- Why Do Salmon Die After Mating? Salmon typically mate once and then die, though some may return to the sea and come back to mate the subsequent year. Salmon put all of their energy into mating instead of maintaining the salmon’s body for the future. This is a type of mating strategy where adults die after a single mating episode is called semelparity. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/09/26/theres-something-fishy-about-these-trees-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: Bob Armstrong’s Nature Alaska http://www.naturebob.com/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5F3z1iP0Ic&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=3 Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQcv7TyX04 Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjDmH8zhp6o ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Beavers: The Smartest Thing in Fur Pants | It’s Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zm6X77ShHa8 How Do Glaciers Move? | It’s Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnlPrdMoQ1Y&t=165s The Smell of Durian Explained | Reactions (ft. BrainCraft, Joe Hanson, Physics Girl & PBS Space Time) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0v0n6tKPLc How Do Glaciers Move? | It’s Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnlPrdMoQ1Y Your Biological Clock at Work | BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Q8djfQlYwQ ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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A Baby Dragonfly's Mouth Will Give You Nightmares | Deep Look A Baby Dragonfly's Mouth Will Give You Nightmares | Deep Look
8 months ago En
Dragonflies might rule the skies, but their babies grow up underwater in a larva-eat-larva world. Luckily for them, they have a killer lip that snatches prey, Alien-style, at lightning speed. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * If adult dragonflies are known to be precise hunters, capable of turning on a dime and using their almost-360-degree vision to nab mosquitoes and flies in midair, their dragon-looking babies are even more fearsome. Dragonflies and damselflies lay their eggs in water. After they hatch, their larvae, also known as nymphs, spend months or years underwater growing wings on their backs. Without those versatile four wings that adults use to chase down prey, nymphs rely on a mouthpart they shoot out. It’s like a long, hinged arm that they keep folded under their head and it’s eerily similar to the snapping tongue-like protuberance the alien shoots out at Ripley in the sci-fi movie Aliens. A nymph’s eyesight is almost as precise as an adult dragonfly’s and when they spot something they want to eat, they extrude this mouthpart, called a labium, to engulf, grab, or impale their next meal and draw it back to their mouth. Only dragonfly and damselfly nymphs have this special mouthpart. “It’s like a built-in spear gun,” said Kathy Biggs, the author of guides to the dragonflies of California and the greater Southwest. With their labium, nymphs can catch mosquito larvae, worms and even small fish and tadpoles. “It’s obviously an adaptation to be a predator underwater, where it’s not easy to trap things,” said Dennis Paulson, a dragonfly biologist retired from the University of Puget Sound. Also known among biologists as a “killer lip,” the labium comes in two versions. There’s the spork-shaped labium that scoops up prey, and a flat one with a pair of pincers on the end that can grab or impale aquatic insects. -- How many years have dragonflies been around? Dragonflies have been around for 320 million years, said Ed Jarzembowski, who studies fossil dragonflies at the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology. That means they were here before the dinosaurs. -- How big did dragonflies used to be? Prehistoric dragonflies had a wingspan of 0.7 meters (almost 28 inches). That’s the wingspan of a small hawk today. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/09/12/a-baby-dragonflys-mouth-will-give-you-nightmares/ ---+ For more information: This web site, run by Kathy and David Biggs, has photos and descriptions of California dragonflies and damselflies and information on building a pond to attract the insects to your backyard: http://bigsnest.members.sonic.net/Pond/dragons/ The book "A Dazzle of Dragonflies," by Forrest Mitchell and James Lasswell, has good information on dragonfly nymphs. ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4 This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY&t=57s Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjDmH8zhp6o This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2unnSK7WTE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: The Biggest Thing That Ever Flew https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scAp-fncp64 PBS Infinite Series: A Breakthrough in Higher Dimensional Spheres https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ciM6wigZK0w ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio stations in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration – exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive | Deep Look Daddy Longlegs Risk Life ... and Especially Limb ... to Survive | Deep Look
9 months ago En
When predators attack, daddy longlegs deliberately release their limbs to escape. They can drop up to three and still get by just fine. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. We all know it’s not nice to pull the legs off of bugs. Daddy longlegs don’t wait for that to happen. These arachnids, related to spiders, drop them deliberately. A gentle pinch is enough to trigger an internal system that discharges the leg. Whether it hurts is up for debate, but most scientists think not, given the automatic nature of the defense mechanism. It’s called autotomy, the voluntary release of a body part. Two of their appendages have evolved into feelers, which leaves the other six legs for locomotion. Daddy longlegs share this trait with insects, and have what scientists call the “alternate tripod gate,” where three legs touch the ground at any given point. That elegant stride is initially hard-hit by the loss of a leg. In the daddy longlegs’ case, the lost leg doesn’t grow back. But they persevere: A daddy longlegs that is one, two, or even three legs short can recover a surprising degree of mobility by learning to walk differently. And given time, the daddy longlegs can regain much of its initial mobility on fewer legs. Once these adaptations are better understood, they may have applications in the fields of robotics and prosthetic design. --- Are daddy longlegs a type of spider? No, though they are arachnids, as spiders are. Daddy longlegs are more closely related to scorpions. --- How can I tell a daddy longlegs from a spider? Daddy longlegs have one body segment (like a pea), while spiders have two (like a peanut). Also, you won’t find a daddy longlegs in a web, since they don’t make silk. --- Can a daddy longlegs bite can kill you? Daddy longlegs are not venomous. And despite what you’ve heard about their mouths being too small, they could bite you, but they prefer fruit. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/08/22/daddy-longlegs-risk-life-and-especially-limb-to-survive/ ---+ For more information: Visit the Elias Lab at UC Berkeley: https://nature.berkeley.edu/eliaslab/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Stinging Scorpion vs. Pain-Defying Mouse | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-K_YtWqMro For These Tiny Spiders, It's Sing or Get Served | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7qMqAgCqME ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Gross Science: What Happens When You Get Rabies? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eiUUpF1UPJc Physics Girl: Mantis Shrimp Punch at 40,000 fps! - Cavitation Physics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m78_sOEadC8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is supported by HopeLab, The David B. Gold Foundation; S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Vadasz Family Foundation; Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards | Deep Look This Is Why Water Striders Make Terrible Lifeguards | Deep Look
9 months ago En
They may look serene as they glide across the surface of a stream, but don't be fooled by water striders. They're actually searching for prey for whom a babbling brook quickly becomes an inescapable death trap. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * With the drought officially over and the summer heat upon us, people all across California are heading outdoors. For many, that means a day on the river or relaxing by the lake. The wet winter means there’s plenty of habitat for one of nature’s most curious creatures. Water striders, also called pond skaters, seem to defy gravity. You’ve probably seen them flitting across the water’s surface, dodging ripples as they patrol streams and quiet backwater eddies. Scientists like David Hu at Georgia Institute of Technology study how water striders move and how they make their living as predators lurking on the water’s surface. It’s an amazing combination of biology and physics best understood by looking up close. Very close. --- What are water striders? The common water strider (Gerris lacustris) is an insect typically found in slowly moving freshwater streams and ponds. They are able to move on the water's surface without sinking. They are easy to spot because they create circular waves on the surface of the water. --- How do water striders walk on water? Water tends to stick to itself (cohesion), especially at the surface where it meets the air (surface tension). Water striders don’t weigh very much and they spread their weight out with their long legs. Striders are also covered in microscopic hairs called micro-setae that repel water. Instead of sinking into the water, their legs push down and create dimples. --- What do water striders eat? Water striders are predators and scavengers. They use their ability to walk on water to their advantage, primarily eating other insects that fall into the water at get trapped by the surface tension. A water strider uses its tube-shaped proboscis to penetrate their prey’s exoskeleton, inject digestive enzymes and suck out the prey’s pre-digested innards. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/08/01/this-is-why-water-striders-make-terrible-lifeguards/ ---+ For more information: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v424/n6949/abs/nature01793.html?foxtrotcallback=true ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5F3z1iP0Ic&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=3 How Do Pelicans Survive Their Death-Defying Dives? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BfEboMmwAMw Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQcv7TyX04 Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Beavers: The Smartest Thing in Fur Pants | It’s Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zm6X77ShHa8 Can Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Help Fight Disease? | Above The Noise https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CB_h7aheAEM How Do Glaciers Move? | It’s Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnlPrdMoQ1Y Your Biological Clock at Work | BrainCraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Q8djfQlYwQ ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look
10 months ago En
Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook Because it's hoarding protein. Not just for itself, but for the butterfly it will become and every egg that butterfly will lay. And it's about to lose its mouth... as it wriggles out of its skin during metamorphosis. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * That caterpillar in your backyard is chewing through your best leaves for a good reason. “Caterpillars have to store up incredible reserves of proteins,” said Carol Boggs, an ecologist at the University of South Carolina. “Nectar doesn’t have much protein. Most of the protein that goes to making eggs has to come from larval feeding.” Caterpillars are the larval stage of a butterfly. Their complete transformation to pupa and then to butterfly is a strategy called holometaboly. Humans are in the minority among animals in that we don’t go through these very distinct, almost separate, lives. We start out as a smaller version of ourselves and grow bigger. But from an evolutionary point of view, the way butterflies transform make sense. “You have a larva that is an eating machine,” said Boggs. “It’s very well-suited to that. Then you’re turning it into a reproduction machine, the butterfly.” Once it becomes a butterfly it will lose its mouth, grow a straw in its place and go on a liquid diet of sugary nectar and rotten fruit juices. Its main job will be to mate and lay eggs. Those eggs started to develop while it was a pupa, using protein that the caterpillar stored by gorging on leaves. We think of leaves as carbohydrates, but the nitrogen they contain makes them more than one quarter protein, said Boggs. -- What are the stages of a butterfly? Insects such as butterflies undergo a complete transformation, referred to by scientists as holometaboly. A holometabolous insect has a morphology in the juvenile state which is different from that in the adult and which undergoes a period of reorganization between the two, said Boggs. The four life stages are egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (also known as chrysalis) and butterfly. -- What if humans developed like butterflies? “We’d go into a quiescent period when we developed different kind of eating organs and sensory organs,” said Boggs. “It would be as if we went into a pupa and developed straws as mouths and developed more elaborate morphology for smelling and developed wings. It brings up science fiction images.” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/07/11/why-is-the-very-hungry-caterpillar-so-dang-hungry/ ---+ For more information: Monarch Watch: http://www.monarchwatch.org California Pipevine Swallowtail Project: https://www.facebook.com/CaliforniaPipevineSwallowtail/ A forum organized by Tim Wong, who cares for the butterflies in the California Academy of Sciences’ rainforest exhibit. Wong’s page has beautiful photos and videos of California pipevine swallowtail butterflies at every stage – caterpillar, pupa and butterfly – and tips to create native butterfly habitat. ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: What Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Magnificent Blue? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Ts7CsJDpg This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj8pFX9SOXE In the Race for Life, Which Human Embryos Make It? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mv_kuwQvoc ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! PBS Eons: When Did the First Flower Bloom? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13aUo5fEjNY CrashCourse: The History of Life on Earth - Crash Course Ecology #1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjE-Pkjp3u4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You | Deep Look A Real Alien Invasion Is Coming to a Palm Tree Near You | Deep Look
