English Lessons with Adam - Learn English [engVid]
Do you love English? Me too. That's why we're here—because English is a key to the world. Join me and others from around the world as we practice our English skills and get to know each other. I have taught, coached, and edited for hundreds of non-native English users for 14 years, in four countries. Let me put this experience to work for you; subscribe to my channel and don't forget to comment on engvid.com These days, I'm back home in Toronto, Canada. I concentrate on helping people prepare for tests such as the IELTS, TOEFL, and SAT. Test takers can learn to write at writetotop.com, my site dedicated to guiding you to your target score. I also edit and proofread documents, websites, and university applications on editorproof.com. As you might have guessed by now, I live and love the English language. And, yes, I know English can be difficult; but it is also beautiful, and it can give you so much pleasure. Come, try it out. You'll be glad you did.

117 videos
PREPOSITIONS in English: under, below, beneath, underneath PREPOSITIONS in English: under, below, beneath, underneath
1 day ago En
There are many prepositions in English that seem to have the same meaning. But there are sometimes very important differences. For instance, have you noticed that the preposition "underneath" contains the prefix "under"? So do the two words mean the same thing? No! There are differences in the way we use these prepositions. In today's class, we'll look at the differences and uses of the prepositions "under", "below", "beneath", and "underneath". By the end of the video, you will know when and how to use them when referring to the location of things. TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/prepositions-in-english-under-below-beneath-underneath WATCH NEXT: 1. Prepositions in English: ABOVE, OVER, ON, ON TOP: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=duMo2VoFAQY 2. Phrasal Verbs - FALL: fall for, fall in, fall behind, fall through: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FV_wz5yyi2Q TRANSCRIPT Hi, everybody. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's video is about the prepositions: "under", "below", "beneath", and "underneath". Now, I know that some people have a problem distinguishing or knowing which one to use in what context, so we're going to look at all of them and see which situations call for which prepositions, and which situations you can mix them up. Because in many cases you can use "under" or "beneath", for example, or: "under" or "below". So, some situations you can mix them; other situations you can't. So let's start with "under". When do I use "under"? When we talk about a lower level or a lower layer, in terms of space, like... So, "spatial" is the adjective of "space", so when we're comparing space, one is lower than the other. Okay? But, so... "The ball rolled under the car." Generally, when we have some sort of movement, we're going to use probably "under", although we can sometimes say: "The ball rolled beneath the car." We're going to look at the difference between "under" and "beneath" after. So, in this case, you can use: "under", you can use other ones. But in a situation... Now, when I say: "situation" or "condition", it's usually about people. Okay? When somebody is feeling a particular thing or is in a particular condition or state of mind, we're going to use "under". So: "He's under a lot of pressure", means it's the weight of the condition is making him down or is heavy on top of him. Okay? So: "He's under a lot of pressure." Numbers. When we talk about age or quantity, we're going to use: "under", not the other prepositions. "This bar is popular among the under-40 crowd." Basically, "under" means less than or fewer than-right?-when we're talking about numbers. In terms of quantity: "Under 20 people actually showed up to the party", means less than; fewer than 20 people showed up. We can also use "under" as a prefix, means we can add it to under... Other words. Sorry. We can use it to under... Other words... Not "underwear"; I have underwear on my mind. Other words, and basically mean make them less; weakened, or less than, or other situations. So: "underweight". If someone is underweight, they are less than the healthy weight. Right? So this is the... What you should be, and if you're underweight, you're pretty thin. Right? You should eat more. If you "underestimate"... So, you notice I can use it with a noun or with a verb, or adjective. I'll give you other examples after. If you underestimate something or someone, means you don't give them enough credit; you don't appreciate them or it at the place where it should be. So, again, not enough. "Under" can also mean not enough. Now, let's look at "below". So we looked about lower level, etc. When we use "below", we're still talking about relation of two things; one is lower than the other, but it's important to remember that usually it's on the same plane. Now, "on the same plane" means the same spot in space. So if something is here and something is here, we don't say: "This is below that." We can say: "It's under this", in terms of the rankings-okay?-but we don't say it's below. So, the word "below" is written below the word "under", because why? We're on the same plane; we're looking at the whiteboard. It's the same space and I have the same line, so this is below that. Okay? It's not under it; it's below it, in terms of the plane. We also can use "below" when we look at a reference point; in relation to a reference point. Now, what do I mean by "reference point"? Here's the point where things get compared to. For example, average. "Average" is a reference point; it is not the highest, it is not the lowest. It is a combination of all the things on the spectrum or whatever, whatever you're comparing, and we take the average spot which is technically between highest and lowest. […]
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Real English Vocabulary: Taking care of your car Real English Vocabulary: Taking care of your car
3 weeks ago En
You don't need to be a mechanic to know a little about your car. If you travel and rent a car, make sure you know what to do in case there are problems with it. You also need to know the correct words for the different parts of the car! In this vocabulary lesson, we'll go over some of the basics of car maintenance, including fluids, basic engine words, and other things that are inside most road vehicles. You will learn the meaning of words like "wiper", "jack", "muffler", "hood", "shocks", and more. Take your new vocabulary for a test drive by doing the quiz at https://www.engvid.com/real-english-vocabulary-taking-care-of-your-car/ WATCH NEXT: 1. Vocabulary for a ROAD TRIP: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnT2S70xO8Q&list=PLxYD9HaZwsI5C0d8CivHvoI_-0rs8XMfc&index=23 2. HIGHWAY DRIVING Vocabulary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GKqblzFWz_8&index=48&list=PLrPhmmx5j5b-AjltXcrLI4iiqF7lsj_P8 #engvid #LearnEnglish #vocabulary TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video, we're going to look at basic car maintenance. Now, some of you are thinking: "Okay, I don't really need to know this because I don't have a car", but it's always a good idea to know as much as you can about as much as you can, including cars. And keep in mind: It's still English, so it's still a good idea to listen. And you never know when you may be able to help a friend or family member with his or her car. Now, I'm not going to get too serious about this; I'm just going to give you the general things you need to keep in mind when you're looking at your car; a little bit inside, a little bit outside, get a general idea of how to take care of your vehicle. So, the first thing you want to do always... Or every once in a while, depends on the situation, depends on how old your car is: You want to check fluids. "Fluid" is basically any liquid, anything that flows throughout your car. For example, oil. Now, how do you check your oil? Well, you have a little oil tube sticking out of your engine, it has a dipstick - so, basically you pull it out, you clean it with some tissue, you put it back in, and then you pull it out again and then it shows you how much you have; what the level of the oil is. And all of these things... To check all of these things or most of them, they each have their own little dipstick. Okay? So make sure you know where the dipstick is to check your levels. Now, if you're driving and you have windshield wipers, you also make sure... You always want to make sure you have enough windshield washer fluid. So, when you press on the windshield washers... On the wipers, the spray that comes out. That fills up; make sure you have enough. Especially, for example, you live in Canada, in the winter when the streets are full of snow and ice and salt, and they come on your window, if you don't have this fluid, you could be in a lot of trouble. Okay? So make sure you always have some. Once in a while check your transmission fluid. Now, your transmission is what makes the engine... The power from the engine comes to the transmission and it basically turns your tires. Now, if you have gears... Some of you... Most people, actually, these days have an automatic transmission. You put in drive and you go; you don't have to think about all the gears. Some people still have manual transmission where you put it into first gear, second gear, third gear, fourth gear, fifth gear, etc., you have your clutch that you have to engage. Okay? So this is your transmission; that's what makes the wheels turn. Make sure there's enough fluid so you don't kill your transmission. And, again, brake fluid. Your brakes work on hydraulic power. Make sure there's enough fluid in there so the brakes engage and you can actually stop your car. Make sure there's always enough coolant in the radiator. The radiator is that part of the engine that keeps it cool; it doesn't let it get too hot. So the coolant is a special type of fluid that flows through the radiator, it cools as it works, and it goes back into the engine, keeps the engine nice and cool. Make sure you have gas; no gas, no driving. Even electric cars still use some gas, right? So... Then always make sure that your car is fully equipped with the tools it needs. Now, you have a tire, here; imagine that's a tire on your car. The thing that keeps the tire connected to the car, these things here-there's four or five of them-these are called lugs. Lug nuts. So make sure you have a lug wrench. It's usually in your trunk with your spare tire or underneath it. Make sure you have one that properly works. If you have a lock on these lugs, make sure you have the lock so you can open it. A jack. A jack is the thing that you put under your car, and you pump, pump, pump, and it raises your car so you can take the tire off. […]
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10 common English Idioms & Expressions from Education 10 common English Idioms & Expressions from Education
1 month ago En
We have a lot of ground to cover in this lesson about idioms and expressions from the world of education. I will give you ten of them and explain each one in detail, because these sayings do not mean literally what they say. For example, when we say something is "old school", it doesn't mean that it is literally from a school that is old. I will teach you the meaning of sayings like "getting an A for effort", "learn the ropes", "You can't teach an old dog new tricks", and more. After watching, complete the quiz at https://www.engvid.com/10-english-idioms-expressions-education/ to see if you make the grade! NEXT, watch these videos: 1. 23 Phrasal Verbs with COME: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyN4NcH7maQ&index=5&list=PLxYD9HaZwsI5C0d8CivHvoI_-0rs8XMfc 2. 10 Idioms from Technology: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ffoHJAxnAvE&list=PLxYD9HaZwsI5C0d8CivHvoI_-0rs8XMfc&index=12 TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's lesson I want to teach you eight idioms that come from education. Actually, I have 10 of them, a couple of them are just expressions, though, so I can add them to the other ones. Eight idioms. All of these come from education, but now we use them to talk about other things that might not be related to education at all. Okay? So, as you know, idioms are groups of words, they're expressions whose individual words, when they're put together might not mean the exact same thing as the words themselves. They can have completely unrelated meanings, and we're going to see some examples of these. So we're going... We have a lot of ground to cover, so we're going to go slowly but surely through it all. So, what does it mean "to cover a lot of ground" or "have a lot of ground to cover"? It means to have a lot of material or a lot of information to get through, and understand, and make sure everybody gets. Right? When we cover a lot of ground, technically it comes from the ground, and you cover ground means you move, you travel. But we use "ground" as information, and "cover" means go over. So: "cover a lot of ground", get through a lot of information. Also, we "can't teach an old dog new tricks". So what does it mean, you can't teach an old dogs a new trick? So imagine your grandfather, okay? You are moving to another country because you're studying English, you want to immigrate to another country. You get to that country and you want to continue speaking with your grandfather in your home country. So you're trying to teach him Skype or you're trying to teach him, like, a mobile app, messenger, whatever. But your grandfather is trying, trying, trying, he just doesn't get it. And then finally he says: "You know what? I don't care. We'll call each other on the telephone once in a while." So finally you give up, you say: "You know what? You can't teach an old dog new tricks. We'll just call on the phone." It means as people get older, it's very difficult to change their habits. Okay? We're not calling old people old dogs, it's just an expression, but basically old people don't change habits very easily. You can't teach them, so that's where the education comes in. Now, something or someone is "old school" or he or she belongs to an "old school of thought" or to a particular school of thought. So, if somebody is old school, he or she likes something that is a little bit old-fashioned, likes to do something a little bit old-fashioned, something that's probably outdated, not modern. Okay? Now, it doesn't have to be about a person. It could be a thing. So, for example, if you... For example, if you go to Cuba... Okay. Cuba has a lot of old cars from the 1950s. Okay? Like Chevys, and Fords, and whatnot. We can say: "Oh, wow, that's a really old-school car." It has the old engines, nothing computerized. It's all carburetor and all kinds of pipes all over the place. It's very old school. It's very cool, but it's not modern. Okay? So it's something that's old school. When we talk about a school of thought, it means it's a particular way of viewing something or thinking about something. We especially use it to talk about, like, philosophy. Okay? But even in science there are certain scientists who basically subscribe to this particular school of thought. So, we use the word "subscribe", means they believe in doing it this way. Other scientists subscribe to this school of thought. So, the... There was a scientist who said: "This is the way we should do it." There was another scientist who said: "This is the way we should do it." All the people who follow this way created a school or a viewpoint, they created their own viewpoint. So different schools of thought. So, if we're talking about how to discipline children, okay? Some people like to sit their children down and talk, talk, talk for hours to try to teach them something. Other... In other cultures they just slap them on the bum, the kid understands, never does it again. […]
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English Grammar: Compound Subjects & Verb Agreement English Grammar: Compound Subjects & Verb Agreement
2 months ago En
What is a compound subject? It is when you combine several subjects together into one. This helps to avoid repetition in a sentence. But how do you make the verb agree with several subjects? For example, do we say "Bill and Kate is kind" or "are kind"? Do we say "Neither John nor his friends need help" or "needs help"? It all depends on subject-verb agreement, which is an important element of writing and speaking in English. In this lesson, we will look at compound subjects and how verbs react to these. I will teach you how to make the verb agree with the subjects in different kinds of sentences. After the video, be sure to do the quiz at https://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-compound-subjects-verb-agreement/ to test yourself on the material. TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at the "Compound Subject". So this is a grammar lesson, and it doesn't matter if you're a beginner or advanced, it's very important to understand this because it's very easy to make mistakes, especially in writing. So, we're going to start by looking at the subject. What is a subject? Just to refresh our memories. The subject is the thing in the sentence or in the clause that is going to do the action or is going to be in the situation of the "be" verb, if it's not an action verb. Right? So... And we always have to make sure that our subject and our verb agree. They must agree, especially in terms of number. If you have a singular subject, you must have a singular verb. Right? So let's look at this example: "The doctor is off this week." Right? So when we're talking about the doctor, there's one doctor, his or her situation is that he or she is off this week. They're on vacation. Right? So we have a singular verb. Now, we're going to look at compounds in terms of taking two pieces and making one subject out of this... Out of the two individual pieces. We're going to look at "and" and we're going to look at "or", "either", "or", "neither", "nor". Okay? But we're going to look at "or" after, we're going to start with "and". First thing you need to remember about "and", it works like a plus sign. One plus one equals two. So, when you take two individual subjects and you join them together, you're creating a two-or-more situation, or a two-or-more subject, therefore you have a plural subject. Right? So: "The doctor and the nurse are off", so plural, whereas you had singular. Now, it doesn't matter if you have plural pieces. "The doctor and the nurse are", "The doctors and the nurse are", "The doctors and the nurses are", any combination because you're joining them into a group and now they are plural and you have a matching verb. Now, it's very important to remember that we're talking about compounds and we're using a compound conjunction, but if you use: "The doctors"... Well, let's just say "doctor", no "s". "The doctor as well as the nurses are off this week", would this be correct? No, it would not because you're not making a compound. This is an extra. Okay? "The doctor", but if you had: "The doctors as well as the nurses are off this week", that is correct because then you would still have a plural to a plural. Singular, with "as well as", singular. Plural with "as well as", plural. Now: "as well as", "along with", "together with", "accompanied by", all of these expressions are not compound conjunctions. So we only have a compound subject when we have a compound conjunction joining them. Okay? But there are situations where you're going to have a compound, but you still have a singular subject. "Spaghetti and meatballs is delicious", not "are". Why is this singular? Because this is a grouped thing, they always go together. Spaghetti and meatballs is one idea. Even though you're joining them, they are basically one item. "Peanut butter and jelly is my favourite snack", or "Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are my favourite snack", but then you're using it as an adjective. If it's one piece, if it's a collective, then it's singular. If it's two separate items, then you're making a compound and then you have a plural. Look at this one: "The founder and CEO of the company is ready to sell", "The founder and CEO of the company are ready to sell". Now, which of these is correct? Well, both can be correct. You can have one person who is both the founder of the company and the CEO of the company. So if this and this refer to the same person, then it's a singular subject and you're using "is". If the founder and the CEO are two different people, then you're creating a compound, you have a plural, and then you have "are" as correct. So it's very important to understand what the two pieces on either side of "and" are doing. Are they two separate things, or are they one combined thing? And then you'll know which... If it's a plural or a singular subject. I'm going to give you some more examples after so you'll get an idea, but first let's look at "or". […]
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8 Phrasal Verbs with BREAK: break in, break up, break through... 8 Phrasal Verbs with BREAK: break in, break up, break through...
3 months ago En
Native English speakers use phrasal verbs all the time! A phrasal verb is a phrase with a common verb that often means something you might not expect. Take a break for a few minutes, and watch this lesson on phrasal verbs with "break". Whether you need to "break up" with someone, "break into" a new career, or "break up" a fight, these expressions will help you "break away" from the pack. Start using these common expressions today after testing yourself in the quiz at https://www.engvid.com/8-break-phrasal-verbs/ Watch more PHRASAL VERB lessons here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7_QXVcvcfQ&list=PLs_glF4TIn5YwzZX0WkcvWbipolVN7VCm TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at phrasal verbs. Well, one phrasal verb in particular using the verb "break". So, again, just to refresh our memories: A phrasal verb is a verb and a preposition that when put together sometimes have completely different meanings than the two words, and sometimes they have multiple meanings. So we're going to start with: "break". First of all: "break" means to basically make somebody whole not whole. So you can break your bone, means it's, like, snap in half, or you break your glass. You drop the glass on the floor and it breaks, it comes into pieces, so that's what "break" means. And most of these words you can a little bit guess their meanings, some of them you will not guess at all. We're going to start with "break out". Okay, "break out" has a few meanings, and we have the noun "breakout". Okay? "To break out", so the first meaning we're going to look at is a rash, r-a-s-h. Actually I'll write this down for you. If you break out in a rash, it basically means you ate something that you're allergic to. So, some people, for example, are allergic to chocolate. So they eat a piece of chocolate, or... By accident and suddenly on their skin they see little, red dots everywhere. Okay? That is called a rash. It's itchy, it's not very pretty, but it's an allergic reaction. So you break out in a rash, usually. Okay? That's one. The same thing, on the same idea, when we talk about a disease. So, a disease or a virus, for example, starts somewhere and then it just breaks out. It spreads. So: "to break out" means to spread. So, some diseases, like for example, SARS, I don't know if everybody remembers that disease, it started in one little place, and then it suddenly broke out and travelled all over the world, and it was an epidemic, and everybody was really scared. Another meaning of "break out" and similar to the idea of spread, when we talk about artists, especially like actors or musicians, they break out, it means they suddenly become very popular or very famous. So, some singers or some bands, they make an album, for example. And, you know, the sales are so-so and not that many people hear about them. Then their next album, so-so, maybe a little bit better, maybe not. Their third album suddenly they break out, suddenly everybody knows who they are, they're very famous, everybody's buying their album, so we also call this their "breakout album". That's the album that spread their name and made them famous. Okay? And lastly: "to break out" means to escape. So if you break out of jail, that means you escape from jail. So a little bit like, you know, you have... You're handcuffed or you have that ball with a chain on your leg, so you break it and you get out, so you escape. You break out of jail. So that's "break out". "Break in", a few meanings. One, and again, "break-in" is a noun with the hyphen. "To break in" basically means to enter illegally and using force. So, if someone has a break in in their house, means that the burglar broke the lock or the window, or whatever and came in and stole their things. So: "to break in" means to enter forcefully. Usually we use it with "break into", you break into someone's house, you break into the office, etc. But "break into" has another meaning, we'll get to that. So that's "break in". Another meaning of "break in": "to break in" means to make something basically more suited to your style, to your comfort. Okay? So think about jeans. When you buy your first pair of jeans or when you buy a new pair of jeans, I should say, they're a little bit stiff. You know? They're not that comfortable, you're not sitting too well in them, so you do a few squats. Okay? Or you do some stretches, or you put it in the laundry, and after a few washes, it becomes a little bit softer, a little bit more flexible, so now your jeans are broken in. You've broken in your jeans. If you take a baseball glove-okay?-this is a very common thing that you need to break in. When you buy a new baseball glove it's very stiff, so if somebody throws you the ball, you can't catch it because you can't close the glove. So, what do you do? […]
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My 6 TOP tips for taking tests and exams My 6 TOP tips for taking tests and exams
4 months ago En
Success on any test depends on more than just knowledge of the test material. You need to prepare yourself both mentally and physically. In this lesson, we will go over some important tips to make sure you are as ready as possible for your test. Some topics we will cover include: the logistics of testing, how to prepare the night prior, what to do if panic sets in, and even how to get proper rest and nutrition. Don't leave any of these parameters to chance, and you'll set yourself up for success. If you follow my advice and take it step by step, you WILL succeed on your exam. https://www.engvid.com/my-6-top-tips-for-tests-exams/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video I want to talk to you about how to prepare for taking a test. I'm not talking about studying the material or studying... Practicing the English, if you're taking an English test, like IELTS or TOEFL. I want you to think about the actual test day, what you need to do just before, what you need to do during, what you need to do or not do after. Okay? So, we're going to look at six tips to prep, to get ready for test day. Okay? Now, these are all very general tips, but I'm going to get into a little more detail with each one. Number one: Good rest. What does this mean? Make sure the night before a test... And this is about any test you're going to take, make sure you get a good night's sleep. Because I've met a lot of people... Excuse me. I've met a lot of people who are going to take a test and I know that they were very, very prepared. They studied all the material, their English was excellent, and then they went to the test and they did terribly. Why? Because they were so tired. They just couldn't concentrate. The night before, get a good night's sleep. Don't study the night before. Sleep, wake up early, be fresh when you get to the test center. Have all of your energy ready to focus on what you're about to do. Okay? Don't go out partying, don't go drinking, don't go see a movie, don't go hang out with friends. Stay at home, relax, read a book, maybe watch a little bit of television. Go to sleep early, wake up early, make sure you have enough time to get to the test center, make sure everything is under control, there's no anxiety, no stress, relaxed. With a clear mind is a strong mind, right? If your mind is clear, and sharp, and focused, you're going to do well. If you're tired, and panicky, and not so sure what's going on, you're not going to do well. Okay. Good nutrition. Now, this is very important. The morning of the test, make sure you wake up early enough to have a solid breakfast. Now, if you're a coffee drinker, have a coffee, but have it early and don't have any more before the test. Coffee is a stimulant. Okay? Coffee is a stimulant. It stimulates the body, it gets the energy flowing, you get a bit of adrenaline going, you get a bit of a sugar rush. Caffeine gets your... Everything moving a little bit faster. The problem with a stimulant is it gives you a nice boost of energy, but then when the stimulant works its way out of the body, then you come down real hard again. Right? And that's when you start making mistakes, that's when you stop thinking clearly, that's when you get a little bit tired, you lose a little bit of focus, and then you start making silly mistakes. Most of these tests, and again, we're talking about IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, GMAT, even your high school exams, most of them are long. Right? I remember in university having three-hour exams as a regular thing. Make sure that you're energetic from beginning to end; you don't have a downtime where everything falls apart and you don't know what you're writing about. So, what is good nutrition? Have a good protein, high-protein breakfast, make sure you have some carbohydrates, like sugars, things that give you energy, but not too much. Sugar is also a stimulant, so you don't want to have, like, a cinnamon bun from Cinnabon that's full of sugar that's going to get you all juiced up, and then it's going to drop you right in the middle of a test and you lost all your focus. Right? Good protein. Eggs. If you have your coffee, have it early. Make sure that your... Everything your body needs. Now, you have to understand h ow... How your body works. Right? So, again, if you're a coffee drinker, drink your coffee; if you're not, don't drink a coffee just do get the energy buzz. You can have a protein shake if that works for you, you can have a protein bar, you can take that with you, have it just before the test, but again, make sure your stomach is not louder than your thoughts. Okay? I've been in those kinds of tests as well, where my stomach is so loud that the people next to me couldn't concentrate on their test either, so don't do that. […]
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WRITING – Advanced English Transitions: thereby, thereof, hereby, therein, wherein, whereby... WRITING – Advanced English Transitions: thereby, thereof, hereby, therein, wherein, whereby...
5 months ago En
Good writing makes use of transition words, thereby creating better flow and adding some style to the text. In this lesson we'll look at some linking words and transitions used to connect ideas, such as: "thereby", "thereof", "hereby", "therein", "wherein", "whereby", and more. This will make your writing clear and organized. Watch the video to improve your writing style. Now it's time for a lesson on some different transitions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsDR3XEv50E&index=103&list=PLxYD9HaZwsI5C0d8CivHvoI_-0rs8XMfc&t=0s TAKE THE QUIZ ON THIS LESSON: https://www.engvid.com/writing-advanced-english-transitions TRANSCRIPT Hi again, everybody. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at transitions. Now, you may have seen some other videos on engVid about transitions, especially for writing. What we're going to look at today are a few more specific transitions, but this time we're not looking at transitions between paragraphs or even transitions between sentences. Okay? We're looking at transitions that we are generally using in a sentence to shift from one idea to another idea in a sentence. So they're very similar to, like, adverb... Adverb clauses, for example, but they're used in different ways. But, again, they do have their specific purposes. Now, you'll also notice that all of them or most of them start with: "there" plus a preposition, or "where" plus a preposition, and we have the one special one: "hereby". So: "Thereby", "Thereof", "Thereafter", "Therein", "Therefore", "Wherein", "Whereby", "Hereby", these are the words we're going to look at and how they're used within sentences. Now, before I explain these to you and show them... Show you samples of how they're used, I want you to understand that these are generally very formal, very high-end. They're not very commonly used. There are other ways you can say these things without being too serious, I guess you could say. But if you're going to university, if you're going to take a test, IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, all these tests - you will see these and you should be able to use them as well. And if you can actually use them properly in your essays, and like, again, nicely, appropriately, good timing, your score... That'll help your score. It should go up quite a bit because these are not very easy to use. So, we're going to start with "thereby". "Thereby" basically means by which, or through which, or like through this action something happened. It's a little bit similar to: "due to". The only problem is you can't use it in the same structure as "due to". Okay? So let's look at the first sentence. "The team lost the final game of the season, thereby missing the playoffs." So, basically by doing this, by losing the last game, the result... What happened? They missed the playoffs. But notice that we are using an "ing" here: "...thereby missing the playoffs", right? This is basically a gerund expression, a gerund phrase, but we can't use this with a clause. We're using it with an "ing". So that's one thing you have to keep in mind. If I wanted to use "due to", I would have to change the whole structure. "Due to their loss in the final game of the season, the team missed the playoffs." A completely different structure. I'm using the independent clause, here, the "due to" with the cause, etc. This one gives you another option, basically, on how to link the ideas. Cause, effect. But we don't have to use the "ing", we can use another way. "Lisa studied for three straight weeks and was thereby able to pass her test." So she studied, studied, studied, and through this action she was able to pass her test. And: "...and was thereby", "...and she was thereby able". Notice that I'm not using this to start the clause; I'm using it within the clause, between the verbs to show through this action, this was the result that she was looking for. Okay? So: "by which", "through which action". Let's look at "therein". "The new contract does not allow for extended maternity leave;" here I'm using the semi-colon, I'm going to give you the next idea, so this is like a conjunction. "...therein lies the problem for the union, 60% of whose membership is young women". So, "therein" basically means in that, or into that situation, problem, position, state, etc. So, "therein". "Therein" means: In what? In this situation, in this new contract there's a problem. So: "...therein in this new contract lies a problem", and this is a very common follow-up to the transition "therein". "...therein lies the problem". A very famous expression: "...therein lies the rub" from Shakespeare. "Aye, there's the rub." I'm not sure if you know that expression, I think from Hamlet, dream to... If you dream and you can die, it's all good, but then: Oh, there's a problem - you don't wake up. So: "...therein lies the rub". A very common expression to use with "lies". […]
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Real English: Talking about BEER Real English: Talking about BEER
5 months ago En
Have you ever been offered a "cold one"? This means you were invited to go drink some beer. In many countries (and most English-speaking countries), beer is a big a part of the local culture, so it's a good idea to know some of the language involved with this celebrated drink. In this lesson, we will look at beer types, customs, and even the process of making beer. I'll talk about vocabulary, slang, expressions, and more. So sit back and relax with a brewski, and enjoy the lesson! Next, watch my video on vocabulary for taking a road trip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnT2S70xO8Q&list=PLxYD9HaZwsI5C0d8CivHvoI_-0rs8XMfc&index=16&t=0s Take the quiz: https://www.engvid.com/real-english-talking-about-beer/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a very special one, especially here in Canada because we're going to talk about beer, one of our favourite drinks, one of our favourite pastimes. In fact, it looks something like this. This is a beer. Not a Canadian beer, but that's okay, it's an import. We're going to talk about the different types of beer, we're going to... You're going to be drinking here when you come to visit us. And beer is a very delicious, cold drink, made with a few particular ingredients. It's alcoholic, so I know not everybody drinks it, but if you come to Canada it's a big part of our culture; we drink it summer, winter, lunch, dinner, sometimes breakfast but not usually. It happens. But there's a bunch of things you need to know if you're going to come to Canada and talk about beer. Of course, in Europe and other places in the world, very common as well. So, first of all, we have a few nicknames for beer. We could call it: "a brew", "a brewski", "suds", "a cold one", some people even call it "a barley sandwich". "Barley" is like a little grain, it's a cereal that you make beer with, so if anybody offers you a barley sandwich, they are offering you a beer. So, first let's talk about the process of making beer. You begin with... By making a "malt". You take the barley, you put it in a container and let it "sprout". So like little seeds come out and little strips of that come out. And once you have those sprouts, you put them in a different container and let them "ferment". In other words, you let the sugar content become alcohol. Okay? You..."Fermenting" is used with a lot of different things, but especially in beer. Once the sprouts have fermented and the alcohol is there, then you add "hops". "A hop" is a particular type of plant, very green, very bitter that you add, and you also add "yeast". "Yeast" is the same thing we put in bread, or in flour and water, in dough to make it rise. Okay? So we put it also in beer, that's why you have the white foam on top of the beer. Okay? And the hops and the yeast, they add the bitters and the flavours. That's why your beer tastes a little bit bitter, depending on the type of beer. Some of them are more sweet, some are less, we're going to talk about that after. Okay, so next we need to think about the "alcohol content" or "alcohol by volume". Now, there is such a thing as non-alcoholic beer, but it doesn't really taste that good. They say it's supposed to taste the same as beer, but I'm not so sure. I'll let you decide that yourself. So, every time you get a bottle of beer it will say on it: "alcohol by volume" or "ABV". Okay? So, a lite beer-and we generally spell it "l-i-t-e", not "g-h"-is 4% usually, 4.5 maybe. A regular beer is usually 5, 5.5, and a strong beer is 7 or higher. And a strong beer will get you drunk pretty quick. Okay? And it's a very strong taste to it. Now, how do we drink beer? You can drink it from the bottle, you can drink it from a can, or you can drink it from "a mug". A mug is usually glass, it's usually pretty big and has a handle. If you go to a pub or a bar here, they will keep it in the fridge, it's nice in cold, they put the cold beer inside, you drink it, it's very delicious. "A stein" looks like a mug, but generally it could be bigger, it could be different sizes, different shapes. It's usually very decorative. It has, like, colours, or it has shapes, or it has emblems, all kinds of things on it. You will see this especially at Oktoberfest which I'll talk about in a second. Now, the size of your beer also makes a difference. You can get "a pint" or "a half pint". If you want to know measurements, that's 20 ounces or 568 millilitres, give or take. So, a half pint is not usually half, it's usually about 12 ounces. You can get a glass or you can get a full pint in a mug. Now, if you're with a bunch of friends, you can just order "a pitcher". A pitcher is usually about 3 or 4 almost pints I think. And I think in Europe, three pints. So about that. In Europe I think you can buy by the litre, is usually the case, and that's more personal, too; it's not to share with your friends. […]
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23 Phrasal Verbs with COME: come across, come around, come up with... 23 Phrasal Verbs with COME: come across, come around, come up with...