11 months ago En
Support Deep Look on Patreon!! https://www.patreon.com/deeplook The South American palm weevil is bursting onto the scene in California. Its arrival could put one of the state’s most cherished botanical icons at risk of oblivion. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Summer means vacation time, and nothing says, “Welcome to paradise!” quite like a palm tree. Though it’s home to only one native species, California has nonetheless adopted the palm as a quintessential icon. But a new snake in California’s palm tree-lined garden may soon put all that to the test. Dozens of palms in San Diego’s Sweetwater Summit Regional Park, about 10 miles from the Mexican border, are looking more like sad, upside-down umbrellas than the usual bursts of botanical joy. The offender is the South American palm weevil, a recent arrival to the U.S. that’s long been widespread in the tropics. Large, black, shiny, and possessed of an impressive proboscis (nose), the weevil prefers the king of palms, the Canary Island date palm, also known as the “pineapple palm” for the distinctive way it’s typically pruned. A palm tree is basically a gigantic cake-pop, an enormous ball of veggie goodness on a stick. The adult female palm weevil uses her long snout to drill tunnels into that goodness—known to science as the “apical meristem” and to your grocer as the “heart” of the palm—where she lays her eggs. When her larvae hatch, their food is all around them. And they start to eat. If the South American palm weevil consolidates its foothold in California, then the worst might still be to come. While these weevils generally stick to the Canary Island palms, they can harbor a parasitic worm that causes red-ring disease—a fatal infection that can strike almost any palm, including the state’s precious native, the California fan. --- Where do South American Palm Weevils come from? Originally, Brazil and Argentina. They’ve become common wherever there are Canary Island Palm trees, however, which includes Europe, the Mediterranean, the Middle East. --- How do they kill palm trees? Their larvae eat the apical meristem, which is the sweet part of the plant sometimes harvested and sold commercially as the “heart of palm.” --- How do you get rid of them? If the palm weevils infest a tree, it’s very hard to save it, since they live on the inside, where they escape both detection and pesticides. Neighboring palm trees can be sprayed for protection. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/06/20/a-real-alien-invasion-is-coming-to-a-palm-tree-near-you ---+ For more information: Visit the UC Riverside Center for invasive Species Research: http://cisr.ucr.edu/invasive_species.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQcv7TyX04 Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOcLaI44TXA ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Gross Science: Meet The Frog That Barfs Up Its Babies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xfX_NTrFRM Brain Craft: Mutant Menu: If you could, would you design your DNA? And should you be able to? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrDM6Ic2xMM ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look These Fish Are All About Sex on the Beach | Deep Look
11 months ago En
During the highest tides, California grunion stampede out of the ocean to mate on the beach. When the party's over, thousands of tiny eggs are left stranded up in the sand. How will their lost babies make it back to the sea? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * With summer just around the corner, Southern California beaches are ready to welcome the yearly arrival of some very unique and amorous guests. That’s right, the grunion are running! California grunion are fish that spend their lives in the ocean. But when the tides are at their highest during spring and summer, grunion make a trip up onto beaches to mate and lay eggs. Grunion mate on beaches throughout southern California and down into into Mexico. The grunion runs have taken on a special importance to coastal communities Santa Barbara to San Diego. For some, coming out to see the grunion run has been an annual tradition for generations. For others it’s a rare chance to catch ocean fish with their bare hands. --- What are grunion? California grunion are schooling fish similar to sardines that live in the Pacific Ocean that emerge from the sea to lay their eggs on the sand of beaches in Southern California and down the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico. There are also smaller populations in Monterey Bay and San Francisco Bay. Another species, the Gulf Grunion lays their eggs in the northern shores of the Gulf of California. California Grunion are typically about six inches in length. --- Why do grunion mate on land? The ocean is full of predators who would like to gobble up a tasty fish egg. The grunion eggs tend to be safer up on the beach if they can make it there without raising the attention of predators like birds and raccoons. Grunion eggs have a tough outer layer that keeps them from drying out or being crushed by the sand. --- When do California grunion run? California grunion typically spawn from March to August. The fishing season is closed during the peak spawning times during May and June. See https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/fishing/ocean/grunion#28352306-2017-runs for more detailed info on grunion seasons. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/06/06/these-fish-are-all-about-sex-on-the-beach-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: http://www.grunion.org/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3BHrzDHoYo The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkrQ9QuKprE&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=51 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! How Much Plastic is in the Ocean? | It's Okay To Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFZS3Vh4lfI White Sand Beaches Are Made of Fish Poop | Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SfxgY1dIM4 What Physics Teachers Get Wrong About Tides! | Space Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwChk4S99i4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Behind the Scenes With Deep Look: The Diva Decorator Crabs Behind the Scenes With Deep Look: The Diva Decorator Crabs
12 months ago En
How long does it take to film a decorator crab putting on its seaweed hat? Hint: It's days, not hours. The Deep Look team is back with a second behind the scenes video! Get to know host Lauren Sommer and producers Gabriela Quiros, Josh Cassidy and Elliott Kennerson as we put together our episode on decorator crabs and reflect on the joys and challenges of making nature films. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * ---+ Episodes Featured in this video: The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lm1ChtK9QDU Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOcLaI44TXA These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYPQ1Tjp0ew Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwQcv7TyX04 Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj8pFX9SOXE Why Does Your Cat's Tongue Feel Like Sandpaper? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9h_QtLol75I How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 This Pulsating Slime Mold Comes in Peace (ft. It's Okay to Be Smart) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nx3Uu1hfl6Q Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY These 'Resurrection Plants' Spring Back to Life in Seconds https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoFGKlZMo2g Nature's Mood Rings: How Chameleons Really Change Color https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kp9W-_W8rCM Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww If Your Hands Could Smell, You’d Be an Octopus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXMxihOh8ps How Do Pelicans Survive Their Death-Defying Dives? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BfEboMmwAMw ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide | Deep Look
2 years ago En
When you live by the seashore, one day you're in, the next day you're lunch. So these crabs don the latest in seaweed outerwear and anemone accessories to blend in. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * As fans of the hit TV show Project Runway know, in fashion one day you’re in, and the next day you’re out. Nowhere is this truer than in the animal kingdom. One minute you’re a crab minding your own business in a tide pool, and the next, you’re a seagull’s snack. Unless you’re a decorator crab, that is, and you use this season’s seaweed to save your life. There are nearly 700 species of decorator crabs around the world – about a dozen of them in California, where they live in tide pools and kelp forests. They camouflage by decorating their heads, or their entire bodies depending on the species, with pieces of seaweed, anemones or other materials around them, which they attach securely to a natural Velcro that grows right on their bodies. “It’s not a glue or anything; they have these hooked hairs all over their shells,” said biologist Jay Stachowicz, who studies decorator crabs at the University of California, Davis. “Through microscope photography we can see that it looks just like Velcro, except probably even better, even more hooked.” These golden-colored hairs are thick and curled to form long rows. Some species of decorator crabs have these rows of hooked hairs only on their heads; others, on their entire bodies. At his lab at UC Davis’ Bodega Marine Lab in Bodega Bay, Stachowicz collects crabs off the coast, places them in tanks, gives them some seaweed and watches them go to work. The process is more exciting than watching Project Runway contestants create their confections, if you consider that the crabs are making it work with much more simple tools than the designers. And the stakes are much higher. --- How does a decorator crab camouflage? A pink Cryptic kelp crab, for example, cuts a piece of purple seaweed with one of its claws. Then the crab holds the piece of seaweed above its head, the only part of its body where it has hooked hairs. It moves the piece of seaweed back and forth, until it’s tightly wedged inside the hooks. Then it repeats the process. The result is a “hat” of bushy seaweed that protrudes beyond its head. With the seaweed, the crab is concealing two of its four antennae, short protuberances near its mouth. These antennae are constantly aflutter. The crab uses them to smell, and they could call the attention of predators even when the crab remains still. By hiding the movement of the antennae, the seaweed visor protects the crab from birds pecking around in the tide pools and aquatic predators like fish and octopuses. --- What is Tim Gunn’s most famous quote? The beloved advisor to contestants of Project Runway has many memorable phrases. But we’re pretty confident that one of his best-known sayings is “Make it work!” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/05/09/decorator-crabs-make-high-fashion-at-low-tide/ ---+ For more information: Jay Stachowicz Lab at the University of California, Davis: http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/stachowicz/research.shtml ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3BHrzDHoYo Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUjQtJGaSpk ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Above The Noise: Why Do Our Brains Love Fake News? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNmwvntMF5A&index=1&list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV Braincraft: Do You Own Your Cells? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIFTIYZrm0g&list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV&index=4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, California, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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How Do Pelicans Survive Their Death-Defying Dives? | Deep Look How Do Pelicans Survive Their Death-Defying Dives? | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Brown pelicans hit the water at breakneck speed when they catch fish. Performing such dangerous plunges requires technique, equipment, and 30 million years of practice. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * California’s brown pelicans are one of two pelican species (once considered the same) that plunge from the air to hunt. The rest, like the white pelican, bob for fish at the water’s surface. The shape of its bill is essential to the birds' survival in these dives, reducing “hydrodynamic drag” — buckling forces, caused by the change from air to water — to almost zero. It’s something like the difference between slapping the water with your palm and chopping it, karate-style. And while all birds have light, air-filled bones, pelican skeletons take it to an extreme. As they dive, they inflate special air sacs around their neck and belly, cushioning their impact and allowing them to float. Even their celebrated pouches play a role. An old limerick quips, “A remarkable bird is a pelican / Its beak can hold more than its belly can…” That beak is more than just a fishing net. It’s also a parachute that pops open underwater, helping to slow the bird down. Behind the pelican’s remarkable resilience (and beaks) lies 30 million years of evolutionary stasis, meaning they haven’t changed much over time. --- What do pelicans eat? Pelicans eat small fish like anchovies, sardines, and smelt. --- How long to pelicans live? Pelicans live 15-25 years in the wild. --- How big are pelicans? Brown pelicans are small for pelicans, but still big for birds, with a 6-8 foot wingspan. Their average weight is 3.5 kg. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/04/25/volunteer-brown-pelican-count-aims-to-measure-recovery-of-once-endangered-birds/ ---+ For more information: U.S. Fish and Wildlife brown pelican page https://ecos.fws.gov/ecp0/profile/speciesProfile?spcode=B02L ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI How Do Sharks and Rays Use Electricity to Find Hidden Prey? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDPFR6n8tAQ ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Physics Girl: Why Outlets Spark When Unplugging https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1Ld8D2bnJM Gross Science: Everything You Didn’t Want to Know About Snot https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shEPwQPQG4I ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Identical Snowflakes? Scientist Ruins Winter For Everyone. | Deep Look Identical Snowflakes? Scientist Ruins Winter For Everyone. | Deep Look