6 months ago En
Have you ever come across some phrasal verbs that use the verb "come"? They are often used by native English speakers to express many different things, from disbelief to creating something or finding something. In this lesson, I will teach you 23 phrasal verbs that use "come", like "come across", "come out", "come in", and more. So come on. Let's start! Take the quiz: https://www.engvid.com/23-come-phrasal-verbs/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at another phrasal verb using the verb "come". Now, again, what are phrasals? Phrasals are a verb and a preposition that together can have many different meanings apart from the words themselves. Now, I know that there are many phrasal verbs with the verb "come", but I've only chosen these to... These are the most common ones we're going to look at today. If there are other ones that are not on the list, by all means, please put them in the forum on www.engvid.com in the forum section if you want to talk about other ones, if you want to ask about other ones, but today we're going to concentrate on these ones here: "come up with" and "come up against"... Actually I should probably just put this here so there's no confusion. "Come up with", "come up against", "come across", "come around", "come out", sometimes "come out with", "come apart", "come on", "come into", "come over", and "come in". So, let's get started. So: "come up with". When you come up with something, means that you either produce it or that you think about it. Okay? So if you come up with a plan, for example, it means, like we had a problem in the office or in the business and we needed to fix it, and I asked all my staff to come up with a plan or come up with an idea, or come up with a solution to try to fix this. So, somebody came up with it, means that they thought about it. They used their imagination, they thought, thought, thought, and they came up with a plan. But you can also use it with other things, not just ideas. So, I have a project but I don't have enough money for this project, so I ask my friend to help me out, maybe talk to some of his wealthy friends, and maybe sell them on the idea. And to my surprise, he came up with the money, means he produced it or he found it. He was able to get this money. So: "come up with", thought or actual thing, usually money we use it with. "Come up with the money", and we would say "the money" more than "a money", obviously. Okay? "Come up against". So: "come up against" means you suddenly face an obstacle or you... Or a struggle, something... Some sort of problem, but usually it's an obstacle. Now, this could be physical. I'm walking along a hiking trail and suddenly there... Or it's not suddenly, but before a tree fell over and blocked the way. So I came up against this tree, and now I have to figure out how to get around or over it, etc. More commonly we talk about this in terms of abstract ideas. So, I am trying to run for President of my country and I thought: "Okay, easy. Everybody loves me. I don't really have much competition." But suddenly the opposition party put in a candidate and I've... I have to come up against him. Basically I have to come up against a worthy opponent and now I have to fight, and I have to struggle to continue on where I'm going. So that's come up against something not good. "Come across", again, there's the literal one, means come across something, so basically move. But again, I'm... Somebody is coming across to my side. But more commonly: "to come across" and we usually use it with "as". If someone comes across as something else, it means he or she appears to be something that maybe he or she is not. Okay? So I met this person the other day, met him for the first time and he really came across as a friendly guy, but then later I found out that he's really not a very nice guy at all. He's a... I can't use the word here on the video, but there's another word for him that he actually is. So he came across as friendly, but in reality, not very friendly. Okay? "Come around" also has a few meanings. One, basically if I want to... Somebody is trying to change my opinion, or I want to change somebody else's opinion, okay? So I persuade this person to think that my position is better, and I convince, and I talk and I talk and I talk, and finally this person thinks: "Yeah, you know what? Maybe you're right." So he came around, he came to my side of the argument. "Come around"-sorry-can also mean if you're passed out and somebody's trying to revive you, they give you some smelling salt or they throw water on your face, and you come around. "Oh. Oh, where am I? Oh, okay, I know where I am." I came around, I regained consciousness, I regained my bearings. Okay, that's "come around".
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Professional English Vocabulary: Meetings Professional English Vocabulary: Meetings
7 months ago En
There's a lot of specialized vocabulary that's used in the office. If you work in an office and want to present yourself professionally, it's especially important that you are able to understand and use these terms. In this Business English video, I'll teach you words that you'll hear in business meetings. We'll go over a show of hands, adjourn, consensus, and other important vocabulary. There's a lot on the agenda for this lesson, so don't forget to take minutes, and to take the quiz here: https://www.engvid.com/professional-english-vocabulary-meetings/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video I want to talk to you about some business English, but more specifically, we're going to talk about meetings, business meetings and what goes on there, and some of the vocabulary you will need to know if you have to go to some of these meetings. Okay, we have a bunch of words here. I'm going to go through each one, make sure you understand what it is. So, every meeting has to have an "agenda". Actually I'll stand on this side a little bit. Every meeting has to have an agenda. What is an "agenda"? An agenda is basically the plan or the list of topics that need to be covered in this meeting. Right? So by the end of the meeting you have to cover these points, and then the meeting can break up or whatever. Okay? So that's the plan. We also use this for other situations, like somebody has an agenda, means somebody has a goal they're after. In a business meeting, the plan. The goal is to finish these lists... The list of priorities. At a meeting someone will be "designated" to take notes. Okay? So, "you designate" means you choose someone or you assign someone a specific task. Okay? So, every... Every meeting somebody else takes a turn or sometimes some big companies have one person whose job is to take those notes. Now, those notes are called "minutes", like the same minute... Like, you think about it in terms of time. "Minutes" are the notes or the summary of a meeting. Okay? At the end of the meeting the person who was designated to take the notes will go back to his or her desk, and type up a list of the main highlights of the meeting, and whatever goals were achieved, whatever items need to be discussed next meeting, etc. So, notes. Now, somebody might put forward a "motion". Okay? "Put forward a motion". A motion is basically the same idea as a proposal. Somebody says: "Okay, I think we need to do this. Let's vote on it." So anything that needs to be voted on is called a motion. Okay? Their idea, their plan, their suggestion, etc. After somebody puts forward the motion, everybody else in the meeting room will have "deliberations". Okay? They will deliberate on this motion. Basically they will discuss it. Everybody will say what they think, what they like, what they don't like. There'll be a general discussion about the motion, and that's called deliberations. Sometimes these deliberations involve a "conference call". A conference call is basically a call with people outside the meeting room, it could be on Skype, some sort of video program, it could be just a telephone call, but it's a speaker and everybody in the room can hear and be heard, and the person on the other end can be... Can hear and be heard as well. So it's a conference call. Then everybody will "brainstorm" to come up with new ideas. So, "brainstorming" is basically thinking, but thinking hard about a specific topic, and trying to come up with different ideas for that topic, how to do something, etc. Hopefully everybody in the room will "collaborate", people from different departments might come into a meeting to talk about a project or a product, or whatever, or a campaign. Everybody has to collaborate, everybody has to work together, that's what "collaborate" means. A good company will have people who like to collaborate, they'll like to work as a team; some companies it's a bit more difficult. Then after the deliberations, after the brainstorming, after all their talk, it's time to vote. Okay? So everybody will "cast a ballot". We also talk about this when we talk about politics. After the campaign for a political position, the public goes to cast a ballot. They go to the ballot box to vote. So, "cast a ballot", vote. Now, there are different ways to do it. There's a secret ballot. Okay? If you have a secret ballot, then everybody writes their answer, their choice on a piece of paper, puts it into a box, and then somebody collects them: "Yes", "No", whatever. There's an open ballot that everybody knows what everybody else is voting. This is called "a show of hands". "Show of hands, who's for the project? Who's against?" Okay, and then more hands this side, this side wins; more hands this side, this side wins. "Show of hands". In a classroom a teacher might use this: "Okay, does everybody understand? A show of hands. If you understand, put up your hand." Good. […]
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Learn Vocabulary: Sports of the Winter Olympics Learn Vocabulary: Sports of the Winter Olympics
7 months ago En
What's your favourite winter sport? Is it figure skating or luge? Do you know what luge is? In preparation for this year's Olympic Games in South Korea, watch this English vocabulary lesson on Olympic winter sports. In this lesson, you will learn about hockey, skiing, snowboarding, curling, and more. Do you know all the different types of sledding? The Olympic Games take place every four years. Watch the video to ensure that this year, you are ready to talk sports. https://www.engvid.com/vocabulary-sports-winter-olympics/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to talk about the Winter Olympics. They're just around the corner, and I figured it's a good idea that you know what's going on if you're interested in winter sports. I'm going to tell you about the different events that you can watch, and what the different words are that they're talking about on TV. Okay? Because this year the Olympics are in Pyeongchang, South Korea, which is the northern part of South Korea, but not North Korea. It's a little bit confusing. The northern part of South Korea. And all the regular events are there, so I'm going to walk you through them and make sure you know which ones you like, which ones you want to watch, adjust your calendars, your timetables because if you live in a different part of the world, you may have to watch them during the night. So, we're going to start with the events and then I'll give you some general Olympics' vocabulary. Let's start with skating. Okay? We're going to... There're different events for skating. There's speed skating which happens around a long track, an oval track, and people basically race each other; then there's short track speed skating-sorry-and basically this is like a very short... It's almost like a little circle, and you have five or six guys, and they just basically have a race and they're trying to finish first; and whoever finished first, second, etc., they go on and they have a few rounds of this. Okay? They have different rounds, and the winner of each one or the top two of each race go to the next round, the next round until you have a final round, and then the winner gets gold, second place gets silver, etc., or in bronze. So, this is a very exciting event because there're always crashes, and they go around really, really fast, and they're like... Basically almost sideways because they're on their skates going around in a circle all the time, very exciting to watch. Then, of course, there's figure skating, which is one of the more... One of the most popular events during the Winter Olympics. There are men's, women's, and pairs figure skating, and I think there's also a dance figure skating, it's a little bit different. And basically they're on the rink, so the ice surface, or the... The building they're in is the arena and the actual ice surface is called a rink. And there they do all kinds of performances. It's very acrobatic. Now, you might hear all the different names of the movements they make, like double axel and cow something, these I don't actually know because you have to actually know something about figure skating, but you can just watch it. It's very beautiful to watch, beautiful music and they wear their costumes. Their costumes are just basically they create for themselves, they're custom-made costumes you can call them, and they go around, they do all these acrobatic things. There're two components to it, there's the technical and then there's the artistic. So they do this on two occasions, and they get a scaled score, basically up to six or five, 5.2, 5.5, etc., and whoever has the best score, obviously gets the gold medal. And the one component is the technical where they have to do certain number of routines, certain number of movements. And the second one is artistic where they have to basically involve those movements, but also according to the music, according to the style, etc. Okay? Very popular. And of course they're wearing figure skates. That's the only real equipment they need, except for their costumes. Speed skaters, they wear a different type of skate. It's a much longer blade, okay? So they're basically on blade. They're basically on, like, two or three milli-... Or three or four millimetres of metal, that's all that's holding them up. Very sharp edges to the blades, and that's what they go around on, etc. Okay? So, figure skating. Skiing, that's another common and very popular sport in the Olympics. All types of different events that involve skiing. Alpine skiing is basically coming down a mountain, and there's a slalom, basically it's a very long... They're on the slope of the mountain, and it's a very long course. Okay? And they come down and whoever has the best time... So, there's two ways to do it, there's time and there's also races for different things, but Alpine is usually time trial. Now, there's cross-country skiing which is flat but long distance. […]
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IELTS Writing: The 3 Essay Types IELTS Writing: The 3 Essay Types
8 months ago En
Be prepared for any essay on the IELTS exam by knowing what to expect. Whether it's an opinion essay, a comparative, or a descriptive essay, your approach will need to match the task. In this lesson we look at what kinds of questions may come up and how to approach these. I'll break it down in detail, clearly, so you know exactly what you should do with each type of essay question. Follow my suggestions and you will succeed. This is the detailed essay video I mentioned in the lesson: https://youtu.be/1W9iimRFmF0 Go to my writing YouTube channel, Write to Top, and subscribe for more writing videos: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCdJ_sF-R6PPqFgPNOjcwSxQ/ More IELTS videos: 1. IELTS: 3 Reading Strategies: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N0ePX99GM70 2. IELTS: The 5-Step Study Plan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SHhJ1RqWl-k 3. IELTS Writing: 5 Most Common Mistakes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFoWVbgT1Tg TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is an IELTS lesson, so as usual, I'll be speaking a little bit faster than normal, give you a little bit of listening practice. And today we're going to look at specifically the essay types, the types of essays you're going to have to come across for those of you taking the IELTS test in the writing section task two, the independent essay. I'm going to talk about the types of essays, and a very general idea, a very general discussion about how to approach, generally again, the essay. I want to make... Talk about templates, but I'll do that a little bit later. So first of all, the main thing to remember, you have essentially three types of essays that you're going to come across on the IELTS writing test. You're going to have an essay that asks for an opinion, you're going to have an essay that does not ask for an opinion, and then you're going to have a hybrid, you're going to have a combination of the two. Okay? So first let's go over the types of questions you might see that ask for an opinion. Now, it's very important to recognize that not all of you... Sorry, not all of the questions are going to be specifically mentioning the word: "opinion", or "think", or "believe", but you still have to recognize. So: "Do you agree or disagree with whatever has been mentioned before?" or whatever is written there. "Do you agree or disagree?" Take a side. "I agree with this because", reasons. "I disagree because", reasons. And similarly: "To what extent do you agree or disagree?" A quick word about "to what extent", I personally recommend completely, totally, fully agree with whatever you agree with because it's a much easier essay to write. If you say: "I somewhat agree", then you have to look at both sides and tell me what you agree with, what you disagree with. If you say: "I completely agree with this idea", then you only have to focus on that idea. It's much easier. "Do you think" something, so this is a very direct question about your opinion. "What do you think about this?" or "What do you think are the causes of", "What do you think are the main issues or problems?" Now: "Do the benefits outweigh the drawbacks", or: "Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?" As soon as you see, here, the word: "Do", it's a yes/no question, you have to say yes or no, and we're going to talk about yes/no questions. But this word: "outweigh"... "Are there more drawbacks or are there more benefits?" This is an opinion question. You decide if there are more drawbacks or opinions. "Which is better: This situation or this situation?" Okay? "Is it more important to do this or to do that?" So, again, these are all yes/no... This is a choice question because you have the "better", you have the comparative. And, again, you have this, plus the yes/no. So as soon as it's a yes/no question, it's an opinion question. Make sure that you answer very specifically yes or no, this side or this side, and say why you think so. Support your opinion. And yes/no, if a question begins with: "Should some... Should somebody do something?", "Should this be done?", "Do... Do people need to do this?" for example. Excuse me. Any yes/no question is asking for an opinion. Okay? Make sure that you give an opinion, make sure that you support that opinion. Okay, now, let's go on to the non-opinion questions. "Discuss", so they're going to give you two attitudes, or two views, or two approaches to something. They say: "Discuss both views. Discuss both attitudes." This is not asking for your opinion. So, one thing, it's a general rule of thumb, don't always apply it because some of you don't like to use the word "I", but if the question has a "you", the answer can, and in most cases should, have an "I". Okay? You don't have to use the personal pronoun. It's not wrong to. A lot of people are afraid, they think academic essays shouldn't use "I". Totally okay, recommended for a lot of people. If you can't make your views clear without using the "I", then use the "I". Here, don't use the "I".