2 years ago En
We've all heard that each and every snowflake is unique. But in a lab in sunny southern California, a physicist has learned to control the way snowflakes grow. Can he really make twins? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * California's historic drought is finally over thanks largely to a relentless parade of powerful storms that have brought the Sierra Nevada snowpack to the highest level in six years, and guaranteed skiing into June. All that snow spurs an age-old question -- is every snowflake really unique? “It’s one of these questions that’s been around forever,” said Ken Libbrecht, a professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “I think we all learn it in elementary school, the old saying that no two snowflakes are alike.” --- How do snowflakes form? Snow crystals form when humid air is cooled to the point that molecules of water vapor start sticking to each other. In the clouds, crystals usually start forming around a tiny microscopic dust particle, but if the water vapor gets cooled quickly enough the crystals can form spontaneously out of water molecules alone. Over time, more water molecules stick to the crystal until it gets heavy enough to fall. --- Why do snowflakes have six arms? Each water molecule is each made out of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. As vapor, the water molecules bounce around slamming into each other. As the vapor cools, the hydrogen atom of one molecule forms a bond with the oxygen of another water molecule. This is called a hydrogen bond. These bonds make the water molecules stick together in the shape of a hexagonal ring. As the crystal grows, more molecules join fitting within that same repeating pattern called a crystal array. The crystal keeps the hexagonal symmetry as it grows. --- Is every snowflake unique? Snowflakes develop into different shapes depending on the humidity and temperature conditions they experience at different times during their growth. In nature, snowflakes don’t travel together. Instead, each takes it’s own path through the clouds experiencing different conditions at different times. Since each crystal takes a different path, they each turn out slightly differently. Growing snow crystals in laboratory is a whole other story. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/04/11/identical-snowflakes-scientist-ruins-winter-for-everyone-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: Ken Libbrecht’s online guide to snowflakes, snow crystals and other ice phenomena. http://snowcrystals.com/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Can A Thousand Tiny Swarming Robots Outsmart Nature? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDsmbwOrHJs What Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Magnificent Blue? | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Ts7CsJDpg&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=48 The Amazing Life of Sand | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkrQ9QuKprE&list=PLdKlciEDdCQDxBs0SZgTMqhszst1jqZhp&index=51 The Hidden Perils of Permafrost | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wxABO84gol8 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! The Science of Snowflakes | It’s OK to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUot7XSX8uA An Infinite Number of Words for Snow | PBS Idea Channel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CX6i2M4AoZw Is an Ice Age Coming? | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztninkgZ0ws ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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These Fighting Fruit Flies Are Superheroes of Brain Science | Deep Look These Fighting Fruit Flies Are Superheroes of Brain Science | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Thanks to The Great Courses Plus for sponsoring this episode of Deep Look. Try a 30 day trial of The Great Course Plus at http://ow.ly/7QYH309wSOL. If you liked this episode, you might be interested in their course “Major Transitions in Evolution”. POW! BAM! Fruit flies battling like martial arts masters are helping scientists map brain circuits. This research could shed light on human aggression and depression. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Neuroscientist Eric Hoopfer likes to watch animals fight. But these aren’t the kind of fights that could get him arrested – no roosters or pit bulls are involved. Hoopfer watches fruit flies. The tiny insects are the size of a pinhead, with big red eyes and iridescent wings. You’ve probably only seen them flying around an overripe piece of fruit. At the California Institute of Technology, in Pasadena, Hoopfer places pairs of male fruit flies in tiny glass chambers. When they start fighting, they look like martial arts practitioners: They stand face to face and tip each other over; they lunge, roll around and even toss each other, sumo-wrestler style. But this isn’t about entertainment. Hoopfer is trying to understand how the brain works. When the aggressive fruit flies at Caltech fight, Hoopfer and his colleagues monitor what parts of their brains the flies are using. The researchers can see clusters of neurons lighting up. In the future, they hope this can help our understanding of conditions that tap into human emotional states, like depression or addiction. “Flies when they fight, they fight at different intensities. And once they start fighting they continue fighting for a while; this state persists. These are all things that are similar to (human) emotional states,” said Hoopfer. “For example, there’s this scale of emotions where you can be a little bit annoyed and that can scale up to being very angry. If somebody cuts you off in traffic you might get angry and that lasts for a little while. So your emotion lasts longer than the initial stimulus.” Circuits in our brains that make us stay mad, for example, could hold the key to developing better treatments for mental illness. “All these neuro-psychiatric disorders, like depression, addiction, schizophrenia, the drugs that we have to treat them, we don’t really understand exactly how they are acting at the level of circuits in the brain,” said Hoopfer. “They help in some cases the symptoms that you want to treat. But they also cause a lot of side effects. So what we’d ideally like are drugs that can act on the specific neurons and circuits in the brain that are responsible for depression and for the symptoms of depression that we want to treat, and not ones that control other things.” --- What do fruit flies eat? In the lab, researchers feed fruit flies yeast and apple juice. --- How do I get rid of fruit flies in my house? Fruit flies are attracted to ripe fruit and vegetables. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/03/28/these-fighting-fruit-flies-are-superheroes-of-brain-science/ ---+ For more information: The David Anderson Lab at Caltech: https://davidandersonlab.caltech.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACrLMtPyRM0 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: Why Your Brain Is In Your Head https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qdNE4WygyAk BrainCraft: Can You Solve This Dilemma? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xHKxrc0PHg ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, California, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex | Deep Look Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Snail Sex | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Besides being hermaphrodites — all snails have both boy and girl parts — they stab each other with “love darts” as a kind of foreplay. SURVEY LINK: http://surveymonkey.com/r/pbsds2017 SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. The sex life of the common snail is anything but ordinary. First, they’re hermaphrodites, fitted with both male and female reproductive plumbing, and can mate with any member of their species they want. Sounds easy, but the battle of the sexes is alive and well in gastropods. In nature, fatherhood is easier. It’s the quickest, cheapest way to pass on your genes. Motherhood requires a much greater investment of time, energy, and resources. During courtship, the snails will decide who gets to be more father than mother. But their idea of courtship is to stab each other with a tiny spike called a love dart. The love dart is the snails’ tool for maximizing their male side. It injects hormones to prevent the other snail’s body from killing newly introduced sperm once copulation begins. When snails copulate, two penises enter two vaginal tracts. Both snails in the pairing transfer sperm, but whichever snail got in the best shot with the dart has a better chance of ultimately fertilizing eggs. In some species, only one snail fires a love dart, but in others, like the garden snail, both do. You can spot love darts sticking out of snails in mid-courtship, and even find them abandoned in slime puddles where mating has been happening. Scale it up to human size and the love dart would be the equivalent of a 15-inch knife. --- How common is hermaphroditism? Less than one percent of animal species are hermaphrodites. They’re most common among arthropods, the phylum of life that includes snails. --- How do hermaphrodites decide who’s going to the male and female? In most cases, both individuals will be both male and female, to some extent. Sometimes, like with garden snails, it’s a question of degree. --- Can a love dart kill the snail? In theory yes, but not very often. One researcher told us that in the thousands of matings he’s observed, he’s seen only one snail die that way. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/03/14/everything-you-never-wanted-to-know-about-snail-sex/ ---+ For more information: Visit Joris Koene’s site. He’s one of the world’s foremost snail and slug researchers: http://www.joriskoene.com/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHvCQSGanJg The Ladybug Love-In: A Valentine's Special https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-Z6xRexbIU ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Gross Science: Help a Snail Find True Love! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vfkb2XyswJY 4 Valentine's Day Tips From the Animal World! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lMa9CYG3SU ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. education
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Why Does Your Cat's Tongue Feel Like Sandpaper? | Deep Look Why Does Your Cat's Tongue Feel Like Sandpaper? | Deep Look
2 years ago En
It's not vanity. For cats, staying clean is a matter of life and death. And their tongue, specially equipped for the job, is just one of the things that makes cats such successful predators. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Even after thousands of years sharing our homes, cats still remain mysterious. For one thing, they spend an inordinate amount of time grooming themselves, up to half of their waking hours. But all of that primping isn’t about vanity. For ambush predators like cats, staying clean is a matter of life and death. In this episode of Deep Look we get up close and personal with these fastidious felines. By looking closely at cat tongues, research at MIT and Georgia Tech reveals clues to cats’ predatory prowess and finds inspiration for new technologies. --- Why do cat’s tongues feel like sandpaper? Cats’ tongues are covered in little spines called “papillae” that look like tiny hooks. Cats use their tongues to groom and the spines do a great job of detangling knots. --- Why do cats spend so much time grooming? Cat’s spend much of their day cleaning themselves- up to half of their waking hours! Cats are ambush predators and they need to stay clean in order to remain hidden from their prey. Prey species tend to be on the lookout for danger, and one whiff of the wrong odor can give the cat away. --- Why do cats drink with their tongues? Like most other mammals that are predators, cats have wide mouths to help them sink their teeth deep into their prey. The large opening on the sides of their mouth helps them get a better bite, but it makes it hard for them to create suction in order to drink. Instead they use their tongue to draw water up from the surface into a column. They then bite the column to get the water. They usually lap about four times per second. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/02/28/why-does-your-cats-tongue-feel-like-sandpaper/ ---+ For more information: How Cats Lap: Water Uptake by Felis catus http://science.sciencemag.org/content/330/6008/1231 ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: If Your Hands Could Smell, You’d Be an Octopus | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXMxihOh8ps Archerfish Says..."I Spit in Your Face!" | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gN81dtxilhE Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj8pFX9SOXE ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Pigeon Story: How the Rock Dove Became the Sky Rat | It’s OK to be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8Y7Q1eja-E Everything is Trying to Kill You https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LB8SqTwT93E ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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If Your Hands Could Smell, You’d Be an Octopus | Deep Look If Your Hands Could Smell, You’d Be an Octopus | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Those hundreds of powerful suckers on octopus arms do more than just stick. They actually smell and taste. This contributes to a massive amount of information for the octopus’s brain to process, so octopuses depend on their eight arms for help. (And no, it's not 'octopi.') To keep up with Amy Standen, subscribe to her podcast The Leap - a podcast about people making dramatic, risky changes: https://ww2.kqed.org/news/programs/the-leap/ DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Everyone knows that an octopus has eight arms. And similar to our arms it uses them to grab things and move around. But that’s where the similarities end. Hundreds of suckers on each octopus arm give them abilities people can only dream about. “The suckers are hands that also smell and taste,” said Rich Ross, senior biologist and octopus aquarist at the California Academy of Sciences. Suckers are “very similar to our taste buds, from what little we know about them,” said University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, cephalopod biologist William Kier. If these tasting, smelling suckers make you think of a human hand with a tongue and a nose stuck to it, that’s a good start. It all stems from the unique challenges an octopus faces as a result of having a flexible, soft body. “This animal has no protection and is a wonderful meal because it’s all muscle,” said Kier. So the octopus has adapted over time. It has about 500 million neurons (dogs have around 600 million), the cells that allow it to process and communicate information. And these neurons are distributed to make the most of its eight arms. An octopus’ central brain – located between its eyes – doesn’t control its every move. Instead, two thirds of the animal’s neurons are in its arms. “It’s more efficient to put the nervous cells in the arm,” said neurobiologist Binyamin Hochner, of Hebrew University, in Jerusalem. “The arm is a brain of its own.” This enables octopus arms to operate somewhat independently from the animal’s central brain. The central brain tells the arms in what direction and how fast to move, but the instructions on how to reach are embedded in each arm. Octopuses have also evolved mechanisms that allow their muscles to move without the use of a skeleton. This same muscle arrangement enables elephant trunks and mammals’ tongues to unfurl. “The arrangement of the muscle in your tongue is similar to the arrangement in the octopus arm,” said Kier. In an octopus arm, muscles are arranged in different directions. When one octopus muscle contracts, it’s able to stretch out again because other muscles oriented in a different direction offer resistance – just as the bones in vertebrate bodies do. This skeleton of muscle, called a muscular hydrostat, is how an octopus gets its suckers to attach to different surfaces. --- How many suction cups does an octopus have on each arm? It depends on the species. Giant Pacific octopuses have up to 240 suckers on each arm. --- Do octopuses have arms or tentacles? Octopuses have arms, not tentacles. “The term ‘tentacle’ is used for lots of fleshy protuberances in invertebrates,” said Kier. “It just happens that the eight in octopuses are called arms.” --- Can octopuses regrow a severed arm? Yes! ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/02/14/if-your-hands-could-smell-youd-be-an-octopus/ ---+ For more information: The octopus research group at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gN81dtxilhE ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: You're Not Hallucinating. That's Just Squid Skin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wtLrlIKvJE Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUjQtJGaSpk ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: Is This A NEW SPECIES?! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=asZ8MYdDXNc BrainCraft: Your Brain in Numbers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFcbnf07QZ4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Welcome to Deep Look, with New Host Lauren Sommer | PBS Digital Studios | KQED Welcome to Deep Look, with New Host Lauren Sommer | PBS Digital Studios | KQED
2 years ago En
DEEP LOOK - Watch science and nature videos up close (really, really close). Twice a month, get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt All-NEW EPISODES EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! More about our new host, Lauren Sommer: http://blogs.kqed.org/pressroom/deeplooknewhostvideos2017/
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Archerfish Says..."I Spit in Your Face!" | Deep Look Archerfish Says..."I Spit in Your Face!" | Deep Look
2 years ago En
The archerfish hunts by spitting water at terrestrial targets with weapon-like precision, and can even tell human faces apart. Is this fish smarter than it looks? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Humans always have assumed we’ve cornered the market on intelligence. But because of archerfish and other bright lights in the animal kingdom, that idea is itself evolving. Archerfish normally make their living in the mangrove forests of Southeast Asia and Australia, where they spit water at ants, beetles and other insects living on the trees’ half-submerged roots. The fish’s high-pressure projectiles knock prey from their perches into the water, and the fish swoops in. This novel feeding behavior, restricted to only seven species of fish, has attracted the attention of researchers ever since it was first described in 1764. The jet’s tip and tail unite at the moment of impact, which is critical to the success of the attack, especially as the target distance approaches the limit of the fish’s maximum spitting range of about six feet. The fish accomplishes this feat of timing through deliberate control of its highly-evolved mouthparts, in particular its lips, which act like an adjustable hose that can expand and contract while releasing the water. So in a way, to hit a target that’s further away, the fish doesn’t spit harder. It spits smarter. But just how smart is an archerfish? Using the archerfish’s spitting habits as a starting point, one researcher trained some lab fish to spit at an image of one human face with food rewards. Then, on a monitor suspended over the fish tank, she showed them a series of other faces, in pairs, adding in the familiar one. When the trained fish saw that familiar face, they would spit, to a high degree of accuracy. In a sense, the fish “recognized” the face, which should have been beyond the capacity of its primitive brain. --- Where do archerfish live? In Thailand, Australia, and other parts of Southeast Asia, usually in mangrove forests. --- What do archerfish eat? Insects and spiders that live close to the waterline. Archerfish won’t eat anything once it’s sinks too far below the surface. --- How do archerfish spit? They squeeze water through their mouth opening, using specially evolved mouthparts. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/01/31/archerfish-says-i-spit-in-your-face/ ---+ For more information: Visit the California Academy of Sciences: http://www.calacademy.org/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3BHrzDHoYo ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Gross Science: Sea Cucumbers Have Multipurpose Butts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjnvRKDdaWY Physics Girl: DIY Lightning Experiment! Make a SHOCKING Capacitor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rG7N_Zv6_gQ ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look Roly Polies Came From the Sea to Conquer the Earth | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Pill bugs. Doodle bugs. Potato bugs. Wood Shrimp. Whatever you call them, there’s something less creepy about these critters than other insects. Maybe it’s because they’re not insects at all. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * With winter rains, Bay Area pill bugs are out in force. Fortunately, they’re one of our most beloved “bugs.” Pill bugs. Doodle bugs. Potato bugs. Wood Shrimp. Whatever you call them, there’s something less creepy about these critters than other insects. Maybe it’s because they’re not insects at all. Pill bugs are more closely related to a shrimp and lobsters than crickets or butterflies. Their ancestors lived in the sea, but ancient pill bugs crawled out millions of years ago to carve a life for themselves on dry land. You can see the evidence if you take a close look at them, so that’s exactly what we did for this episode of Deep Look, an ultra-high definition wildlife video series produced by KQED and PBS DIgital Studios. “Kids love them,” said Jonathan Wright, a professor of biology at Pomona College who studies the charismatic creepy-crawlies. After all, who hasn’t delighted as a youth in annoying a pill bug until it defensively curls up into a little armored ball? Some adventurous foragers even eat pill bugs. Their flavor is said to resemble other crustaceans, earning pill bugs the moniker “wood shrimp”. “I personally haven’t tasted one,” said Wright, “but I’ve spoken to people that have. They didn’t get a particularly high approval rating. Pill bugs have a lot of soil in their gut.” They may not be ready to replace shrimp as an appetizer, but according to Wright, the evidence of the pill bug’s evolutionary lineage lies underneath its shell. --- What are pill bugs related to? Pill bugs are terrestrial crustaceans. They’re more closely related to marine creatures like lobsters and shrimp than crickets or other insects. --- If pill bugs have gills, can they survive underwater? Most pill bugs will drown within a few hours if submerged because their pleopod gills have become better at removing oxygen from air and less good at removing oxygen from water --- Why do pill bugs roll into a ball? Pill bugs roll into a ball to protect themselves from potential predators. They will also roll up, a process called conglobation, to keep from drying out if they don’t have access to enough moisture. --- What do pill bugs eat? Pill bugs mostly eat decaying plant matter but also consume fungus, algae and lichens. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2017/01/17/roly-polies-came-from-the-sea-to-conquer-the-earth-deep-look/ ---+ For more information: Respiratory physiology of the Oniscidea: Aerobic capacity and the significance of pleopodal lungs. Jonathan C. Wright and Kevin Ting ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fguo3HvWjb0 The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lm1ChtK9QDU These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYPQ1Tjp0ew&t=83s ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! A Venus Flytrap Works Just Like Your Brain | Brain Craft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0prAxQTuAA What are antibubbles? | Physics Girl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5UMyck8D64 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Why Reindeer and Their Cousins are Total Boneheads | Deep Look Why Reindeer and Their Cousins are Total Boneheads | Deep Look
2 years ago En
What if you had to grow 20 pounds of bone on your forehead each year just to find a mate? In a bloody, itchy process, males of the deer family grow a new set of antlers every year, use them to fend off the competition, and lose their impressive crowns when breeding season ends. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * WE’RE TAKING A BREAK FOR THE HOLIDAYS. WATCH OUR NEXT EPISODE ON JAN. 17, 2017. * Antlers are bones that grow right out of an animal’s head. It all starts with little knobs called pedicles. Reindeer, elk, and their relatives in the cervid family, like moose and deer, are born with them. But in most species pedicles only sprout antlers in males, because antlers require testosterone. The little antlers of a young tule elk, or a reindeer, are called spikes. Every year, a male grows a slightly larger set of antlers, until he becomes a “senior” and the antlers start to shrink. While it’s growing, the bone is hidden by a fuzzy layer of skin and fur called velvet that carries blood rich in calcium and phosphorous to build up the bone inside. When the antlers get hard, the blood stops flowing and the velvet cracks. It gets itchy and males scratch like crazy to get it off. From underneath emerges a clean, smooth antler. Males use their antlers during the mating season as a warning to other males to stay away from females, or to woo the females. When their warnings aren’t heeded, they use them to fight the competition. Once the mating season is over and the male no longer needs its antlers, the testosterone in its body drops and the antlers fall off. A new set starts growing almost right away. --- What are antlers made of? Antlers are made of bone. --- What is antler velvet? Velvet is the skin that covers a developing antler. --- What animals have antlers? Male members of the cervid, or deer, family grow antlers. The only species of deer in which females also grow antlers are reindeer. --- Are antlers horns? No. Horns, which are made of keratin (the same material our nails are made from), stay on an animal its entire life. Antlers fall off and grow back again each year. ---+ Read an article on KQED Science about how neuroscientists are investigating the potential of the nerves in antler velvet to return mobility to damaged human limbs, and perhaps one day even help paralyzed people: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/12/06/rudolphs-antlers-could-help-restore-mobility-in-injured-humans/ ---+ For more information on tule elk https://www.nps.gov/pore/learn/nature/tule_elk.htm ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Sex Lives of Christmas Trees https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEji9I4Tcjo Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUjQtJGaSpk This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! The REAL Rudolph Has Bloody Antlers and Super Vision - Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gB6ND8nXgjA Global Weirding with Katharine Hayhoe: Texans don't care about climate change, right? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P_r_6D2LXVs&list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV&index=25 It’s Okay To Be Smart: Why Don’t Woodpeckers Get Concussions? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bqBxbMWd8O0 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp | Deep Look The Snail-Smashing, Fish-Spearing, Eye-Popping Mantis Shrimp | Deep Look
2 years ago En