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How to call someone STUPID, SMART, or CRAZY in English How to call someone STUPID, SMART, or CRAZY in English
9 months ago En
You don't have to be nice all the time! Improve your vocabulary and learn how to insult someone creatively in this video. I'll teach you expressions to talk about how smart someone is too, so it isn't all negative. English is very creative when it comes to insults and praise. In this lesson we'll look at some interesting ways to say someone is dumb as well as ways to say someone is smart or just plain crazy. Hopefully, you're not out to lunch on this lesson, but are rather on the ball. TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/how-to-call-someone-stupid-smart-or-crazy-in-english/ AFTER YOU TAKE THE QUIZ, PRACTICE BY CALLING YOUR FRIEND STUPID IN ENGLISH. TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit special and a little bit... You have to be careful with it, so I want to give you a little bit of a warning before we even start because I'm going to show you some ways to say: "crazy" and "stupid". I'm going to show you expressions that we use to talk about a person who's a little bit crazy or you think is stupid without actually using the words: "crazy" or "stupid". Now, on the other hand, I'm also going to show you some ways to say a person is very smart or sharp. Now, "sharp" generally means smart, but it could also mean very aware or very in control of a situation. Now, all of these expressions, they're very creative and you can play with them a lot. I'm going to show you basics and then show you how to expand on them, and I want you to understand them because they are very common, and especially if you're watching TV shows or movies... And I get a lot of students say to me: "I can understand all the English, but I don't know what they're saying on... In the movies." Well, the thing you have to remember, in the movies, their audience, their target audience is native English speakers, which means they can use slang, and they can use idioms, and they can use all kinds of cultural expressions that a non-native speaker, that someone who's learning English simply won't understand until it is explained to him or her. So that's what we're going to do here. So we're going to start with "crazy" and "stupid" expressions, and then we're going to look at "smart" and "sharp" expressions. Okay? Now, a very common expression... And the reason I'm starting with this is because you can be very creative with this one. You are... "__________ short/shy of __________". A person is something short of something, or shy of something. Now, before I continue, "shy". Everybody knows "shy" means, you know, you get nervous when you talk to strangers or your face gets red. Shy, "to be shy of" means to have less than complete. Okay? So there's a new meaning of the word "shy" for you. And if... Those of you taking an English test, this is a good word to use in your essay. Keep that in mind. So let's look at a few examples. "A few cards short of a full deck." So, a full deck of cards has-what?-I think 52 cards, so this person only has 45, so he's not playing a complete game. It means something a little bit missing, so either crazy or stupid-okay?-without actually saying those words, but everybody will understand. Now, this ex-... This structure you can use anything you want on either end, and people get very creative. Some... "That person is a few sandwiches short of a picnic." You can't have a picnic if you don't have all the sandwiches there, so a little bit not 100%. Right? Oh, that's another expression, to say: "He is not 100%." It means something a little bit missing. "A few beers short of a 6-pack.", "A few French fries short of a Happy Meal." The list goes on and on and on and on. You can hear all kinds, just remember this part of it and you'll understand what's going on. Now, other expressions: "He's not playing with a full deck." So, basically the same meaning as this, but just a different construct. "Oh, that guy's not playing with a full deck. Be careful about him." Means he's a little bit crazy, he's not 100%. Another expression, and this is, again, we use it with these two: "sharpest" and "brightest". Now, "sharp" generally means smart, "bright" also means smart. So if somebody is bright, clever; somebody is sharp, clever. But if somebody is "not the sharpest knife in the drawer", it means he's not very sharp, he's actually quite blunt so he's a little bit stupid. If somebody is "not the brightest star in the sky", same meaning, not very smart, a little bit stupid. Okay? Other ways: "The lights are on, but nobody's home." So eyes are open, he's alive and seeing everything, but nobody's home, nothing's going on inside the brain. "A person is out to lunch", so the body is here but the brain is outside having lunch somewhere, so not present. You can also say the person "has a loose screw", or "has a few loose screws", means not everything's tight and working properly.
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Learn 8 KICK Phrasal Verbs in English: "kick back", "kick out", "kick up"... Learn 8 KICK Phrasal Verbs in English: "kick back", "kick out", "kick up"...
10 months ago En
Let's kick off this lesson with an explanation of phrasal verbs, then move on to different phrasals using the verb KICK. In this lesson you will discover the meanings of kick in, kick off, kick around, kick back, kick out, kick about, kick up, and kick over. Phrasal verbs are an important part of English vocabulary, so watch and learn these eight 'kick' phrasal verbs. TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/kick-phrasal-verbs/ WATCH NEXT: 1. Phrasal Verbs with 'step': https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wr79lNqR8WA 2. Phrasal Verbs with 'take': https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mrXt9yrZryg 3. Phrasal Verbs with 'carry': https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6gsxYI8TXo TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at another set of phrasal verbs. Now, just as a reminder: What is a phrasal verb? A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and a preposition: "in", "on", "at", "off", etc. and the combination usually makes other meanings than the two words themselves. Now, some phrasal verbs obviously have more than one meaning, so we're going to look at the different meanings with the verb "kick". For example: "kick in", "kick back", "kick out", "kick off", "kick about" or "kick around", "kick up", and "kick over". Now, some of these will have more than one meaning, some will just have the one meaning. Some of these can also be joined to make a noun, and we're going to look at that as well. So we're going to start with "kick in". A few meanings to "kick in". The more literal one, like takes the verb "kick" means to kick with your leg, so if you kick something in, you're breaking it with your feet. So the most common example is, like, police, they go into... They want to go into an apartment or a house and arrest somebody, so they kick in the door. They just break the door and they go in. We can also say: "kick down" for the same meaning. They kick down the door or they kick in the door, so physically break with your feet. Another meaning of "kick" is basically take effect. This is especially used when we're talking about drugs, when we're taking a pill. So the doctor gave you a pill, maybe you have a really bad headache and you take a Tylenol or an Advil, or Aspirin or whatever, and it doesn't work right away. It takes a little time for the pill to kick in. So basically to take effect, to start working. So another meaning is start... But usually a process. Start a process. So, now, we can also use this in other situations. For example, a policy. So the government decided to increase taxes, but they don't do it suddenly. Okay? Because a lot of people will not be ready for it, it will cause a lot of problems. So they say: "Okay, starting in six months, we have a new policy where the tax will go up by 1%." So this policy will kick in on September 1st, for example, whenever that six months down the road is. So, "kick in" start or go into effect. Okay? Now, we can also use "kick in" to contribute. So, we're going to have an office party. Janice, the accountant, has a birthday and everybody wants to, you know, show her... Show their appreciation for her hard work, so everybody's going to kick in five bucks, and we collect all this money and we create a party for Janice. Okay? So, "kick in" basically means give, contribute to a pool. So those are all the "kick ins". Now, "kick back". First of all, there's the literal one where you kick back. Right? So, to relax. -"So what are you doing this weekend?" -"Oh, nothing, just kicking back." It means I'm sitting at home with my feet up on a table, and I'm just relaxing, doing nothing. Another meaning of "kick back" is payment, is a type of payment, but usually it means a bribe. Okay? A bribe means you're paying somebody to do something for you. The most common example that I can think of is doctors and pharmaceutical companies, the companies that make the drugs. So the doctor, all his patients come in and he says: "Oh, you need this prescription. Here you go, go buy the pills. Here, you need this prescription." They don't need it. Sometimes they do, sometimes they don't, but some doctors just prescribe medicine for everybody for everything. Why? Because the pharmacy, the pharmaceutical company gives the doctor a "kickback". So this can be a noun as well. A "kickback" or "kickbacks". Okay? It's a noun, it basically means a bribe, a payment for doing them a favour. Okay? So, to relax or to pay sort of underneath as a gift, as a bribe. "To kick out", okay? "To kick out" could be physical, means you take somebody and you kick them out the door. So if you go to a club and you're not behaving very nicely, the bouncer, the big guys standing at the door, they will take you and they will kick you out. They will throw you out of the club. But it doesn't have to be physical.
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10 English words that are hard to say correctly 10 English words that are hard to say correctly
10 months ago En
Did you know that 'ths' can sound like a 'z'? Or that 'tt' can sound like 'd'? In this lesson, we look at ways to pronounce some common vocabulary that English learners often find difficult or confusing. Beyond the ten words we cover in the video, I'll share my pronunciation methods, so you can apply the techniques seen here to learn other difficult words. TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/10-english-words-that-are-hard-to-say-correctly/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a pronunciation lesson. I'm going to talk to you about 10 words that many people find very difficult to pronounce, especially non-native English speakers, but even sometimes native speakers have some trouble with some of these. We're going to look at the first five and I'm going to show you two things, two ways to look at this word. One... Or these words. One is the phonetic, basically just: How does it sound? And two is looking at the actual phonetic alphabet to see how it's spelled according to the phonetic alphabet, and I'll talk to you about that as well. So we're going to look at: "months", "clothes", "little", "queue", "chaos". So you already heard me saying them, but I'll go through each one carefully. A lot of people try to pronounce the "th" in this word: "months", "months", you're just confusing your tongue, you're confusing your listener. Don't try to always put "ths", they don't always work. Even native speakers don't bother trying to separate the sounds. What... The way it sounds like to us, like the way I say it is: "muntz". The "ths" I just switch to a "tz". So if you think about the word "plants", you know... Everybody knows how to say "plant", one plant, many plants, this is the same sound as here: "tz". So this is the same sound here: "mun", like "sun", "run", "munt", "muntz". Okay? Again, don't try to separate them. This is what it looks like in the phonetic. Now, if you want to really improve your pronunciation and sound like a native speaker, you must learn the International Phonetic Alphabet. I took this phonetic spelling from the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, that's the American dictionary if you want to get the North American accent. Look at the Oxford Dictionary, for example, if you want to get the British phonetic spelling of things, if you want to get the different accents, etc. Get to know these symbols. This is like an "ah" or sometimes even an "uh", as we're going to see in other words. Make sure you understand the different symbols and what sounds they represent, that way any word that you want to pronounce correctly, you can do according to this. Now, you can also go online: m-w . com or just www . Merriam-Webster . com, you can hear all of these words and you can practice saying them and saying them correctly. Now, this word, and it's the same idea. You still have your "t", "h", and "s", but you have the "e", the extra vowel in the middle. A lot of people try to say: "clothes", but if you say "clothes" to a native speaker... Okay, usually the context will help them understand what you're saying, but if you say the word out of context they actually won't know what you're saying because we don't have a word "clothes". Okay? It sounds like "cloze". Close the door, wear clothes, sounds exactly the same. And again, the phonetic with be "o" there, "k", and the "z". We don't have the "th" because we don't pronounce it. So most words that have a "th" and an "s" very close together, we generally just basically squeeze them in into a "ts" sound or a "z" sound. Okay? "Clothes". So when... After you take the clothes out of the closet, close the door. Okay? Clothes. "Little". Now, some people try to say "little", which is okay. Everybody will understand you if you say "little", but most people in, again, native... Native speakers in everyday sound, everyday speech, everyday pace will say: "lidol". I have a little bit. Little bit. So it sounds like a "d", the "tt" sounds like a "d". This "i" is almost not pronounced. It's more like the "d" drops into the "l". This is what it looks like here, that's where the "t" drops. They put it as a "t", but when you have two t's together and in normal speed, it sounds like a "d", so: "lidle". Some people say: "I have a little bit", some people will say: "I have a lidle bit." Little. Okay? Now, this word, this word is very frightening because everybody who doesn't actually know this word will actually try to pronounce it. But you have to remember English is a crazy language. We have many words that don't sound anything like they look. Okay? So this is not "queue", nobody says "queue", because nobody will understand what you're saying. This word basically means "q" or is pronounced-sorry-"q". It means a line up. When you go to the bank and you go to the teller, but there's a lot of people, get in queue and wait until your turn.
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10 English Idioms from Technology 10 English Idioms from Technology
11 months ago En
Does your language have idioms that come from technology? We use technology in so many parts of our daily life, so it's natural that many English expressions have come from this field. Learn these idioms to make your English sound more fluent and natural. This lesson has all the bells and whistles. If you don't know what that means yet, there's no need to hit the panic button -- I'll show you what makes this English tick. TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/10-english-idioms-technology/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at idioms, but idioms from the world of technology, so very specific idioms. I'm going to give you ten of them. I got five here and we'll have five more coming in a moment. Now, before I begin, what is an idiom? An idiom is an expression or a collection of words that the words themselves don't necessarily mean what the expression combined means. Right? So you have the words and you know all the words, but when they're put together in this expression the meaning could be completely different. So all of these come from technology because they started about an actual technological tool, or piece of equipment, or innovation and we took this expression and we applied it to other things. So we're going to start with: "grease the wheels". Now, if you think about machines, they have these kinds of wheels, they're called gears or sometimes they're called cogs, the cogs... A cog in the machine. And a machine might have many of these wheels, and the wheels sort of work together. Now, the machines are most... Sorry, the wheels are mostly made from metal. And if you know from experience probably, if metal touches metal too much it heats up. Now, if it gets too hot then the two wheels will seize on top of each other. They will seize, it means they will catch each other and stop working. So, to prevent that seizure we put grease on the wheels. Grease is like a thick oil. Right? You put it all around, you make everything sort of lubricated... Okay? Oops. Lubricate means you make it so it doesn't heat up and doesn't create friction. Lots of new words for you, here. Friction is that heat that comes from the touching each other too much. So grease the wheels so they don't touch, but how do we use this idiom in everyday life? Well, if you think about bureaucracy, like government, you need to get a permit to change something in your building, for example. Now, in some countries to get this permit will take you months. You have to go to this office and sign the paperwork, take this paperwork to that office, get it stamped, take it to that office, back and forth - you can be spending months and doing lots of work just to get a simple permit. So, what you might do, you'll go to your politician friend and, you know, ask him to, if he can grease the wheels a little bit, make the process easier. You'll give him a little bit of cash, he'll give you all the stamps you need, you'll get your permit in a week, you build your building, everybody's happy. "Grease the wheels". So most commonly it's used to basically mean like a bribe, but it doesn't have to be a bribe. It could just ask somebody to make things a little bit easier, make a process a little bit smoother. Okay? "Bells and whistles", ding, ding, ding. [Whistles] Right? So bells and whistles. If you're talking about bells and whistles on something, you're talking about all the features, especially you're talking about the cool, the good features. Right? So if you buy a car, you go to the dealership and you say to the guy: "I want this car with all the bells and whistles", it means I want every feature that's available; I want the stereo, I want the air conditioning, I want the automatic, I want the GPS, the mirror, the rear-view camera. I want everything that is available put into this car. I want all the bells and whistles. Okay? So basically all of the good stuff. If you go to an appliance store, you want the machine that has the most bells and whistles, the most cool features that you can put on it. Again, this is from old time, industrial machines worked on steam, so the steam created the whistle and then the bells for when a protest was done, etc. "Hit the panic button", so in a factory that has a lot of machinery, if somebody gets caught in the machine, like let's say your shirt gets caught in the belt and you start getting dragged, all over the factory there's a button that you can press it and all the machines stop. That's called the panic button. Okay? So, when there's a dangerous situation or emergency, you just hit the panic button, everything shuts down, you go save your friend from the machine. We use this in everyday conversation. Basically we say: "Don't hit the panic button just yet", maybe, or: "He hit the panic button." It basically means to panic, to be really nervous, really scared, really worried about something.
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MATH & GEOMETRY Vocabulary and Terminology in English MATH & GEOMETRY Vocabulary and Terminology in English
2 years ago En
Do you need to speak about or understand mathematics or geometry in English? This lesson teaches you all the terminology you need to translate your mathematics knowledge into English. This video will be especially important for students who are studying in an English-speaking country, and for professionals who need to work with English speakers. I'll also explain the correct sentence structures we use to talk about common mathematical operations in English. For example: "One plus one equals two", "one and one is two", "if you add one and one, you get two", and many more. This lesson covers terminology about: operations (+ - * /), fractions, decimals, exponents, roots, shapes, measurements, angles, triangles, and much more. Don't let English stand in the way of your mathematics! TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/math-geometry-vocabulary-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video I'm going to look at some math. Now, I know this is an English site, don't worry, I'm not actually going to do any math. Philosophy and English major, so math not my favourite, but I will give you some math terminology, words that you need if you're going to do math. Now, a lot of you might be engineers or you might be students who came from another country to an English-speaking country, and you go to math class and you know the math, but you're not sure of the wording. Okay? So this is what we're looking at, terminology, only the words that you need to go into a math class or to do some math on your own. Okay? We're going to start with the very basics. You know all these functions already. I'm just going to give you some ways to talk about them, and then we'll move on to some other functions and other parts. So, you know the four basic functions: "addition", "subtraction", "multiplication", and "division". What you need to know is ways to say an equation. Right? You know an equation. "1 + 1 = 2", that's an equation. "x2 + y3 = znth", that's also an equation which I'm not even going to get into. So, let's start with addition. The way to talk about addition. You can say: "1 plus 1", "plus", of course is "+" symbol, that's the plus symbol. "1 plus 1 equals 2." 2 means the total, is also called the "sum". Now, you can also say: "The sum of 1 and 1 is 2." You can also just say, without this part: "1 and 1 is 2." So you don't need the plus, you don't need the equal; you can use "and" and "is", but it means the same thing. Everybody will understand you're making... You're doing addition. Sorry. Doing addition, not making. If you add 1 and 1, you get 2. Okay? So: "add" and "get", other words you can use to express the equation. Now, if you're doing math problems, math problems are word problems. I know a lot of you have a hard time understanding the question because of the words, so different ways to look at these functions using different words, different verbs especially. If we look at subtraction: "10 minus 5 equals 5". "5", the answer is also called the "difference". For addition it's the "sum", for subtraction it's "difference". "10, subtract 5 gives you 5." Or: "10 deduct"-means take away-"5", we can also say: "Take 5 away"... Oh, I forgot a word here. Sorry. "Take 5 away from 10, you get", okay? "10 subtract 5", you can say: "gives you 5", sorry, I had to think about that. Math, not my specialty. So: "Take 5 away from 5, you get 5", "Take 5 away from 5, you're left with", "left with" means what remains. Okay, so again, different ways to say the exact same thing. So if you see different math problems in different language you can understand what they're saying. Okay? Multiplication. "5 times 5", that's: "5 times 5 equals 25". "25" is the "product", the answer to the multiplication, the product. "5 multiplied by 5", don't forget the "by". "5 multiplied by 5 is 25", "is", "gives you", "gets", etc. Then we go to division. "9 divided by 3 equals 3", "3", the answer is called the "quotient". This is a "q". I don't have a very pretty "q", but it's a "q". "Quotient". Okay? "3 goes into... 3 goes into 9 three times", so you can reverse the order of the equation. Here, when... In addition, subtraction, multiplication... Well, actually addition and multiplication you can reverse the order and it says the same thing. Here you have to reverse the order: "goes into" as opposed to "divided by", so pay attention to the prepositions as well. Gives you... Sorry. "3 goes into 9 three times", there's your answer. "10 divided by 4", now, sometimes you get an uneven number. So: "10 divided by 4" gives you 2 with a remainder of 2, so: "2 remainder 2". Sometimes it'll be "2R2", you might see it like that. Okay? So these are the basic functions you have to look at. Now we're going to get into a little bit more complicated math things. We're going to look at fractions, exponents, we're going to look at some geometry issues, things like that.
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Real English for staying at a HOTEL Real English for staying at a HOTEL
2 years ago En
Want to stay at a hotel in an English-speaking country? Even if it's another country, you may have to speak English at a hotel, because it's the international language of travel. In this video, I'll teach you everything you need to know. You'll learn about the services that hotels here offer, and how to make the most of your stay. I'll teach you sentences you can use to ask for anything you want at a hotel. I'll also teach you the titles of the people that you'll be speaking with. Find out what free services your hotel offers, so you can get value for your money, and also know which services you have to pay for, so you don't spend more than you want to. Learn all the vocabulary and expressions you need here, so you don't need to worry about your English next time you're on vacation or a business trip. All in all, I designed this video to make sure your next stay in a hotel will be an enjoyable one. TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/english-for-staying-at-a-hotel/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video I'm going to walk you through your stay at a hotel in an English-speaking country. You need to know some vocabulary, you need to know some of the staff you're going to be dealing with, some of the services and amenities, and all of that stuff. So it's a lot of vocabulary, but a lot of things that you probably need to know before you get to the hotel. So, the first thing we're going to look at is the staff. Who works at a hotel? So, first of all, in some of the more fancy hotels, the more up... High-scale hotels, you're going to have a "doorman". He or she, mostly he, will open and close the door for you, that's why: doorman. Very... Now, I know you're not supposed to say "man", you're supposed to say "doorperson", but in hotels I don't think anybody really cares; we still say "doorman" because mostly it's a man working there. Now, if you drove there, there might be a "valet". A "valet" is a person who will take your car and park it for you. You give him or her the keys, they drive away, park your car. When you're ready to leave, they bring your car to the front of the hotel, you get in, drive off. There's also the "housekeeping" or the "maid". You can call it either one. "Housekeeping" is the same thing as "maid". These days "housekeeping" is a little bit more common than "maid", but they clean your room, bring you fresh towels, etc. The "porter". The porter will probably be standing outside in front of the hotel. When you pull up in your taxi or your car, he will come, take your bags inside to the front desk. And this person is also like a little bit of a man Friday we call it. He will run around and get things done for you if you need. If you need tickets, he'll go pick them up. If you need some chores run, he'll take your coat to the laundry, all these things. So basically he's a person who runs around doing tasks for the guests. Okay? A "bellhop" will take your luggage from the reception to your room. So you don't have to carry your own bags; that's what the bellhop does. Takes your bags, when you're ready to leave he will come to your room, take your bags downstairs for you. The "concierge". So, the concierge is the person who works in a hotel, and this is the person you go to if you need to arrange outings outside the hotel. If you want a restaurant reservation, if you want tickets to the theatre, sports games, anything you want to do outside the hotel, this person will probably help you organize these things, like tours, he or she or the area will have brochures and information about all the sites in the area, all the tourist attractions, etc. So, "concierge". The "g" sounds like the "s" in "measure". Okay? It's a bit of a French sound. Basically it's customer service. And again, in high-scale hotels, they do a bit more services for you, but most hotels have a concierge. Now, when you walk into the hotel you will go to the "front desk" or you will go to the "reception" or you will go to the "check-in desk", all the same thing. All of them are located in the lobby of the hotel. So the entrance, the main area of the front of the hotel, you just go to the front desk, you check in. You go to the check-in desk, you go to the reception, all the same thing. Now, if you're in your room and you don't want the maid to come and clean up, don't forget to put that "Do Not Disturb" tag on your door. Okay? We call this a tag. It's a piece of paper, you put it outside your door, housekeeping will not disturb you. They will not knock on your door. Now, basically hotel has "rooms" and "suites". What is the difference? Name only. Most hotels like to call their rooms suites, but if you want to get a little bit more technical, a suite should be bigger. Many suites have a kitchenette. A kitchenette is like a half kitchen. It's not a full-size kitchen, it's not fully equipped. Probably no big stove or dishwasher, things like that, but enough that you can make small meals, snacks, etc.
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Bored or Boring? Learn about -ED and -ING adjectives in English Bored or Boring? Learn about -ED and -ING adjectives in English
2 years ago En Ru
Does grammar make you feel "bored" or "boring"? In this video we'll study the difference between "-ed" and "-ing" adjectives and how to use them correctly. I hope I can get you excited about grammar, because it can be interesting when you understand it! This is a great lesson for beginners to learn. But advanced English learners should also make sure they don't make this common mistake! TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/ed-ing-adjectives-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video I want to talk to you about a particular type of adjective that many people often confuse, especially beginners, but this is also good for intermediate, even advanced students. We're talking about the "ed" and the "ing" adjectives. Okay? So, for example: "bored" and "boring", "interested" and "interesting". Now, the reason it's important to know the difference between these is because what you say about yourself sometimes, how you describe things can be very confusing to a native speaker especially, but to other people as well if you mix these two up. Now, what does it mean to be bored and what does it mean to be boring? When we talk about "bored", we're describing a feeling. Okay? When we talk about "interested", we're describing a feeling. So all of the "ed" adjectives are actually feelings, and you can only use them to talk about people and sometimes animals. Why? Because things, like chairs, or tables, or whatever, they don't have feelings. A movie, a book doesn't have feelings. TV shows, for example, movies, books, whatever, they cause a feeling in a person. So the "ing" adjectives cause the feeling. The "ed" adjectives are the feeling. Okay? So very important. Only people and animals for the "ed", and for the "ing" you can use people, animals, things, situations, places, ideas, basically any noun because you're describing them. You're describing how they make people feel. So now you're wondering: "Well, I have people here and I have people here, so how can I use 'boring' for people and for... And 'bored' for people?" Sorry. So what we have here, again, feeling and cause of feeling. So if you say: "I'm bored" means that I'm not having fun, I want to go do something else. If I say: "I am boring" means you're not having fun and want to go do something else. So if I am boring means that you are bored. If the movie is boring, then I am bored. Okay? So one thing-the "ing"-causes the feeling-"ed"-in the person. Very important to understand that. So: "I am bored by the movie which is boring. I am interested in this lesson because this lesson is very interesting." Right? "I'm excited, something is exciting." So, for example, I'm excited to go see the concert because this artist is very exciting, this singer or whatever. "I am worried", now people don't realize that "worried" can have "worrying" as another adjective. "The situation is worrying" means the situation is making me feel worried. Okay? Maybe the whole global political situation, whatever. Now, hopefully none of you are confused by this lesson because I'm trying to make it not confusing. Okay? Everybody okay with that? So very important to understand all these nouns can use "ing" because they're creating the feeling, all these adjectives can only be used for people, again, sometimes animals. A dog sees... Sees you coming home after a long day, gets very excited. Its, you know, tail wagging in the back. Dogs don't usually get bored, they just go to sleep. So, animals sometimes. Now, I just want to point out one other thing: Don't confuse feeling adjectives with "ed" with actual feelings. Okay? If somebody is loved, does he feel loved? Maybe yes, maybe no. We're not talking about that person's feelings. "Hated", "envied", these are all feeling words, but these are all verbs. Okay? "He is loved" means somebody loves him or her. "She is loved.", "This person is hated." But we can also use these about things. Okay? "The company is hated." So some companies they do not such nice things or maybe they go to a poor country and use very cheap labour, so this company is hated. So people hate this company. So keep in mind that these are feeling words, but used as verbs; whereas these are other verbs used as adjectives. Okay? Very important to distinguish between these words. I hope this was clear enough. One more thing to say, there's a very long list of these kinds of adjectives, you can just Google them if you need to or you can even ask me in the forum at www.engvid.com. There's a place you can ask questions, feel free to ask me about other examples of these. But there's also a quiz at www.engvid.com where I'll give you more examples of these kinds of adjectives, and you can practice using them in sentences. Make sure you understand the context: "Is somebody feeling this? Is something causing this?" etc. Also, give me a like if you like this video, and don't forget to subscribe to my channel.
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This simple word can make you sound more like a native speaker of English! This simple word can make you sound more like a native speaker of English!
2 years ago En
You may have noticed that native English speakers shorten words when they talk quickly. I know that "somuvyu" (some of  you) have a hard time hearing and bridging the preposition "of" when listening or speaking in English. After watching this lesson, "oloyu" (all of you) will have a much easier time understanding this dropped sound. This video will also help you improve your pronunciation and sound more like a native English speaker! https://www.engvid.com/how-to-say-the-word-of-like-a-native-english-speaker/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and in today's video I'm going to help you sound a little bit more like a native English speaker and also to be able to understand native English speakers when they speak. What I'm talking about more specifically is how to pronounce the preposition "of". Now, I said: "off", although we almost never say "off". The "f" hardly ever sounds like "f". It sounds like a "v" when it's pronounced, but even more often we just drop it altogether and just have an "a" sound or even just like a small apostrophe sound, like almost no sound at all between the "of" and the word that comes after it. Okay? So most of the time it sounds like: "a" or "ov" with a "v" sound, not an "f" sound. Now, they're very similar in the mouth where the lips and the tongue are, but we'll practice that. So, what really depends on how to use it is what follows the "f", what the next word starts with. Right? If it's followed by a hard consonant, like a "t", or a "p", or a "d", or a "k" or whatever, then we generally don't drop too much, but we leave the "of" or we have the "a". So: "A lot of people" we say in native speed: "a lot 'people", "a lot 'people". So you can either hear the "a" sound: "a lot a" or "a lot 'people", like you drop into the "p", "'people", "a lot 'people". Okay? Sometimes we can also just add the "v", so you can pronounce the "a" very hard... Or, sorry, with "time", "a lotatime", "a lot 'time" could be, again, the apostrophe, almost no sound or the "a" sound, 'or we could just use the "of": "a lot ov time", "a lot of time". Okay? Notice, also, that the last consonant goes into the vowel. "A lotatime", "a lotatime", "tatime". "A lot ov", "a lot ov time", "a lotovtime". Okay? So this is with the hard consonants. Now, when it's followed by a "th", so when we... For example, when we have "them", most native speakers will just drop the "th" altogether and just say "em". Okay? So: "so ma them", "so ma 'em". So: "so ma them", "so ma vem" because the... We drop the "th" and we take the "v" of the "of". "Some of them", "so ma vem", "so ma vem", "so ma vem", "some of them". If you want to keep the "th", drop the "v". If you want to use the "v", drop the "th". But generally we don't have them together. "So ma them", "so ma vem". Okay? But when you have a word like "these", in "these" we don't generally drop the "th". This is common with "them", not common with other words. So, "so ma these" or "so mov these". You have the "v" or you have the "a", but you keep the "th" in "these". With "them" you can drop the "th"; with "these" you keep the "th". "Some of these", "so ma these". Okay? Now: "one of the best", so here, again, we have the "th". "One ov the best", notice if say "of" with a "v" not an "f". We never pronounce the "f" or hardly ever pronounce the "f". Okay. "One of the best", "wa na the best", drop the "f", drop the "v" and keep the "a". "Wa na", "one of", "wa na the best", and keep "the best". Or if you want to use the "v", you keep the "wa", "nov", make it like blend into the next word. The "n" goes into the "o", an ellipses it's called. "Wa nov the best". So you have the option "v" or "a". Now, this is especially important when you're listening to native English speakers speak at regular speed. Native speakers don't even think about the "f", it's automatically dropped. Sometimes they'll use the "v", sometimes they'll just use the "a". Be prepared to listen to both. Okay? Let's look at a few more examples. Okay, so now we're going to look at some other situations. For example, when "of" is followed by an "h". Now, again, for native speakers the "h" is a very weak sound so we... Quite often we just drop it. We just blend it into whatever came before and after. Right? So: "Some of whom", now, if I'm speaking slowly and I'm trying to enunciate every word, I would say: "Some of whom decided that..." But in normal speed, fast English: "so ma voom", "so ma voom". Right? The "a"... The "v" from the "of", there's the "o", there's the "v": "so ma voom", it blends together, and the "h" is there but it's very soft and very weak so you don't really even hear it. "So ma voom", "so ma voom". Like, it's a little bit of an extra step but it's not really there. You can almost drop it. "A lot of help", "a law to vhelp". Now, here you notice I didn't take it out because it's still there a little bit more.
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Improve your Vocabulary: Foreign Words in English Improve your Vocabulary: Foreign Words in English
2 years ago En Ru
Are you an English guru? Well, then you must speak many languages because English uses words from all over the world. In this lesson, you'll be hit by a tsunami of new words like "kaput", "faux pas", and "prima donna". Though they may have started out in another language, these words have now become an accepted part of English vocabulary. English is always evolving, lending, and borrowing terms from other languages. Watch to learn more about this, and don't forget to do the quiz at the end at https://www.engvid.com/foreign-words-in-english/ ! I'm really gung ho about this one! TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to learn non-English words. You're thinking surprised because this is an English video lesson, it's supposed to be about English, but in English we tend to borrow a lot of words from other languages. We keep them as they are, we even keep their meanings more or less, but we like to apply them to many areas. So there's a lot of words. These are just a... This is just a sample of the foreign words that we use regularly in English. Some of them have been changed to apply to other things besides the original meaning of the word. So... Excuse me. First, let's start with the actual words: "tsunami", this is Japanese. "Gung ho" is Chinese. "Pro bono", Latin. "Quid pro quo", also Latin. "Prima donna", Italian. "Je ne sais qua", French. "D�j� vu", French. "Faux pas", French. "Du jour", French. "Kaput", German. And "guru" is actually Sanskrit. Okay. So, first I'm going to explain to you what the words mean, where they came from, and what they mean originally, and then how we use them in English. So we'll start with "tsunami". "Tsunami" basically means harbour wave. So, in Japan after an earthquake, sometimes... They have a lot of earthquakes, but sometimes they get a tsunami. It's basically a big wave. So the ocean after the earthquake sends a big wave and it covers the land. There was a big one a few years ago, a lot of damage. But we use this, again, to mean the same thing. Whenever there's a tsunami, whenever there's a big wave after an earthquake, but we also use it to talk about anything that's large and sudden. So, for example, the whole world is facing a refuge situation now. A lot of people from... Moving from all parts of the world to other parts of the world, and the countries that are receiving these refuges, they are facing a tsunami of refuges. So it's like a big wave of people. Okay? So whenever you have a big, sudden, wave or whatever, a big, sudden situation or a big, sudden change coming at you, you can call... You can refer to it like a tsunami. Okay? "Gung ho". So, "gung ho" basically means very enthusiastic. In Chinese it means basically part of a team or teamwork, but in... The way we use it in English, if we say: "That person is really gung ho", it means he's really enthusiastic, really eager, really wants to work hard. So, if I work at a company and a new employee comes in... And I've been at this company a long time, you know, I'm settled, everything, I do my work, I go home. But this guy comes in and he's so gung ho that everybody's a little bit worried because he's making us look bad. He's too gung ho. He's too energetic, too enthusiastic. It's a... So it's a very good word for that. Anytime you're ready to do something, you can do it gung ho or you can do it casual. "Pro bono", basically this means free. So I'm going to actually write this because these are a little bit long to write. Free. If... So, you see a lot of doctors. A lot of doctors or lawyers when they start their business or when they're very successful and they can afford it, they do a lot of pro bono work. Means they'll go provide legal advice to somebody who can't afford it, or they'll do medical assistance to people who can't afford it. For example, they'll go around the world to poor countries and they'll help children especially with medical situations, etc. So anything... Anytime somebody does something for free, like but professional, like work and they do it for free, it's pro bono work. "Quid pro quo", something for something. We also have an idiom: "If you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours." Okay? It means: You do something for me, I'll do something for you. But when we exchange favours... For example, if I do something, some professional work for you because I'm a lawyer, I will give you some legal advice; you're a designer, you will design my website. I don't pay you money, I pay you with legal service; you pay me with your design work. Quid pro quo. I do something for you, you do something for me. And this is also a very common expression. Okay, so now we're going to move to the Italian: "prima donna". Now, "prima" means first, "donna" means lady, so it's the first lady.