The killer punch of the mantis shrimp is the fastest strike in the animal kingdom, a skill that goes hand in hand with its extraordinary eyesight. They can see an invisible level of reality using polarized light, which could lead to a breakthrough in detecting cancer. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Aggressive, reef-dwelling mantis shrimp take more than one first-place ribbon in the animal kingdom. Outwardly resembling their lobster cousins, their colorful shells contain an impressive set of superpowers. There are two types of mantis shrimp, named for their attack mode while hunting prey: smashers and spearers. With their spring-loaded, weaponized legs, these predators can crack a snail shell or harpoon a passing fish in a single punch. The speed of these attacks has earned the mantis shrimp one of their world records: fastest strike in the animal kingdom. Scientists are finding that another of their special abilities -- incredible eyesight -- has potential life-saving implications for people with cancer. Mantis shrimp can perceive the most elusive attribute of light from the human standpoint: polarization. Polarization refers to the angle that light travels through space. Though it’s invisible to the human eye, many animals see this quality of light, especially underwater. But mantis shrimp can see a special kind of polarization, called circular polarization. Scientists have found that some mantis shrimp species use circular polarization to communicate with each other on a kind of secret visual channel for mating and territorial purposes. Inspired by the mantis shrimp’s superlative eyesight, a group of researchers is collaborating to build polarization cameras that would constitute a giant leap for early cancer detection. These cameras see otherwise invisible cancerous tissues by detecting their polarization signature, which is different between diseased and healthy tissues. --- How fast is the mantis shrimp punch? Their strike is about as fast as a .22 caliber rifle bullet. It’s been measured at 50mph. --- What do mantis shrimp eat? The “smasher” mantis shrimp eat hard-shelled creatures like snails and crabs. The “spearers” grab fish, worms, seahorses, and other soft-bodied prey by impaling them. --- Where do mantis shrimp live? In reefs, from the east coast of Africa to the west coast of Australia, and throughout Indonesia. A few species are scattered around the globe, including two in California. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/15/the-snail-smashing-fish-spearing-eye-popping-mantis-shrimp/ ---+ For more information: Caldwell Lab at U.C. Berkeley: http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/caldwell/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2xqH5h0YY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Physics Girl: The Ultraviolet Catastrophe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXfrncRey-4 Gross Science: What Sound Does An Ant Make? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yif0c0bRA48 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look The Double-Crossing Ants to Whom Friendship Means Nothing | Deep Look
2 years ago En
The Peruvian Amazon is a dangerous place when you're small. So the young Inga tree hires ants as bodyguards to protect its vulnerable leaves. Their pay: delicious nectar served up in tiny ant-sized dishes. But will the ants keep up their end of the bargain? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * For some, ants are welcome guests. In the Amazon rainforest of Peru, a type of tree called the Inga actively encourages ants to stick around. The tree, which is related to plants that produce beans and other legumes, grows tiny structures near the base of its leaves, called nectaries, that secrete a sugary fluid to feed to the ants. In turn, the ants serve as bodyguards, protecting the Inga and its nectaries from invading herbivores. “Plants have all kinds of defenses, but because Inga leaves are not as toxic as many other plants,” says Suzanne Koptur, a professor of biology at Florida International University, “they’re good food for herbivores of all sizes and shapes, from big mammals like sloths and monkeys to little invertebrates like caterpillars.“ The rainforest is especially dangerous for young trees. The branches and leaves of mature trees merge together high in the air forming a canopy. Young trees on the forest floor struggle to get enough light. Young trees also have fewer leaves, and losing even a few to herbivores can threaten their survival. They may be small, but few species want to tangle with the aggressive and territorial big-headed ants. "Ants have powers in numbers, especially if they bite and sting," says Koptur. The ants keep most herbivores, especially hungry caterpillars, away from the young trees. Simply put, the trees provide nectar to the ants in exchange for protection. --- What is mutualism? In biology, mutualism refers to a relationship between two organisms that benefits both of parties. Mutualism is one type of symbiotic relationship. --- What are caterpillars? Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and caterpillars. Young caterpillars hatch out of eggs, eat, grow and molt. They eventually pupate inside their cocoons and then emerge as winged adults. --- What is plant nectar? Nectar is a sugary liquid secreted by plants through structures called nectaries. Nectaries are commonly found in flowers to attract pollinators. Some plants also have extra-floral nectaries located outside of the flowers. To attract animals including ants and predatory wasps that protect the plant from herbivores. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/11/01/the-double-crossing-ants-to-whom-friendship-means-nothing/ ---+ For more information: Interactions Among Inga, Herbivores, Ants, and Insect Visitors to Foliar Nectaries http://faculty.fiu.edu/~kopturs/pubs/MVbookIngaAnts.pdf ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Why Don't Ants Get Stuck In Traffic? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkiuw0HbRq4 Gross Science: The World's Most Expensive Fungus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV4WHFU2Id8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, one of the highest-rated public television services and an award-winning education program, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. macro documentary
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These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop | Deep Look These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Termites cause billions of dollars in damage annually – but they need help to do it. So they carry tiny organisms around with them in their gut. Together, termites and microorganisms can turn the wood in your house into a palace of poop. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Termites such as dampwood termites use their cardboard-like poop pellets to build up their nests, turning a human house into a termite toilet. “They build their own houses out of their own feces,” said entomologist Michael Scharf, of Purdue University, in Indiana. And while they’re using their poop as a building material, termites are also feeding on the wood. They’re one of the few animals that can extract nutrients from wood. But it turns out that they need help to do this. A termite’s gut is host to a couple dozen species of protists, organisms that are neither animals, nor plants, nor fungi. Scientists have found that several of them help termites break down wood. When some protists are eliminated from the termite’s gut, the insect can’t get any nutrition out of the wood. This is a weakness that biologists hope to exploit as a way to get rid of termites using biology rather than chemicals. Louisiana State University entomologist Chinmay Tikhe is working to genetically engineer a bacterium found in the Formosan termite’s gut so that the bacterium will destroy the gut protists. The idea would be to sneak these killer bacteria into the termite colony on some sort of bait the termites would eat and carry back with them. “It’s like a Trojan Horse,” said Tikhe, referring to the strategy used by the Greeks to sneak their troops into the city of Troy using a wooden horse that was the city’s emblem. The bacteria would then kill the protists that help the termite derive nutrition from wood. The termites would eventually starve. --- How do termites eat wood? Termites gnaw on the wood. Then they mix it with enzymes that start to break it down. But they need help turning the cellulose in wood into nutrients. They get help from hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of species of microbes that live inside their guts. One bacterium, for example, combines nitrogen from the air and calories from the wood to make protein for the termites. A termite’s gut is also host to a couple dozen species of protists. In the termite’s hindgut, protists ferment the wood into a substance called acetate, which gives the termite energy. --- How do termites get into our houses? Termites can crawl up into a house from the soil through specialized tubes made of dirt and saliva, or winged adults can fly in, or both. This depends on the species and caste member involved. --- What do termites eat in our houses? Once they’re established in our houses, termites attack and feed on sources of cellulose, a major component of wood, says entomologist Vernard Lewis, of the University of California, Berkeley. This could include anything from structural wood and paneling, to furniture and cotton clothing. Termites also will eat dead or living trees, depending on the species. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/10/18/these-termites-turn-your-house-into-a-palace-of-poop/ ---+ For more information: University of California Integrated Pest Management Program’s web page on termites: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7415.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD8SmacBUcU For These Tiny Spiders, It’s Sing or Get Served: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7qMqAgCqME Where are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: The Donald Trump Caterpillar and Nature’s Masters of Disguise https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VTUCTT6I1TU Gross Science: Why Do Dogs Eat Poop? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3pB-xZGM1U ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. macro pest control
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For These Tiny Spiders, It's Sing or Get Served | Deep Look For These Tiny Spiders, It's Sing or Get Served | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Male jumping spiders perform courtship dances that would make Bob Fosse proud. But if they bomb, they can wind up somebody's dinner instead of their mate. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * During courtship, the male jumping spider performs an exuberant dance to get the female’s attention. Like a pint-sized Magic Mike working for twenties, he shimmies from side to side, waves his legs, and flaps his front appendages (called pedipalps) in her direction. If she likes what she sees, the female may allow him to mate. But things can also go terribly wrong for these eight-legged suitors. She might decide to attack him, or even eat him for lunch. Cannibalism is the result about seven percent of the time. These mating rituals were first described more than 100 years ago. Their study took on a new dimension, however, when scientists discovered that the males also sing when they attempt to woo their lady loves. By rubbing together their two body segments, equipped with a comb-shaped instrument, the males create vibrations that travel through the ground. The female spiders can “hear” the male songs through ear-like slits in their legs, called sensilla. A male spider’s coordination of the dance and the song seems to affect his reproductive success — in other words, his ability to stay alive during this risky courtship trial. But what exactly the signals mean remains mysterious to scientists. Scientists ultimately hope to understand how a female decides whether she’s looking at a stud — or a dud. --- Where do jumping spiders get their name? Jumping spiders don’t spin webs to catch food. They stalk their prey like cats. They use their silk as a drag line while they hop around. --- What do jumping spiders eat? Jumping spiders are carnivorous and eat insects like flies, bees, and crickets. --- Where do jumping spiders live? A map of jumping spider habitat looks like the whole world! Tropical forests contain the greatest number, but they live just about everywhere, even the Himalayan Mountains. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/10/04/for-these-tiny-spiders-its-sing-or-get-served/ ---+ For more information: Elias Lab at U.C. Berkeley: https://nature.berkeley.edu/eliaslab/ ---+ More great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 The Ladybug Love-In: A Valentine's Special https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-Z6xRexbIU ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Idea Channel: Do You Pronounce it GIF or GIF? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmqy-Sp0txY Gross Science: Are There Dead Wasps In Figs? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DQTjv_u3Vc ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! | Deep Look Watch These Frustrated Squirrels Go Nuts! | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Humans aren’t the only creatures that get frustrated. Squirrels do too. One researcher wants to know, could there be an evolutionary benefit to losing your cool? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * YouTube viewers are well-acquainted with the squirrel genre: Thousands of videos that show squirrels going to great lengths to extract seeds from bird feeders (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FgDa_cpgHWs), or the old favorite, squirrels stuffing their cheeks (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_15UrPHkVQo). Maybe squirrels are so popular because we see some of ourselves in them. This is part of what fueled Mikel Delgado’s interest in the fox squirrels she saw at the University of California, Berkeley. An animal behaviorist and doctoral student there, she likes to quote from Charles Darwin’s book “The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex,” in which the English naturalist proposed that the differences between humans and other animals aren’t that clear-cut. “It was controversial because people thought animals were machines and didn’t feel pain,” she said. Inspired by Darwin, Delgado was intrigued by squirrels’ emotional worlds. The way to tell what they’re feeling, researchers have found, is to watch their tails. When threatened by a predator like a dog, a fox squirrel whips its tail in an s-shaped pattern that researchers call “flagging.” Delgado wondered what else she could learn from watching squirrels flag their tails. For instance, do they get frustrated, the way that people do? So she devised an experiment to explore this question. She taught some of the fox squirrels on campus to lift the lid of a plastic box to find a walnut inside. When the squirrel ate the nut, she dropped another one in. This way, she trained the squirrels to expect a walnut when they looked inside. This training was important because frustration is usually defined as not getting what you expect. Then she replaced the walnut with corn – which squirrels don’t like as much – or left the box empty. These squirrels flagged their tails. For a third group, she locked the box. They flagged their tails the most. They got aggressive, a hallmark of frustration. And they bit, toppled and dragged the box, trying to open it. That makes Delgado think that perhaps frustration has an evolutionary purpose, that it isn’t just for blowing off steam, but is instead a way to gather up energy to “brute-force” a solution. --+ Is frustration an emotion? “It’s a little bit controversial,” said Delgado. “It depends on who you talk to.” Researchers don’t consider frustration one of the basic, or universal, emotions. In the 1960s, psychologist Paul Ekman identified six universal emotions: joy, anger, sadness, surprise, fear and disgust: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PFqzYoKkCc Frustration is related to anger, but researchers don’t consider frustration a basic emotion. “There’s a question as to what exactly it is,” said Delgado. “Sometimes you see it described very specifically as a task: For example, when you expect a soda and you don’t get it from the vending machine. And sometimes you see it described as the response to the task.” ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/09/20/watch-these-frustrated-squirrels-go-nuts ---+ For more information: The lab of Lucia Jacobs, where Mikel Delgado does her research: http://jacobs.berkeley.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Can a New “Vaccine” Stem the Frog Apocalypse? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IXVcyCZVBg These Crazy Cute Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! BrainCraft: The Power of Sadness in Inside Out https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ST97BGCi3-w PBS Idea Channel: 3 Fallacies For Election Season! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REp4zCum3XY ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Can the Frog Apocalypse be Stopped by a New "Vaccine" ? | Deep Look Can the Frog Apocalypse be Stopped by a New "Vaccine" ? | Deep Look
2 years ago En
A deadly fungus is attacking frogs’ skin and wiping out hundreds of species worldwide. Can anyone help California's remaining mountain yellow-legged frogs? In a last-ditch effort, scientists are trying something new: build defenses against the fungus through a kind of frog “vaccine.” SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Chytrid fungus has decimated some 200 amphibian species around the world, among them the mountain yellow-legged frogs of California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range. Frogs need healthy skin to survive. They breathe and drink water through it, and absorb the sodium and potassium their hearts need to work. In the late 1970s, chytrid fungus started getting into mountain yellow-legged frogs through their skin, moving through the water in their alpine lakes, or passed on by other frogs. The fungus destroys frogs’ skin to the point where they can no longer absorb sodium and potassium. Eventually, they die. At the University of California, Santa Barbara, biologists Cherie Briggs and Mary Toothman did an experiment to see if they could save mountain yellow-legged frogs by immunizing them against chytrid fungus. They grew some frogs from eggs. Then they infected them with chytrid fungus. The frogs got sick. Their skin sloughed off, as happens typically to infected frogs. But before the fungus could kill the frogs, the researchers treated them with a liquid antifungal that stopped the disease. When the frogs were nice and healthy again, researchers re-infected them with chytrid fungus. They found that all 20 frogs they had immunized survived. Now the San Francisco and Oakland zoos are replicating the experiment and returning dozens of mountain-yellow legged frogs to the Sierra Nevada’s alpine lakes. --- How does chytrid fungus kill frogs? Spores of chytrid fungus burrow down into frogs’ skin, which gets irritated. They run out of energy. Sick frogs’ legs lock in the straight position when they try to hop. As they get sicker, their skin sloughs off in translucent sheets. The frogs can no longer absorb sodium and potassium their hearts needs to function. “It takes 2-3 weeks for a yellow-legged frog to die from chytridiomycosis,” said mountain yellow-legged frog expert Vance Vredenburg , of San Francisco State University. “Eventually they die from a heart attack.” --- How does chytrid fungus spread? Fungus spores, which have a little tail called a flagellum, swim through the water and attack a frog’s skin. The fungus can also get passed on from amphibian to amphibian. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/09/06/can-a-new-vaccine-stem-the-frog-apocalypse/ ---+ For more information: AmphibiaWeb http://www.amphibiaweb.org/chytrid/chytridiomycosis.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Crazy Cute Baby Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY Newt Sex: Buff Males! Writhing Females! Cannibalism! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5m37QR_4XNY Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3BHrzDHoYo ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It’s Okay To Be Smart: Do Plants Think? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zm6zfHzvqX4 Gross Science: Why Get Your Tetanus Shot? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4jrqj5Dr8s ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look Sea Urchins Pull Themselves Inside Out to be Reborn | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Conceived in the open sea, tiny spaceship-shaped sea urchin larvae search the vast ocean to find a home. After this incredible odyssey, they undergo one of the most remarkable transformations in nature. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Every summer, millions of people head to the coast to soak up the sun and play in the waves. But they aren’t alone. Just beyond the crashing surf, hundreds of millions of tiny sea urchin larvae are also floating around, preparing for one of the most dramatic transformations in the animal kingdom. Scientists along the Pacific coast are investigating how these microscopic ocean drifters, which look like tiny spaceships, find their way back home to the shoreline, where they attach themselves, grow into spiny creatures and live out a slow-moving life that often exceeds 100 years.“These sorts of studies are absolutely crucial if we want to not only maintain healthy fisheries but indeed a healthy ocean,” says Jason Hodin, a research scientist at the University of Washington’s Friday Harbor Laboratories. http://staff.washington.edu/hodin/ http://depts.washington.edu/fhl/ Sea urchins reproduce by sending clouds of eggs and sperm into the water. Millions of larvae are formed, but only a handful make it back to the shoreline to grow into adults. --- What are sea urchins? Sea urchins are spiny invertebrate animals. Adult sea urchins are globe-shaped and show five-point radial symmetry. They move using a system of tube feet. Sea urchins belong to the phylum Echinodermata along with their relatives the sea stars (starfish), sand dollars and sea slugs. --- What do sea urchins eat? Sea urchins eat algae and can reduce kelp forests to barrens if their numbers grow too high. A sea urchin’s mouth, referred to as Aristotle’s lantern, is on the underside and has five sharp teeth. The urchin uses the tube feet to move the food to its mouth. --- How do sea urchins reproduce? Male sea urchins release clouds of sperm and females release huge numbers of eggs directly into the ocean water. The gametes meet and the sperm fertilize the eggs. The fertilized eggs grow into free-swimming embryos which themselves develop into larvae called plutei. The plutei swim through the ocean as plankton until they drop to the seafloor and metamorphosize into the globe-shaped adult urchins. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/23/sea-urchins-pull-themselves-inside-out-to-be-reborn/ ---+ For more information: Marine Larvae Video Resource http://marinedevelopmentresource.stanford.edu/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: From Drifter to Dynamo: The Story of Plankton | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUvJ5ANH86I Pygmy Seahorses: Masters of Camouflage | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3CtGoqz3ww The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxqg_um1TXI ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay To Be Smart: Can Coral Reefs Survive Climate Change? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7ydNafXxJI Gross Science: White Sand Beaches Are Made of Fish Poop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SfxgY1dIM4 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Behind the Scenes with Deep Look: Caddisflies Behind the Scenes with Deep Look: Caddisflies
2 years ago En
How do we capture such amazing nature footage? Check out the making of "Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly." Watch producer Elliott Kennerson and cinematographer Josh Cassidy in action with UC Berkeley caddisfly expert Patina Mendez. Find out how they filmed these tiny creatures underwater and how they got the caddisflies to build their cases for the camera. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/16/behind-the-scenes-with-deep-look-caddisflies/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLb0iuTVzW0 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Venom: Nature’s Killer Cocktails https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qd92MuVZXik Gross Science: Sea Turtles Get Herpes, Too https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpqP9bUUInI ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly | Deep Look Sticky. Stretchy. Waterproof. The Amazing Underwater Tape of the Caddisfly | Deep Look
2 years ago En
What do you do if you are a tiny caddisfly larva growing up in a torrent of water and debris? Simple. You build a shelter out of carefully selected pebbles and some homespun waterproof tape. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * We already mimic them to make fly-fishing lures. But now scientists believe copycatting one tiny insect could hold promise for repairing human tissues and setting bones. Instead of stitches and screws, doctors may soon call on the next generation of medical adhesives — glues and tape — to patch us up internally. The inspiration? Caddisflies, a type of stream-dwelling, fish-baiting insects that live in creeks all across the United States. As a larva, the caddisfly constructs a tiny tube-like house for itself, called a case, entirely underwater, using pebbles and its incredible homespun tape as the mortar. Thanks to the qualities of this amazing silk, the case not only holds up when submerged, it is strong enough to protect the caddisfly’s soft lower body amid forces many times its body weight. Any tape, including this one, has two basic components: the flat ribbon, or backing, and the layer of sticky stuff, or the glue. From the materials science standpoint, caddisfly tape is extraordinary in both departments. Caddisfly silk biomimicry is only in its infancy, but one day, a similar compound might be used inside the body, which is another watery environment, to mend soft tissues and even repair hard ones, such as teeth and bone. In the streambed, or brook, the caddisfly’s case eventually becomes a cocoon. Like its land-based cousins, the butterflies and moths, from whom it diverged 250 millions years ago, the caddisfly larva undergoes a metamorphosis. It seals up its case with a so-called “hat stone” and emerges months later as a winged adult. --- Where do caddisflies live? Caddisflies are most common in shallow, cold, turbulent streams, where the water is highly oxygenated. --- What do caddisflies eat? Caddisflies are herbivores, they eat decaying plant matter and algae on the rocks in the streams where they live. --- What is so special about caddisfly silk? Engineers are interested in two attributes of caddisfly silk. First of all, it can bond to something, such as a pebble, underwater, which no glue people have made can replicate. Second its “viscoelastic” properties allow to it harmlessly absorb physical forces. When stretched, it doesn’t snap back like a rubber band. It returns to its original shape slowly and safely. It's an engineering marvel. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/08/09/sticky-stretchy-waterproof-the-amazing-underwater-tape-of-the-caddisfly/ ---+ For more information: Troutnut.com http://www.troutnut.com/hatch/12/Insect-Trichoptera-Caddisflies ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZrTndD1H10 These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLb0iuTVzW0 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Venom: Nature’s Killer Cocktails https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qd92MuVZXik Gross Science: Sea Turtles Get Herpes, Too https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpqP9bUUInI ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure | Deep Look This Vibrating Bumblebee Unlocks a Flower's Hidden Treasure | Deep Look
2 years ago En