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Advanced English Grammar: Participles Advanced English Grammar: Participles
2 years ago En
Using participles correctly will dramatically improve the quality of your English writing. If you're learning English for university, IELTS, TOEFL, or for your career, this advanced writing lesson is for you! You will learn to analyze sentences so that you can understand them fully and write your own. Often, English learners are unsure of whether an "-ing" word is an adjective or an adverb. In this lesson, you'll learn how the participle "having" includes the subject, verb, and conjunction. I'll show you many example sentences, and you can practice what you've learned on our quiz at https://www.engvid.com/advanced-english-grammar-participles/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at participles. Now, this is a little bit more advanced grammar, but it's very useful and it's used in everyday speaking, but especially for writing and reading because you're going to see participles everywhere. What participles do is they help you get sentence variety, they help you make your sentences shorter, if necessary, they give you a little bit of style. Okay? There are two participles that we need to look at, they are called the active or passive participle. Sometimes you'll see them as present or past participle. Past participles, you're familiar with. Sometimes they're called the verb three, so: "eat", past tense "ate", past participle is "eaten". Right? So that's the participle. Now, especially with the "ing" you have to be careful because "ing" words, although they are verbs with "ing", they can be pretty much anything. They could be a gerund, as you know, so they're nouns; they could be part of the continuous verb, so "be going", so: "I am going", it's a continuous action; but "ing" words can also be adjectives and adverbs. When they are adjectives and adverbs they are actually participles. So it's very important to recognize them and know how to use them. So what I want to do first is I want to look at the adjective participles. Now, what you have to remember about adjective participles, they are... They are reduced adjective clauses. You know an adjective clause, it's meant to modify a noun. It identifies it or gives extra information about a noun. A participle, an adjective participle is that adjective clause minus the subject and the verb. Okay? But we're going to look at that in a second. So let's look at this sentence first. Oh, sorry, let me... I made a little mistake here. "Dressed in his class-A uniform, the marine looked like a recruitment poster." So this is the passive or the past participle ending in "ed", it's a regular verb, so: "dressed". "Dressed in his class-A uniform". Now, if I rearrange the sentence, really, it says: "The marine, who was dressed in his class-A uniform, looked like a recruitment poster." Okay? Like a poster that wants people to join the marines, etc. But I can take that adjective clause, I get rid of the "who was" or "who is", depending on the tense. Get rid of that, and I'm left with a participle phrase. Now, I can take that participle phrase and move it to the beginning of the sentence, just like I have here. The key when you're using participles at the beginning... A participle phrase at the beginning of a sentence, you must make sure that the subject, which is not there but it is understood: who was, who is the marine, so the marine who was dressed in his class-A, and then the subject of the independent clause must be the same subject. Okay? We're going to look at a couple more examples. "Standing near the window, Marie could see the entire village." Look at the other example: "Standing near the window, the entire village was in view." Now, many people will look at both sentences and think: "Yeah, okay, I understand them. They're both correct." This sentence is incorrect. Why? Because the subject here is "the village". Can the village stand near the window? No, it can't. So: "Standing near the window" means Marie. "Marie, who was standing near the window, could see the entire village." This subject cannot do this action, so you have to make sure that the implied or the understood subject in the participle is the exact same as the subject of the independent clause that follows it. Okay? That's very, very important. So now what we're going to do, I'm going to look at a few more examples and I want to show you that you can start the sentence with a participle phrase, but you can also leave it in the middle of the sentence. Okay? Let's look at that. Okay, let's look at these examples now and you'll see the different positions the participles can take. And again, we're talking about participle phrases for the most part. "The jazz musician, known for his tendency to daydream, got into a zone and played for an hour straight." Okay? So what we're doing here, we're giving you a little bit more information about the musician. We're not identifying him. We're giving you extra information, which is why we have the commas.
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10 "STEP" Phrasal Verbs in English: step up, step down, step in... 10 "STEP" Phrasal Verbs in English: step up, step down, step in...
2 years ago En
Learn these 10 phrasal verbs that are used in school, at work, and in everyday life. You'll learn expressions using the word "step" to talk about taking responsibility, doing things faster, taking a break, becoming a leader, leaving a job, and more. Step up to the plate and learn phrasal verbs -- they will make your English conversations much more interesting. You'll also be able to understand more of what native speakers say in person and in movies. After the lesson, take a step back, review what you have learned, and test yourself on the quiz at https://www.engvid.com/10-step-phrasal-verbs-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at phrasal verbs using the verb "step". Now, first of all, what you need to understand, again, phrasal verbs are verbs plus prepositions that have different meanings. And the verb "step" is a bit tricky because we use "step" as a noun as well, and we often combine it with prepositions, and the preposition and noun combination can be completely different from the verb and preposition combination. So we're going to look... Have to look at both of these when we look at these combinations with prepositions. So we're going to look at: "step down", "step up", "step in", "step inside", "step around", "step out", "step on", "step back", "step aside", "step forward". Let's start with "down". So, "step down". So, before I start with any of them, what is "step"? So a step is when you take your one foot forward. Right? You're taking one step. Or if you're climbing the stairs, you take one, two, three steps, four steps, five steps. It's one foot in front of the other. That's the basic meaning of "step". "Step down". So, of course, I can step down off the table if I'm standing on a table or whatever. There's always the literal meaning, but "step down" can also mean resign. Okay? Resign means quit. So, for example, if I'm the president of the company and I think that the company is not doing very well and everybody's very angry because the company's not doing well, they want to get somebody new as the president in my position. Finally I say: "Okay, you know what? I will step down and let the new guy come in." Now, we're going to see that again in "step aside", but "step down" basically means resign, give up the position. Now, if we're looking at the verb: "a step down". If we're looking at this as a... Sorry. As a noun, not a verb, "a step down" means a lower position, or a lower value, or a lower rank. Okay? So right now I live in a five-bedroom house, it's a very big house, very, very expensive, but my financial situation is not so good, so I had to sell that house and buy a two-bedroom condominium. Now, for many people a two-bedroom condominium is very nice, but for somebody who has had a five-bedroom house, a condominium is a step down in position, in stature, etc. Right? So a step down means a lower level or a lower rank. "To step down", "to resign", okay. Now, "step up" same idea. If we're looking at the noun, "a step up" is the opposite, it's an increase in position. So I went from my two-bedroom condominium to a three-bedroom house. That's a big step up in terms of social situations, social rank, depending on who you ask of course. But "to step up", okay? As a verb. "To step up" means to face the challenge. Of course, it literal means to step up. Okay? But to step up to the challenge means somebody has to come forward, show the courage, and do what is needed to overcome an obstacle or to overcome a challenge. So think about sports. Okay? You have your favourite team and they're in the playoffs and they're losing, so you... All the people say: "Well, the star players, the best players need to step up." They need to, like, show up, be courageous, face the challenge and do what is necessary to win. Okay? So, "to step up". Now, another expression we have... This is a very common expression: "Step up to the plate". Now, "the plate" comes from baseball. Okay? You... The batter comes in, there's the home plate and there's the pitcher, you step up to the plate and you're ready to hit the ball. Right? So if we say somebody needs to step up to the plate that means somebody needs to face the challenge, face the difficult situation and take care of it basically. Okay, "step up". Okay. "Step in", now, again, I can step in a room. Just one step. I'm not moving all the way in. I'm just taking one step, that's the literal meaning. To... The other meaning is to get involved. Okay? So I see my brother and sister, they're both fighting and they're not stopping, and I say: "Stop, stop", and nobody's stopping so finally I have to step in, I have to get involved, I have to separate them. So, if somebody needs to step in they need to get involved, or they need to interfere, or they need to stop something from happening. They need to be part of the situation.
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Learn Real English: Let's go on a road trip! Learn Real English: Let's go on a road trip!
2 years ago En
Want to drive in an English speaking country? In today's lesson we're going on a road trip! I'll teach you vocabulary and expressions you should know if you're a driver or if you are interested in driving. In North America and Europe there is an entire culture of driving and road trips. I'll talk about these special driving vacations, who goes on them, and what kinds of vehicles you'll see on the road. I've gone on many road trips, so I'll recommend the tools and supplies you should have with you. I'll also share my advice and warnings so you can save money and have a safe and enjoyable trip. Ready? Let's hit the road! https://www.engvid.com/learn-real-english-road-trip/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today we're going to talk about taking a road trip. Okay? Because this is a very popular activity in Canada and in the US, and I'm thinking in Europe as well, and probably Australia. Big countries where people like to drive, they like to go on road trips, means it's a long trip, you're driving everywhere, staying at hotels, maybe camping out in the woods, all these things. But a lot of things you need to do to prepare and a lot of things you need to know about what to expect on a road trip. Okay? So, first, you're going to have to have some tools with you, you're going to have to have some gear we also call it. You're going to make sure you're prepared for anything. Okay? Always have a tire gauge. A tire gauge basically measures the air pressure in your tires. You're measuring PSI, pounds per square inch. You want to make sure your tires are full, you want to make sure that you're getting the best mileage out of your car. And you also don't forget your spare tire, the one in the trunk, or underneath, or wherever your spare tire is. Make sure that it is also full, because you don't want to be in the middle of nowhere, have a flat tire, and then you go try to put on your spare and it's also flat. What do you do then, right? Then you have to hike to get a tow truck from somewhere. Just in case, though, take a pump, like a pump to fill air. If you can take a manual pump, you can take an electric pump. Be prepared for flat tires - they do happen. Also make sure you have a survival kit. If you do get stuck in the middle of nowhere and nobody's going to be coming for a long time, and the next town is far away and you can't really walk to it, you want to be able to survive out wherever you are until a car does pass by. What you want to have, you want to have some flares. A "flare" means it's something you light and it makes this big, big light. You put it on the road, people can see you from miles away. If somebody sees it, they will come help you. In the middle of the night if somebody is driving and your car is on the road, it's dead, no lights on, they won't see you until they hit you. This will make sure that they see you. You can also just have reflectors. So when a light from another car hits this thing, it becomes very bright, very easy to see. You should also have some edibles. Basically something to eat that won't go bad. Nothing that's fresh, only dry, like nuts, or vacuum-packed things so you always have food with you. Make sure you have a blanket, make sure you have a flashlight, make sure you have some water. If you're stranded, basically... "Stranded" means... One second. "Stranded" means left somewhere alone without any help coming anytime soon, so be ready for that. Also make sure you have a first aid kit. If you want to know what's in a first aid kit and how to use it, watch my other video about first aid. I talk about what should be in a kit, what you need to know for first aid. Probably a good idea to have a GPS, global positioning satellite. Okay? So you always know where you are, where you need to be. This will also make sure you don't get lost. And if you are lost, how to find your way back to civilization so you're not in the middle of the woods forever. Okay? So, make sure you have all these things before you hit the road. "Hit the road" basically means go drive, go for a drive, go on a road trip. So we say: "Okay, everybody's ready. Okay, let's hit the road. Let's go." So, on the road, what are you going to need to know on the road? First you need to know what HOV lanes - high-occupancy vehicles. So some... In some places that are very busy, usually in cities, the highways have one lane that is saved only for people with... Only for cars with two or more people in them. If you're by yourself and you're driving in this lane and a policeman catches... Or a police officer-sorry-catches you, that's a big ticket. Stay out of these lanes unless you have two or more people. In some places it will be three or more people. Okay? High-occupancy vehicles.
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Improve Your Grammar: 4 ways to use -ING words in English Improve Your Grammar: 4 ways to use -ING words in English
2 years ago En
Words that end in "ing" can be verbs, nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Understanding the function of a word will help you decide whether it should end in -ing or not. In this lesson, I will teach you about the different uses of -ing words, and about their functions within sentences. By the end of the video, you will have a much better understanding of -ing words and will be able to form proper sentences with them. After watching, try my quiz at http://www.engvid.com/4-ways-to-use-ing-words-in-english/ to make sure you've understood everything. TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at some grammar points that is very, very important, mostly because it's very confusing to a lot of people. We're going to look at the four different uses of "ing" words. Now, I don't want to say "ing" verb because that makes it a little confusing as well because the "ing"... Words that end in "ing" could be used as nouns, as verbs, as adjectives, and as adverbs. Okay? So we're going to look at how they are used in each way. So first we are going to look at them as they are used as nouns. Now, technically, in whatever situation you're seeing an "ing" word, it's always a verb. But it could be used as a noun, in which case it is called a gerund. Now, this is a grammar word. You're never going to use this word outside of your grammar class, but in case I refer to it again: A "gerund" is an "ing" word being used as a noun. So if we're looking at this sentence: "Wearing loose pants while riding a bicycle is dangerous." So here is your gerund. So the subject of this sentence is "wearing". The verb is "is". Okay? "Wearing is dangerous", "Wearing loose pants is dangerous", and then everything else I'll talk about in a second. Now, a gerund "ing" is basically the activity of the verb. So, "to wear" means, like, to have clothes on. Wearing a blue shirt makes me look taller, maybe. Or shorter. Because I'm on camera you can't tell. Right? Okay. "Wearing" is the activity. Smoking is the activity, running is the activity. "To run" is the idea of the action. Okay. Now, here, this word is actually not a gerund and it's not really a verb either. It's... It has the verb idea, but it is actually a participle, which we're going to talk about in a minute. Okay? So this is a participle, this is a gerund, just the activity itself. Now... So we're going to call it a noun for now. Then we have the verb, the everyday verb in the continuous tense; past, present, future continuous. Always with a "be" verb. Okay? If you don't see an "ing" verb connected to a "be" verb then it's not a verb, it's one of the other uses. Okay? There's always going to be a "be" verb when you're using it as an actual verb, as an action. "The man is riding a bike." Right now this is what he is doing, he is riding a bicycle. Oh, sorry. I'm running still. I forgot it... The verb. Okay. So "be" verb, continuous verb, easy. That's the one everybody's the most comfortable with. Now, we can also use it as an adjective. "Wearing a blue, backless dress, the actress created quite a stir at the party." Now, "wearing" is your participle, your active participle. We also have past participle which is in... Used in the passive form, but we're going to talk about that in a different lesson. "Wearing" here, I'm describing the actress. Okay? So if I want to open it up, if I want to write it in a different way, the actress who was wearing... Because I'm in the past, so I have "was". "The actress who was wearing a blue, backless dress created quite a stir." So the participle is just a reduced adjective clause. Okay? What I do is I take out the conjunction, the pronoun and subject, I take out the "be" verb, all I am left with is the participle. Now, because I'm... I have only the participle phrase, it's no... It's not a clause anymore, there's no subject and verb anymore, there's just a phrase - I can put it at the beginning of the sentence as long as the subject of the participle is the same as the subject of the independent clause. Okay? Now, if you're not sure what I'm talking about, you can watch the video about adjective clauses, you can watch the video about independent clauses, you'll get a better idea of what these are. Okay? So, adjective. Now, where it gets confusing is I can do the exact same thing, but I can use it as an adverb. Okay? "Not wanting to miss our flight, we arrived at the airport 3 hrs early." This is three hours, sorry, I had to reduce a little bit. So, here. Now, you've probably heard never to use the word "want" with an "ing". That is true in this case. Never use "want", "wanting" as a verb, but you can use it as a participle.
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Learn English Grammar: The Adverb Clause Learn English Grammar: The Adverb Clause
2 years ago En
Do you get confused when you see long sentences with lots of commas and sections? You need to learn about clauses! Once you understand and can recognize the different types of clauses in an English sentence, everything will make sense. What is the difference between noun clauses, adjective clauses, and adverb clauses? Adverb clauses show relationships, like reason, contrast, condition, time, purpose, and comparison. In this lesson, we will look at these relationship types that make adverb clauses so important in English. I will also teach you when to use commas with adverb clauses. This will help you understand very long sentences made up of several clauses. Remember that as long as you can break down all the components of a sentence and understand the relationships between them, you can understand any sentence in English! Watch Adam's series on clauses: Dependent Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BsBbZqwU-c Noun Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SrEEPt4MQA Adjective Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpV39YEmh5k Take the quiz: https://www.engvid.com/learn-english-grammar-the-adverb-clause/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at the adverb clause. Okay? Now, this is one of the dependent clauses that we're going to look at. I also have a lesson about noun clauses and adjective clauses. I have a lesson about the independent clause, which is different from all of these. Today we're looking at the adverb clause, which depends on the grammar book you're using. Again, they like to use different words. Some people call this the subordinate clause. "Subordinate" meaning under. Right? "Sub" means under, it's under the independent clause, means it's... The independent clause is the more important one, the subordinate clause is the second. Now, the thing to remember about adverb clauses: What makes them different from noun clauses or adjective clauses is that they don't modify words. Okay? A noun clause modifies or acts as a specific function to something in the independent clause. It could be the subject, it could be the object of the verb, for example. Or it could be a complement. But it's always working with some other word in the independent clause. The adjective clause-excuse me-always modifies or identifies a noun in the sentence, in the clause, etc. The adverb clause shows a relationship, and that's very, very important to remember because the subordinate conjunctions, the words that join the clause to the independent clause has a very specific function. The two clauses, the independent clause and the subordinate clause have a very distinct relationship. Okay? So here are some of those relationships: Reason, contrast, condition, time, purpose, and comparison. Okay? There are others, but we're going to focus on these because these are the more common ones. And there are many conjunctions, but I'm only going to give you a few here just so you have an idea how the adverb clause works. Okay? So, for example, when we're looking at reason... Okay? Before I give you actual sentence examples, I'm going to talk to you about the conjunctions. These are called the subordinate conjunctions. They very clearly show the relationship between the clauses, so you have to remember that. So: "because", okay? "Because" means reason. So, I did something because I had to do it. Okay? So: "I did something"-independent clause-"because"-why?-"I had to do it". I had no choice. That's the relationship between the two. "Since" can also mean "because". "Since", of course, can also mean since the beginning of something, since a time, but it can also mean "because" when we're using it as an adverb clause conjunction. Contrast. "Contrast" means to show that there's a difference. Now, it could be yes/no, positive/negative, but it doesn't have to be. It could be one idea and then a contrasting idea. One expectation, and one completely different result. Okay? You have to be very careful not to look for a positive or a negative verb, or a positive or negative anything else, but we're going to look at examples for that. The more common conjunctions for that is: "although" or "though"-both are okay, mean the same thing-or "whereas". Okay? "Although I am very rich, I can't afford to buy a Lamborghini." Okay? So, "rich" means lots of money. "Can't afford" means not enough money. Contrasting ideas. They're a little bit opposite from what one expects. Contrast, reason. Condition. "Condition" means one thing must be true for something else to be true. So, for the part of the independent clause to be true-the situation, the action, the event, whatever-then the condition must first be true. "If I were a... If I were a rich man, I would buy a Lamborghini." But I'm... Even though I am a rich man... Although I am a rich man, I can't afford one. So we use "if", "as long as". Again, there are others.
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Prepositions in English: ABOVE, OVER, ON, ON TOP Prepositions in English: ABOVE, OVER, ON, ON TOP
2 years ago En
An important basic English lesson! There are many ways to talk about the position or location of a person or thing. In this essential video, we will look at the uses of the prepositions "above", "over", "on", and "on top of". Though they all indicate a position or location that is higher than another, they have specific differences. Watch the video to find out when each word is used and why. Then, test your knowledge by doing the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/prepositions-in-english-above-over-on-on-top/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. I'm Adam. Welcome to www.engvid.com. In today's video we're going to look at the difference between the prepositions: "over", "above", "on", and "on top of". Now, in many cases you will find or you will hear native English speakers mixing these up. They're... In some cases they're interchangeable. If you use "over" or "above" or "on", everybody will understand you, the idea will be clear, the image of the situation will be clear, but there are certain situations where you must use one or the other. So, we're going to look at all of these and I'm going to give you the specifics, and then I'm going to give you some more sample sentences to see where they can be interchangeable and where they can't. Okay? So: "over", when do we use "over"? So, first of all, all of these prepositions talk about a higher position. When we use "over" we're generally speaking about the movement of something higher. Right? So: "The clouds moved over the city." What does this mean? It doesn't mean that the clouds came and then just stayed there. No. "Over" means they came and they passed, and they kept going. Right? So we always have that idea of movement when we're talking about "over". The sheep jumped over the fence. They didn't jump above the fence, because then they would just be stuck there. There's the fence, there's above, the sheep is in the middle of the air. Sounds a little bit strange. So they jumped over the fence, with movement. We use "over" with numbers. Basically, it means more than, but we use it specifically with numbers. I think you got my message there. I'm going to have dirty fingers later, but that's okay. There's soap. More than. "Over 100 people came to the party." Means more than 100 people came to the party. So, sometimes you'll see something like this: "100+" it just basically means "over", or: "100+ people came". We use this with numbers. "Cover". "To cover something" means to put something on top of, but it doesn't necessarily have to be one on top of the other. It just means to cover, to put some sort of protection on something. So: "Put a hand over your mouth when you cough." [Coughs] That's my pen thing. Okay. Prefix. We also use "over" as a prefix with nouns, adjectives, or verbs sometimes to, again, it's... The idea is more than, but it's also in terms of the verb it means extra, beyond what is normal or beyond what is necessary. So, if someone is "overweight" means they have too much weight. Okay? Obese. Not necessarily obese. Obese is even more overweight than overweight, but again, not thin. To "overestimate", so you have to guess a certain level of something. So I think there will be 100 people at my party, but I overestimated. What does that mean? It means that only 75 people came, so I guessed too far. I reached too far with my guess. "Override" basically means take control of. So if I... If a system, whatever system we're looking at is controlled by a computer, I can override the computer, I can basically put my power over the computer's power-higher than, stronger than-and I can take control of the system. "Overzealous", too much zealous. So, another way to think of it is "too". "Zealous" means like eager, really wanting to do, really have a very focused motivation for something. If you're overzealous, you have too much of this thing, above the normal level. So, now, speaking of the normal level: "above". Two... Two ways to use this. One is, of course, in terms of like physical relationship. Something is higher in relation to something else. But generally it is on the same plane. Now, what does "plane" mean? In terms of space, something is on a same line I guess you could say. Right? If you have a wall, so something is above something on the wall. So, "over" is listed above "above" because they're on a flat plane, on the flat whiteboard, one is higher than the other. Now, if we go back to the clouds: "The clouds lingered above the city."
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Learn First Aid Vocabulary in English – It could save your life! Learn First Aid Vocabulary in English – It could save your life!
2 years ago En
Watching this video could help you save a life, maybe even your own! In this video, I'll be teaching you first-aid vocabulary. Beyond that, I'll teach you what to do in case of a medical emergency. You'll learn who to call, what you can do while waiting for paramedics, and a little bit about treating injuries yourself. I'll also talk about First Aid kits and what your kit should should have in it. You'll learn vocabulary such as EMS, first responders, paramedic, stabilize, assess, defibrillator, CPR, and more. You'll learn to describe different medical emergencies and treatments, in case you or someone you know ever needs to be treated by a doctor or paramedic. Stay safe, and take care of yourself. But if an emergency arises, please be prepared. In addition to watching this lesson, I also recommend that you take a first aid course. Take the quiz on this lesson at http://www.engvid.com/medical-vocabulary-in-english-first-aid/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at: "First Aid". Basically, taking care of somebody during an emergency if some bad thing happened, like a car accident or you fell down while mountain climbing, or anything bad that happened where you got injured or wounded, you're going to be receiving first aid before they get you to the hospital where they're going to take care of you. So, first, as the name implies, first aid is the first thing they do when the emergency happened. Somebody will call 911. In some countries I'm pretty sure it's 119, but again, wherever you are make sure you know the emergency number for EMS, the emergency medical services. Basically these are the people that send the ambulance and come in the ambulance. They're also called first responders. They're the first people to respond to the call to come and make sure everything's okay or to try to make everything okay. The people who drive the ambulance are called paramedics. Okay? You will also find paramedics in fire trucks. Usually ambulances and fire trucks come together. The fire trucks have a lot more equipment on them. Now, the first thing they're going to want to do is figure out what's going on, so they're going to assess the situation. Right? They're going to look around, see what kind of injury's involved, what kind of action they need to take, for example. But sometimes they come, they see blood everywhere, right away they know they need to stabilize. "Stabilize" means make stable, means if somebody's bleeding, first stop the bleeding. If somebody is having a heart attack or somebody's in shock, stop that situation first before you do-excuse me-anything else. Now, one of the things they're also going to do is demobilize. "Demobilize" means make sure that the person who is injured doesn't move. Can't move, can't be moved. Okay? They will put him in a straight line, make sure that everything is secure so if he moves or she does even more damage, that's not a good thing. So, stabilize, demobilize, assess what's going on. And then what you're going to do is you're going to administer first aid. So we don't do first aid, we don't make first aid. We administer. It basically means, like, give, but we... This is the more common word. You can say give first aid and you attend to the person, means you take care of them, you figure out what they need, give them that. Okay? Now, in some cases they're going to have to defibrillate. They're going to use a defibrillator. This is a machine that sends an electric shock into the body. So if someone's having a heart attack, for example, and their heart just stops beating, they're going to take the two paddles, they're going to charge the machine with electricity, going to put them two paddles, and: "Whoom", send electricity into the body, get that heart pumping again. So this machine is called a defibrillator. The action is to defibrillate. Okay? Now, it is becoming more and more common to see these machines in all kinds of areas; on planes and trains they have them, in many public places they have a machine ready just in case somebody needs it. Hopefully not. Something else they might have to do is give CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. To resuscitate basically means to bring back to life. So CPR, if somebody stops breathing, if the lungs stop pumping air in and out of the body, then they're going to have to give CPR, administer CPR. Somebody will have... They can have a bag with a pump or somebody will just have to put their mouth on your mouth and blow air into your lungs. Fill the lungs, push it out, fill the lungs, push it out, make sure everything is okay until the lungs start basically working by themselves. So that's called CPR.
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Learn English Phrasal Verbs with BRING: bring on, bring about, bring forward... Learn English Phrasal Verbs with BRING: bring on, bring about, bring forward...
2 years ago En Ru
Understand and use English like a native speaker by learning these phrasal verbs. Today's phrasal verbs all have the word 'bring' in them: bring up, bring in, bring about , and many others. Hear examples of how these expressions are used in daily language, and practice them on my quiz. Don't let phrasal verbs bring you down; bring them on, and we'll bring them to light! http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-phrasal-verbs-with-bring-bring-on-bring-about-bring-forward/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at phrasal verbs using the verb: "bring". Once again, phrasal verbs: A verb and a preposition that together have a very different meaning than the words by themselves, sometimes more than one meaning, as we're going to see here. So we're going to look at: "bring up", "bring about", "bring around", "bring back", "bring down", "bring in", "bring on", "bring off", and "bring to". These are the ones we're going to look at today. And again, each of them has at least one meaning, sometimes... More often than not, more than one meaning. So: "bring up", a few meanings to this one. The most commonly used one is to bring up something means to raise, but not raise like physically, raise in terms of conversation. So if we're going to talk... We're going to have a conversation and I want to talk about something specific, I'm going to find an opportunity to bring it up in conversation. So I'm going to raise that topic, and we're going to talk about it, and it's going to be the focus of the conversation. So if you're going to a meeting with your boss and you're thinking: "Oh, it's time for my promotion", somehow you'll find a way to bring it up into the conversation and eventually talk about it. You can also bring up a child. So you can raise a child, that's the one... The verb most people use about children, you raise children, but you also bring them up. Now, it doesn't mean that you physically lift them. It means you educate them, you feed them, you teach them about life, you prepare them for the world they're going to live in. Okay? So you bring them up. Another thing sometimes people use "bring up" is to throw up, puke, vomit. So, today I had a really bad lunch. I hope I don't bring it up all over this video. But I won't. Don't worry, I'm okay. I had a nice lunch. So: "bring up" sometimes used as vomit. There's too many slang words for vomit. "Bring about", two meanings for this one. One is to cause to happen. Okay? So something... One situation exists, this situation will likely bring about this result. Okay? If we talk about military spending, so the government has decided to go to war in this part of the world, but all the major economists are warning that this war will bring about the destruction of our country economically. Okay? The war will bring about economic hardships to this country. We can't afford it. So: "bring about". Now, a little side note, not really anything to do with phrasals, but I know all of you think of the words: "effect" and "affect". A... "A" is the verb, "e" is the noun, but "effect" with an "e" is the same as "bring about", it means cause to happen. This is a verb. So "e" can be a verb and a noun, "a" can be a verb and a noun, but that's a whole other lesson. "Bring about", "effect", same meaning. Okay. "Bring around". Oh, sorry. Another "bring about". If you're ever on a ship and you need to turn that ship and bring it back to the port, then you have to bring it about. Basically means turn around. But we use this mostly with ships, bring about. Okay. "Bring around", a few meanings to this as well. "Bring around" basically means to revive someone. So somebody is passed out, they fainted or whatever happened, they're lying on the ground, they look like asleep. You're trying to bring them around, means recover consciousness. Okay? "Bring around" means also bring a friend over to meet other friends, like a casual visit. And the most common use: If you have a very set opinion about something and I have a very different opinion, I will do my best to bring you around to my opinion. So I want to persuade you, I want to make you change your mind and bring you around to view the situation from the way I view it, from my perspective. So I'm going to bring you around to my point of view. That's the most common use of "bring around". "Bring back", so, again, there's the literal bring back. So you bought something from a store, you took it home, like a shirt, you tried it on, you realize: "You know what? I don't like it." So you bring it back to the store. Now you can also say: "take it back", but technically you're taking it with you, so you're bringing it back to the store. Now, sometimes, people, especially celebrities, they try to bring back something that used to be very popular.