Most flowering plants are more than willing to spread their pollen around. But some flowers hold out for just the right partner. Bumblebees and other buzz pollinators know just how to handle these stubborn flowers. They vibrate the blooms, shaking them until they give up the nutritious pollen. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * In the summertime, the air is thick with the low humming of bees delivering pollen from one flower to the next. If you listen closely, a louder buzz may catch your ear. This sound is the key to a secret stash of pollen that some flowers hide deep within their anthers, the male parts of the plant. Only pollinators that buzz in just the right way can vibrate tiny grains out of minuscule holes at the top of the anthers for a protein-rich snack. The strategy, called buzz-pollination, is risky. But it’s also critical to human agriculture. Tomatoes, potatoes and eggplants need wild populations of buzz pollinators, such as bumblebees, to produce fruit. Honeybees can’t do it. Plants need a way to get the pollen — basically sperm — to the female parts of another flower. Most plants lure animal pollinators to spread these male gametes by producing sugary nectar. The bee laps up the sweet reward, is dusted with pollen and passively delivers it to the next bloom. In contrast, buzz-pollinated flowers encourage bees to eat the pollen directly and hope some grains will make it to another flower. The evolutionary strategy is baffling to scientists. “The flower is almost like playing hard to get,” says Anne Leonard, a biologist at the University of Nevada, Reno who studies buzz pollination. “It’s intriguing because these buzz-pollinated plants ask for a huge energy investment from the bees, but don’t give much back.” --- What is buzz pollination? Most flowering plants use sugary nectar as bait to attract bees and other pollinators, which get coated in pollen along the way. And since bees are messy, they inadvertently scatter some of that pollen onto the female part of the next flower they visit. But some flowers lock their pollen up in their anthers, the male parts of the flower, instead of giving it away freely. The only way for the pollen to escape is through small holes called pores. Some pollinators like bumblebees (but not honeybees) are able to vibrate the flower’s anthers which shakes up the pollen and causes it to spew out of the pores. The bumblebee collects the pollen and uses it as a reliable and protected source of protein. --- What important crops use buzz pollination to make food? The most important crops that use buzz pollination are potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, eggplants, cranberries and blueberries --- What animals are capable of buzz pollination? Many types of bees engage in buzz pollination, also called sonication. The most common is probably the bumblebee. Honeybees generally don’t use buzz pollination. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/07/19/this-vibrating-bumblebee-unlocks-a-flowers-hidden-treasure/ ---+ For more information: Anne Leonard Lab, University of Nevada, Reno | Department of Biology http://www.anneleonard.com/buzz-pollination/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rafdHxBwIbQ Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI This Pulsating Slime Mold Comes in Peace (ft. It's Okay to Be Smart) | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nx3Uu1hfl6Q ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Why Don't Other Animals Wear Glasses? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhubEq6W9GE Gross Science: The World's Most Expensive Fungus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV4WHFU2Id8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky | Deep Look These Carnivorous Worms Catch Bugs by Mimicking the Night Sky | Deep Look
2 years ago En
The glow worm colonies of New Zealand's Waitomo Caves imitate stars to confuse flying insects, then trap them in sticky snares and eat them alive. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is science up close - really, really close. An ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. Like fireflies, the spectacular worms of New Zealand’s Waitomo Caves glow by breaking down a light-emitting protein. But unlike the yellow mating flashes of fireflies, the glow worms’ steady blue light has a more insidious purpose: it’s bait. The strategy is simple. Many of the glow worms’ prey are insects, including moths, that navigate by starlight. With imposter stars all around, the insects become disoriented and fly into a waiting snare. Once the victim has exhausted itself trying to get free, the glow worm reels in the catch. The prey is typically still alive when it arrives at the glow worm’s mouth, which has teeth sharp enough to bore through insect exoskeletons. Glow worms live in colonies, and researchers have noticed that individual worms seem to sync their lights to the members of their colony, brightening and dimming on a 24-hour cycle. There can be several colonies of glow worms in a cave, and studies have shown that different colonies are on different cycles, taking turns at peak illumination, when they’re most attractive to prey. Not surprisingly, the worms glow brighter when they’re hungry. --- How do glow worms glow? Their light is the result of a chemical reaction. The worms break down a protein called luciferin using an enzyme, luciferase, in a specialized section of their digestive tract. The glow shines through their translucent skin. --- Why do glow worms live in caves? The glow worms need to be in a dark environment where their light can be seen. Caves also shelter them from the wind, which can tangle their dangling snares. --- Where can I see glow worms? The Waitomo Caves are on New Zealand’s North Island. Other New Zealand glow worm sites include the Te Anau caves, Lake Rotoiti, Paparoa National Park, and Waipu. A related species inhabits similar caves in eastern Australia. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/06/28/these-carnivorous-worms-catch-bugs-by-mimicking-the-night-sky/ ---+ For more information: Discover Waitomo: http://www.waitomo.com/ ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boyzWeHdtiI The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: Are You Smarter Than A Slime Mold? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8HEDqoTPgk Gross Science: Hookworms and the Myth of the "Lazy Southerner" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BwgpYexMjk ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood | Deep Look How Mosquitoes Use Six Needles to Suck Your Blood | Deep Look
2 years ago En
🎇 2017 WEBBY PEOPLE'S VOICE WINNER 🎇 for Best Science & Education Video 📹 ! http://webbyawards.com/winners/2017/film-video/general-film/science-education/ Seen up close, the anatomy of a mosquito bite is terrifying. The most dangerous animal in the world uses six needle-like mouthparts to saw into our skin, tap a blood vessel and sometimes leave a dangerous parting gift. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Scientists have discovered that the mosquito’s mouth, called a proboscis isn’t just one tiny spear. It’s a sophisticated system of thin needles, each of which pierces the skin, finds blood vessels and makes it easy for mosquitoes to suck blood out of them. Male mosquitoes don’t bite us, but when a female mosquito pierces the skin, a flexible lip-like sheath called the labium scrolls up and stays outside as she pushes in six needle-like parts that scientists refer to as stylets. Two of these needles, called maxillae, have tiny teeth. The mosquito uses them to saw through the skin. They’re so sharp you can barely feel the mosquito biting you. “They’re like drill bits,” said University of California, Davis, biochemist Walter Leal. Another set of needles, the mandibles, hold tissues apart while the mosquito works. Then the sharp-tipped labrum needle probes under the skin, piercing a vessel and sucking blood from it. The sixth needle – called the hypopharynx – drools saliva into us, and delivers chemicals that keep our blood flowing. Mosquito saliva also makes our blood vessels dilate, blocks our immune response and lubricates the proboscis. It causes us to develop itchy welts, and serves as a conduit for dangerous viruses and parasites. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/06/07/how-mosquitoes-use-six-needles-to-suck-your-blood ---+ What is the deadliest animal in the world? Mosquitoes are the deadliest animals in the world to us humans. The diseases they transmit kill hundreds of thousands of people each year. ---+ How many people get malaria each year? In 2015, malaria, the deadliest mosquito-borne disease, killed roughly 635,000 people, mostly children under the age of five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. ---+ What diseases do mosquitoes transmit? Malaria, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile and Zika are some of the diseases that mosquitoes transmit. Dengue fever, transmitted Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, is estimated to make almost 400 million people sick with jabbing joint pain each year. Scientists also believe that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main culprit for more than 350 confirmed cases of congenital malformations associated with the Zika virus in the northeastern Brazilian state of Pernambuco. Since last October, an unusually high number of babies have been born there with small heads and a host of health problems like convulsions, suspected of being caused by a Zika virus infection early in their mother’s pregnancy. ---+ What diseases can I get from mosquitoes in the United States? West Nile virus is the most important of several mosquito-transmitted viruses now native to the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control. ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://youtu.be/BWwgLS5tK80 --- See also this new Zika video from PBS Digital Studios: Should You Be Worried About Zika? | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZ9S_3RFBgc ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate in San Francisco, CA, serves Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial TV, Radio and web media. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED. -- Video of mosquito labrum probing under mouse skin from: Choumet V, Attout T, Chartier L, Khun H, Sautereau J, et al. (2012) Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naïve and Saliva-Immunized Mice. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50464. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050464 . Used under the terms of: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Animations based on drawing in Choo Y-M, Buss GK, Tan K and Leal WS (2015) Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding. Front. Physiol. 6:306. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00306 Used under the terms of: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years | Deep Look These Lizards Have Been Playing Rock-Paper-Scissors for 15 Million Years | Deep Look
3 years ago En
Male side-blotched lizards have more than one way to get the girl. Orange males are bullies. Yellows are sneaks. Blues team up with a buddy to protect their territories. Who wins? It depends - on a genetic game of roshambo. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * Every spring, keen-eyed biologists carrying fishing poles search the rolling hills near Los Banos, about two hours south of San Francisco. But they’re not looking for fish. They’re catching rock-paper-scissors lizards. The research team collects Western side-blotched lizards, which come in different shades of blue, orange and yellow. Barry Sinervo, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at UC Santa Cruz, leads the team. Their intricate mating strategies reminded the the researchers of the rock-paper-scissors game where rock beats scissors, scissors beats paper and paper beats rock. It’s all about territories. Orange males tend to be the biggest and most aggressive. They hold large territories with several females each and are able to oust the somewhat smaller and less aggressive blues. Blue males typically hold smaller territories and more monogamous, each focusing his interest on a single female. Yellow males tend not to even form exclusive territories Instead they use stealth to find unaccompanied females with whom to mate. The yellow males are particularly successful with females that live in territories held by their more aggressive orange competitors. Because the orange males spread their attention among several females, they aren’t able to guard each individual female against intruding yellow males. But the more monogamous blues males are more vigilant and chase sneaky yellow males away. Their different strategies keep each other in check making the system stable. Sinervo believes this game has likely been in play for at least 15 million years. --- How do side-blotched lizards choose a mate? The males compete with each other, sometimes violently, for access to females. The females generally prefer males of their own color but also give preference to whichever color male is more rare that mating season. --- Why do lizards do push up and down? Male lizards do little pushups as a territorial display meant to tell competitors to back off. It’s best to use a warning instead of fighting right away because there’s always a danger of getting hurt in a fight. Some lizards like side-blotched lizards also use slow push ups to warn their neighbors of an incoming threat. --- Why do side-blotched lizards fight? Sometimes aggressive territorial displays are not enough to dissuade invaders so side-blotched lizards will resort to fighting. They have small sharp teeth and will lunge at each other inflicting bites and headbutts. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/05/17/these-lizards-have-been-playing-rock-paper-scissors-for-15-million-years/ ---+ For more information: The Lab of Dr. Barry Sinervo, LizardLand, University of California, Santa Cruz http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/~barrylab/lizardland/game.html ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACrLMtPyRM0 Stinging Scorpion vs. Pain-Defying Mouse https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-K_YtWqMro These Crazy Cute Baby Turtles Want Their Lake Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTYFdpNpkMY ---+ See some great videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! It's Okay to Be Smart: The Cosmic Afterglow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvrHL7-c1Ys It's Okay to Be Smart: The Most Important Moment in the History of Life https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jf06MlX8yik ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look Winter is Coming For These Argentine Ant Invaders | Deep Look
3 years ago En
Argentine ants are spreading across the globe, eliminating local ants with their take-no-prisoners tactics: invade, dismember, repeat. But this ruthless killer seems to have met its match in the winter ant, a California native with a formidable secret weapon. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. * NEW VIDEOS EVERY OTHER TUESDAY! * --- About Argentine Ants and Winter Ants For about 200 years, the Argentine ant expansion story has been the slow-moving train wreck of myrmecology, the study of ants. Wherever they go, Argentine ants eliminate the competition with a take-no-prisoners approach. Invade, attack, dismember, consume. Repeat. The basic wisdom among ant scientists is that if you see Argentines, it’s already too late. As early as the 1970s, scientists began to notice a peculiar fact about the Argentine ant. Usually, when ants from different colonies are put together, even from the same species, they fight. But Argentine worker ants can be combined from colonies in Spain, Japan and California, and they will recognize each other — they won’t fight. Without this natural check, researchers say, a single colony of ants from Argentina has spread across continents and oceans. But Jasper Ridge near Stanford is different. In 1993, ant biologist Deborah Gordon’s laboratory began tracking ant populations there. Jasper Ridge was unconquered territory for the Argentines, but they already had been spotted. The Ph.D students conducting field research began to notice one species of native ant was holding its own inside the boundary of the Argentine advance. What, the Stanford researchers wondered, was different here? In 2008, students in Gordon’s invasion ecology class studying the ants claimed to have made a novel discovery. The students watched the winter ants wave their abdomens at their enemies, known as “gaster-flagging” in ant circles, before a cloudy liquid blob appeared at the tip. Approaching the secretion sent the Argentines reeling away. Touching it could kill them. Over the next two years, the students repeated and studied the winter ant’s apparently novel defensive behavior. They also analyzed the secretion. (Turns out it comes from the same gland used by the ants’ ancestors, wasps, to sting.) They confirmed that in fact, with this amazing defense, the preserve’s winter ants were not only surviving, they’re now pushing back, opening up space for other native ant populations to rebound. --- Do Argentine ants bite? Not people. Too small to hurt a human, they’re far more dangerous to their competitors, from other ants about their size to some small birds(!). --- How do you kill Argentine ants? Pest control companies usually recommend slow-acting, fat or protein-based bait that allows the workers to carry the poison back to the nest. --- Why are winter ants called that? In areas where temperatures dip below freezing, winter ants remain active while most ant species hibernate. ---+ Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/05/03/winter-is-coming-for-the-argentine-ant-invaders/ ---+ For more information: Gordon Lab’s at Stanford University: http://web.stanford.edu/~dmgordon/ Neil Tsutsui Lab’s at Berkeley: https://ourenvironment.berkeley.edu/people/neil-tsutsui ---+ More Great Deep Look episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80 The Ladybug Love-In: A Valentine's Special | Deep Look https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-Z6xRexbIU ---+ More great videos and documentaries from PBS Digital Studios! Space Time: Nucleosynthesis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6yLGeviU8FM Gross Science: Could We Rid The World Of Mosquitoes? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNEPTxWNadg ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. Home to one of the most listened-to public radio station in the nation, and one of the highest-rated public television services, KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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This Pulsating Slime Mold Comes in Peace (ft. It's Okay to Be Smart) | Deep Look This Pulsating Slime Mold Comes in Peace (ft. It's Okay to Be Smart) | Deep Look
3 years ago En
Are You Smarter Than A Slime Mold? Let’s go ask Joe Hanson: https://youtu.be/K8HEDqoTPgk SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. ---+ About Slime Molds Flip over a rotting log and chances are you’ll see a goopy streak stuck to the wood. If you were to film this goop and play the video back in high speed, you’d see something that might remind you of the 1950s sci-fi classic “The Blob:” a jelly-like creature pulsating in a strange way, a little bit forward, a little bit back, spreading and searching for something to devour. But this creature isn’t intent on world domination. It’s a slime mold, a very simple organism that is neither plant, nor animal, nor fungus. Unlike the cells of other living beings, which have only one nucleus that carries their genetic information, slime molds can organize into something like a cell with thousands of nuclei. Slime molds may move slowly, but they excite scientists by their ability to get a lot done with very little. Researchers at the University of California San Diego and UC Davis have been focusing their attention on how slime molds get around, in the hope of inspiring a new generation of soft-bodied robots with medical applications. Slime molds don’t have legs or any appendages. They eat bacteria and tiny fungi. And they move just by changing their shape. “It’s intriguing to understand how they can move when they’re softer than the environment,” said UC San Diego engineer Juan Carlos Del Alamo. “The absence of limbs makes it a difficult problem.” Slime mold’s locomotion is triggered by a chemical reaction. In the lab, Del Alamo and his colleagues cut off small pieces of a bright yellow slime mold called Physarum polycephalum and put them under a microscope. They watched each piece squeeze itself. This contraction is triggered by tiny calcium ions flowing inside it. The slime mold contracts its wall, then sloshes to move the calcium ions back so that they can trigger another contraction – at least that’s the researchers’ hypothesis. ---+ What are slime molds? Let’s start with what they’re not. They can stand upright and produce spores. But they’re not fungi or plants. When they’re hungry, they spread across the forest chasing food such as tiny fungi or bacteria. But they’re not animals. ---+ Where are slime molds often found? Slime molds are often found under rotting logs. You can also order the bright yellow slime mold in our video, Physarum polycephalum, from biological supplies companies. They’re fun to grow at home. ---+ What do slime molds eat? In nature, slime molds eat tiny fungi and bacteria. When they’re grown in the lab, researchers feed them oats. Read the entire article on KQED Science: https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/19/this-pulsating-slime-mold-comes-in-peace/ ---+ More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Can A Thousand Tiny Swarming Robots Outsmart Nature? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDsmbwOrHJs This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl9aCH2QaQY Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHvCQSGanJg&nohtml5=False ---+ More videos and documentaries from the PBS Digital Studios! Gross Science: Why Am I Obsessed With Gross Stuff? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dfVN5w3_Y4 BrainCraft: The Prisoner's Dilemma https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p1KU7i5hpM8 ---+ Follow KQED Science: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience ---+ About KQED KQED, an NPR and PBS affiliate based in San Francisco, serves the people of Northern California and beyond with a public-supported alternative to commercial media. KQED is also a leader and innovator in interactive media and technology, taking people of all ages on journeys of exploration — exposing them to new people, places and ideas. Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin | Deep Look Meet the Dust Mites, Tiny Roommates That Feast On Your Skin | Deep Look
3 years ago En
You may think that you've got the house to yourself, but chances are you have about 100 different types of animals living with you. Many of them are harmless, but a few can be dangerous in ways you wouldn't expect. New research explores exactly whom you share your home with and how they got there. SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. ---+ About Dust Mites With the warming weather it’s the season for spring cleaning. But before you reach for the broom and mop, take a moment to look at who else is sharing your home with you. The number of uninvited guests you find in your dustpan may surprise you. A recent study published in the journal PeerJ took up the challenge of cataloging the large numbers of tiny animals that live in human dwellings. The researchers found that the average home contains roughly 100 different species of arthropods, including familiar types like flies, spiders and ants, but also some kinds that are less well known like gall wasps and book lice. And no matter how much human residents may clean, there will always be a considerable number of mini-roommates. “Even as entomologists we were really surprised. We live in our houses all the time, so we thought we’d be more familiar with the kind of things we’d come across. There was a surprising level of biodiversity,” said Michelle Trautwein, assistant curator of entomology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. ---+ What are dust mites? Dust mites are tiny animals, related to spiders, that are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye. They feed on dead skin that humans shed every day and their droppings may cause allergic reactions and may aggravate asthma, especially in children. ---+ How do you minimize dust mites? It’s practically impossible to completely rid a home of dust mites, but frequent cleaning and removing carpeting can help. Wet cleaning like mopping helps keep from stirring up dust while cleaning. The most effective way to keep dust mite populations down is to keep the indoor humidity level low. Dust mites can only survive in humid environments. ---+ How do you see dust mites? Dust mites are about .2mm long. You can see dust mites with a powerful magnifying glass, but you can get a better view by using a microscope. Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/05/meet-the-dust-mites-tiny-roommates-that-feast-on-your-skin/ ---+ More great DEEP LOOK episodes: The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/04/05/meet-the-dust-mites-tiny-roommates-that-feast-on-your-skin/ Where Are the Ants Carrying All Those Leaves? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oKJ5FGk24 Banana Slugs: Secret of the Slime https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHvCQSGanJg --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! It's Okay To Be Smart: How Do Bees Make Honey? https://youtu.be/nZlEjDLJCmg Gross Science: What's Living On Your Contact Lenses? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRMKzsU9zec Gross Science: You Have Mites Living On Your Face https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMmCWx8vySs --- More content from KQED Science, Northern California's PBS and NPR affiliate: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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Welcome to Deep Look | PBS Digital Studios | KQED Welcome to Deep Look | PBS Digital Studios | KQED
3 years ago En
DEEP LOOK - see the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Twice a month, get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. DEEP LOOK is a ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. SUBSCRIBE: http://goo.gl/8NwXqt All-NEW EPISODES EVERY OTHER TUESDAY!
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The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon | Deep Look The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon | Deep Look
3 years ago En
When attacked, this beetle sets off a rapid chemical reaction inside its body, sending predators scrambling. This amazing chemical defense has some people scratching their heads: How could such a complex system evolve gradually—without killing the beetle too? SUBSCRIBE to Deep Look! http://goo.gl/8NwXqt DEEP LOOK: a new ultra-HD (4K) short video series created by KQED San Francisco and presented by PBS Digital Studios. See the unseen at the very edge of our visible world. Get a new perspective on our place in the universe and meet extraordinary new friends. Explore big scientific mysteries by going incredibly small. The bombardier beetle, named for soldiers who once operated artillery cannons, has a surprising secret to use against potential predators. When attacked, the beetle mixes a cocktail of compounds inside its body that produces a fast-moving chemical reaction. The reaction heats the mix to the boiling point, then propels it through a narrow abdominal opening with powerful force. By turning the end of its abdomen on an assailant, the beetle can even aim the spray. The formidable liquid, composed of three main ingredients, both burns and stings the attacker. It can kill a small adversary, such as an ant, and send larger foes, like spiders, frogs, and birds, fleeing in confusion. How do bombardier beetles defend themselves? They manufacture and combine three reactive substances inside their bodies. The chemical reaction is exothermic, meaning it heats the combination to the boiling point, producing a hot, stinging spray, which the beetle can point at an enemy. What does a bombardier beetle spray? It’s a combination of hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide (like what you can buy in the store). The reaction between these two is catalyzed by an enzyme, produced by glands in the beetle, which is the spark that makes the reaction so explosive. Why is it called a bombardier beetle? “Bombardier” is an old French word for a solider who operates artillery. Read the entire article on KQED Science: http://ww2.kqed.org/science/2016/03/22/kaboom-this-beetle-makes-bombs-in-its-body/ --- More great DEEP LOOK episodes: Halloween Special: Watch Flesh-Eating Beetles Strip Bodies to the Bone https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Np0hJGKrIWg What Happens When You Put a Hummingbird in a Wind Tunnel? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyqY64ovjfY Nature's Scuba Divers: How Beetles Breathe Underwater https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-RtG5Z-9jQ --- Super videos from the PBS Digital Studios Network! Nature's Most Amazing Animal Superpowers | It's Okay to Be Smart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69yaWDkVGs Why Don’t These Cicadas Have Butts? | Gross Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDBkj3DjNSM --- For more content from your local PBS and NPR affiliate: KQED Science: http://www.kqed.org/science Tumblr: http://kqedscience.tumblr.com Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/kqedscience Funding for Deep Look is provided in part by PBS Digital Studios and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Deep Look is a project of KQED Science, which is also supported by HopeLab, the David B. Gold Foundation, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, the Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation, the Vadasz Family Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Smart Family Foundation and the members of KQED.
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