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English Pronunciation: How to say words ending in -OUGH & -AUGH English Pronunciation: How to say words ending in -OUGH & -AUGH
2 years ago En
Learn how to say these difficult words correctly in English! Does "cough" rhyme with "off" or with "cow"? How about "drought", "laugh", and "through"? How would you pronounce these words? I understand these may confuse you, because the pronunciations are different depending on the word. In this lesson, we will look at the different sounds of words with the endings "-ough" and "-augh". This lesson will improve your speaking and listening skills, so be sure to watch and complete the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/english-pronunciation-how-to-say-words-ending-in-ough-augh/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at words that generally confuse people, especially when it comes time to say them, words that have the "ough" or the "augh" inside them. And the reason they're confusing is because they don't sound anything like they look. Now, this is a common problem in English. English is not a phonetically-spelled language. In other languages, the way a word looks is the way it sounds. In English, not so much. So we're going to look at the different sounds that you can have with these letters. And the thing you're going to have to remember is: This is about memorization. Now, I know that some of you are asking me: "Well, why do I say it like this?" or "Why do I say it like that?" I don't know. I'm sorry to tell you that. There is no answer. You have to remember each word, how it's pronounced, and just remember it, and use it, and practice it, etc. So if you look here, you'll notice that I have eight different sounds for "ough" or "augh". Okay? Let's start with "uff", "uff": "tough", "rough", "enough". So, even though it's "o-u-g-h", there's no "ough". Okay? That... There's no such sound as "ough" in English. All of these have a specific sound. We're starting with "uff": "tough", "rough", "enough". Now, this word I'm going to get back to in one second. Okay? Let's look at the next one. "Oo". Very straight: "oo". "Through", like you go through the wall. If you're going really fast and you break through the wall, you're through. "Ghoul", "ghoul". A ghoul like is a some... Is like a... An animal that waits... Or it's like a mystical or... Sorry. A fictional animal that waits for somebody to die and gets pleasure out of other people's death. When people, for example, if you're driving on the highway and you see a really bad car accident and you slow down to have a look, people might call you a ghoul because you want to see blood, you want to see death. Not a good word, but that's how it's pronounced. "Ghoul", "oo". Now, let's go back to this word. The reason why I put it in the middle here is because this word actually has two meanings, each one pronounced differently: "slough", "slough". Okay? Different meanings. Sl-... It's not a word you're going to use very often, but "slough" is a... It's basically like a marsh, like a very wet area. It's not a lake, it's not a pond. There's a lot of weeds and lots of plant in it, and it's very thick, but that's... Another word for that is "slough". "Slough", now, a lot of people will write it like this: "slew". Especially American English, you can spell it like that. "Slough" means a lot. So: "He's got a slough of problems", means he's got a lot of problems. This is more common usage, but again, you're going to see this more often than you're going to see that. But if you do see that, like if you're reading British English, for example, you're going to see that. Just understand in context which word it is, "slough" or "slough". Okay. Next: "af". So notice I'm using the "a" here, not the "o", so that gives you a little bit of a hint, but not exactly because we're going to look at something else. "Laugh", everybody knows "laugh", hahaha. Right? And "draught". Now, again, American English, they don't bother, they just spell it like that, "draft", exactly how it sounds, exactly as it looks. But "draught" has different meanings. One, you can have a draught beer, like a beer from the keg. You can drink that, draught beer. There's also a draught, like a drawing. Like an architect, for example, when he... When he or she designs a building they make a draught of the plans, and once everything's agreed and everything's settled then they make the actual final plans. You can also have draughts of your essays. First draught, second draught. You make all the edits and changes, and you get to the end. So, "af", and the "t" we're going to come back to... Remember that "t", we're going to talk about that in a second. Now, "up". There's only one word that sounds like "up", and it's spelt with an "ough". [Hiccoughs]. Oop, sorry, that was a hiccough. Okay? Again, American English will spell it like this: "hiccup". British English will spell it like this, but they sound the same. "Hiccough". Okay.
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Prepositions of Time in English: BY, UNTIL, BY THE TIME, NO LATER THAN... Prepositions of Time in English: BY, UNTIL, BY THE TIME, NO LATER THAN...
2 years ago En
http://www.engvid.com Do English prepositions confuse you? There are so many little words to talk about time, but which one do you use, and when? Watch this lesson to erase your confusion. In this lesson, I will teach you how to use "until", "by the time", "no later/earlier than" and more. By the end of this lesson, you will understand the difference between these prepositions and phrases. Until then, sit back, relax, and learn. http://www.engvid.com/prepositions-of-time-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi, everybody. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at the prepositions: "by" and "until". We're going to look at the differences between them, and how to use them, and what specific meanings they each have. We're also going to look at the expression: "by the time", as another way of using "by" or whatever situation, and this one: "no ________ than". Now, the reason why I left this blank is because you can actually put quite a few words in there. We're going to look specifically at: "no later than" to replace "by" and "until", but for now I want you to also understand that there's other uses for it, and I'll give you some examples of those. Now, before I start I will say Emma did a very good lesson about "by" and "until". Mine is a little bit different because I'm going to show you some other situations where you will use one or the other. Okay? So we're going to start by figuring out: What's the difference between these two? So look at our example sentences. I'll get to our little time map in a second. "I'll be at the office until noon.", "I'll be at the office by noon." Now, first of all, let's assume the average workday is about... Is from 9 until about 5 o'clock, but I have some... I have some meetings in the afternoon so I will have to leave the office. But if you want to meet with me, I'll be there until noon. What does that mean? It means that I will arrive at the office at the usual time, 9 o'clock, and I will stay there. So my stay at the office will continue until noon. At noon I will leave. Okay? So this is when we're using "until". Now, before I get in... Into that again, let's look at the second one. "I'll be at the office by noon." So, here, we're looking at somewhere in this time, but not later than noon I will arrive at the office. Okay? Now, what's the key difference between these two? Well, one, something continues. An action starts, continues, and it ends at that time mentioned after "until". So both of them have an end time. You could even say a deadline, but that's for other uses. There's an end time. And that end time is noon. Okay? Something will happen at noon. Now, in the case of "by", it could happen before. In the case of "until", only one thing will happen. But the key to remember: When we use "by", we're looking at a finite action. This arrive is a one-time thing. Right? It'll... It can happen here, it could happen here, it could even happen here. With "until" only here will I leave. Okay? Now, what's the difference, another difference that we have to think about? Is not only the continuance of an action and the finite situation of an action; here, we're looking at something ending. My time at the office will end. Here, something can end or start. So if you want to meet me, I'll be in the office by noon, so you can meet me from noon until 5. So the start time, the earliest time you can meet me is noon. The latest time you can meet me is just before noon because I'm leaving at noon. Right? So that's one thing to keep in mind. The... Basically the implied situation. Now: "I'll be at the office by noon and I'll stay until 5." You can use both of them in one sentence. Sometime in here I'll arrive, and then from 12 till 5, I'll be at the office. So, what's the key? Now I hope you basically notice this. What's the key difference in these two sentences, is it the preposition? Yes. Different prepositions, different meanings. But what I hope you realize is that the difference is in the verb "be". Why? What does "be" mean here, and what does "be" mean here? "Be... I'll be at the office until... Until noon", means I will stay at the office until noon. So this situation will continue. Here, "be" means arrive. "I will arrive at the office by noon." So, one point here in this time... Timeframe I guess you could call it, something will happen. Continued, finite. "Finite" means it's a one-time action and that's it, it's finished. So that's a very important thing to remember with "by". Okay? "By", and we also think about: "at", "on", or "before". So, "at" for time. This is a little review of prepositions. "At 5 o'clock", "on Friday", "on day", so: "At 5 o'clock or before.", "At noon or before.", "On Friday or before." Okay? "Until"... Now, we don't use this preposition "to", but something continues to the end time.
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Learn 17 Business Abbreviations & Acronyms in English Learn 17 Business Abbreviations & Acronyms in English
2 years ago En
Attn: everyone. Re: business writing. In this lesson we will look at common abbreviations and acronyms used in emails, memos, and other types of business writing. If you work in an office or want to be involved in business at any level in the future, this lesson is for you. As is SOP (standard operating procedure), we will also quiz you at the end to test your understanding. http://www.engvid.com/17-business-abbreviations-acronyms/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at a bit of business writing, and more specifically, we're going to look at abbreviations and acronyms. But before I even start, I want you to understand that a lot of what you're going to see today applies in many situations outside of business, but I'll explain those when we get to them. So, first of all: What's the difference between an abbreviation and an acronym? An "abbreviation" is a shortening of a word. Okay? It's one word that we cut out a bunch of letters and we make it shorter. So, for example, the abbreviation of the word "abbreviation" is "abbr." Okay? "Acronyms", on the other hand, are basically initials. Initials means the first letter of each word. And initials we usually use with people's names, like John Smith, his initials are JS. But when we want to take a bunch of words and we don't want to write all these words, we just want to make something short, but it has to be understood by basically whoever is going to read it, then we're going to use acronyms. Okay? So, let's start with the abbreviations, and in terms of business. Now, especially when we're writing, either a letter by hand like on paper or an email, these are very common. "Attn:" means: Who are you writing to? So, "attention". Whose attention are you trying to get with this letter? "Re:" means "regarding", means: About what? Now, a lot of people might think that "re:" in an email means "reply", it doesn't. "Re:" in an email or a letter always means "regarding". What is the topic of the conversation? So, you know in the email bar it has "re:", what are you talking about when you reply to somebody? The topic. Okay? Next, when we end our letter, we should say who we are and what our position is in the company. So, whether you're the Assistant or the Director, you can write: "Asst.", "Dir." or "Director", or Manager: "Mgr." Notice that all three of them have a capital. So, it doesn't matter if you're using the full word or an abbreviation, you still have to capitalize the title of a position, or the title of the person's place in the company. Okay? So, if you're the Assistant Director, you write: "Asst. Dir." Now, you're wondering why there's no dot here, and there is a dot there. There's a few ways to figure out which one to use, yes or no on the dot. Firstly, the more you read and the more you engage in this sort of writing, you will just see: What is the most common approach? But another way is a style guide. You can use The Chicago Manual of Style, that's the most common one for general purposes. Or if your company has its own style guide or a style sheet, look at it to see if they want a dot or they don't want the dot. It's really a personal choice of the company's. Okay? So, now, the main thing we have to consider is when we're writing something from the company, we're writing it on company stationery. So, the company has pages with a letterhead. It means all the information is already at the top; the name, the logo, the address, etc. So, all of this stuff might already be included, for example: which department, which building you're in, for example, in the address. We always like to take shortcuts, and we don't want to write everything. Write it short. "dept." is enough. Everybody knows "dept." means department. Building is building: "bldg." because we just want to shorten everything. The less, the better. When you end it, you're writing your name, and underneath: Who are you? Like, okay, I know your name, but who are you in terms of the company? So, you're writing your position. Now, you can see all this stuff on business cards, letterheads, etc. So, next, let's look at acronyms. So, if you watched Rebecca's lesson on business acronyms, you heard about Chief Executive Officer, "CEO", this is the boss of the company, he runs or she runs the whole company. Everybody answers to him or her. So, "CO" basically means Chief Officer, "Executive" means of the whole company, but then you have different departments or different areas of the company. "CFO", Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Information Officer, and then there's many other ones that you can use. So, now we're going to look at some more acronyms. One thing to remember: Acronyms always use capital letters. Even if you don't need capitals in the extended version, the acronym will always be capital letters. "ETA", estimated time of arrival.
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IELTS – The 5 Step Study Plan IELTS – The 5 Step Study Plan
2 years ago En
If you're going to take IELTS, start here! Your success on the IELTS is based on more than just practicing English skills. In this video, I'll show you the key steps you need to take to reach your target band score. I'll talk about setting your objectives, building your studying plan, and studying for each section of the exam. Many students get a low score on the IELTS and keep making the same mistakes over and over again. Save your time and your money by avoiding their mistakes. Watch this video and get it right the first time. Take the quiz to make sure: http://www.engvid.com/ielts-the-5-step-study-plan/ For grammar and writing help, you can also visit my site: http://www.WriteToTop.com For many more free lessons on IELTS preparation you can visit: http://www.engvid.com/english-exams/ielts/ For a free complete guide to the IELTS, go to: http://www.GoodLuckIELTS.com TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today we're going to look at an IELTS study plan, and as usual, when I look at IELTS, or TOEFL, or any of the tests, I'm going to speak a little bit faster so those of you taking the test can get a little bit more listening practice. And everybody else, this is very good practice for you as well to listen to slightly faster English. So we're going to look at IELTS. And for those of you who are just starting to prepare, starting to think about taking this test, maybe you want to go to university, maybe it's for immigration purposes, whatever, you're just starting out, you've just signed up for the test, now you need to start preparing for it. So here's a five-point study plan. And number one is the most important part because... And I'll tell you in a minute why. Know the test. Now, what does this mean? It means that you have to know exactly what you're about to face. I've met many test takers who've taken the test maybe several times, and the first two or three times they got a really low score because they still didn't really know what was coming. Right? They didn't understand how the test is structured, what the timing is like, all of these things. So, know the test, means: Know the structure. There are four sections; listening, reading, writing, speaking. Make sure you know how each of them works, how much time is going to be used for each one. In the listening section you have four sections, in the reading section you have three passages to read, in the writing sections you have... Section you have two tasks that you have to complete. In the speaking section you're going to be speaking with a native English speaker face to face, one on one for about 12 to 15 minutes. Make sure you know exactly what they're going to be asking you, what you're going to be expected to answer back. Okay? So know the structure of the test. Know the timing. You have 40 minutes, roughly, for the listening section, including a 10-minute time allotment for copying your answers from the question sheet to an answer sheet. This is very, very important. Know what to do that. If you're finished writing your answers on your answer sheet before the 10 minutes are up, you can't go to the reading section. You have to sit and wait, close your eyes, relax, etc. Make sure you know the question types that you're going to face in the listening, and the reading, and the writing of course, and the speaking. Knowing the question types will make sure that you aren't surprised by anything. Okay? You do not want to have surprises on test day. Know the question types, prepare for them, begin to think about how to answer them. Okay? Make sure you know all the directions. Every section of the test will have its own set of directions. Do not spend time reading these or listening to these during the test. You should know all of the directions long beforehand, you should memorize them. That way, you don't spend time reading them, you go straight to the task at hand. Okay? So know the test very well. Now, the best way to actually know the test is to practice taking the test. Practice the test. Now, I don't mean do, like, 10 minutes here, 10 minutes there, 15 minutes here. I want you to sit down at least once a week from the time you registered or started thinking about it until the actual test day. There are lots of places where you can get full practice tests. The Cambridge books are excellent for that. They are past papers and they're real tests. Make sure that you do a full test at least once a week from beginning to the end. Give yourself three full hours undistracted. Now, what does this mean? When you go to the official test centre you cannot take your phone in with you. You do not have internet, you do not have music, you do not have anything. You have you in a room with a bunch of other people.
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Learn English Grammar: The Adjective Clause (Relative Clause) Learn English Grammar: The Adjective Clause (Relative Clause)
2 years ago En
The lesson that you are about to watch is about adjective clauses, of which there are two in this sentence. Can you see them? In some grammar books, you may see the adjective clause called the "relative clause". Don't get confused -- they are the same thing. In this lesson, you will learn the difference between the two types of adjective clauses -- the defining adjective clause, and the modifying adjective clause. I'll also answer a common question people have about clauses: "Should I use a comma or not?". After this lesson, you will be able to spot adjective clauses of all forms and use them to take your English writing and speaking to the next level. Test your understanding with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-grammar-the-adjective-clause-relative-clause/ Watch Adam's series on clauses! Dependent Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BsBbZqwU-c Noun Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SrEEPt4MQA Adverb Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkooLJ9MWVE TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at the adjective clause. Now, this is a dependent clause, and if you're not sure what the difference between dependent or independent clause, you can check out my video about the independent clause and my introduction video to dependent clauses. In this lesson we're going to dive a little bit deeper into this particular dependent clause, the adjective clause. Now, some of you will have grammar... Different grammar books, and some of you will see this called the relative clause. Relative clause, adjective clause, same thing. Different books like to call them different things. Okay? So we're going to look at this. Now, the first thing to remember about an adjective clause before we look at the actual structure of it, the full clause is essentially an adjective. Although it's a clause, means it has a subject, and a verb, and maybe some modifiers - the whole piece, the whole clause together works like an adjective. So, because it works like an adjective: What does that mean? It means that it's giving you some information about a noun somewhere in the sentence. You could have many nouns in a sentence, you could have many adjective clauses in a sentence. There's no limit to how many you can have, although try not to have too many in one sentence because the sentence becomes very bulky, not a very good sentence. So let's get right into it. First of all, we have two types of adjective clause. We have a defining adjective clause, which means that it's basically pointing to the noun and telling you something necessary about the noun. Without the adjective clause, the noun is incomplete. I don't know what it is, I don't know what it's doing, etc. The second adjective clause is the modifying, means it is not necessary but we put it in to give a little bit of extra information about the noun. Okay? So it's like an adjective that just gives you a little bit more description about the noun. Two things to remember: The defining noun. Now, one of the biggest questions about adjective clauses is: Do I use a comma or do I not use a comma? For defining adjective clauses, no comma. For modifying, like the extra information, the ones that you could actually take out and the sentence is still okay, use a comma. We're going to look at examples and understand this more. Now, another thing to know about adjective clauses: They all begin with a relative pronoun. Okay? A relative pronoun. This is basically the conjunction of the clause. It is what begins the clause. Now, some of these can be also the subject of the clause, which means it will agree with the verb; some of them cannot. So these three... Whoa, sorry. "That", "which", and "who" can be both the conjunction and the subject. These ones: "whom", "whose", "when", "where", and "why" cannot be the subject of the clause; only the relative pronoun, only the conjunction of the clause. Now, in many cases, "that" can also be removed, but we're going to look at that separately. So, let's look at some examples to get an idea. "The man lives next door." So here we have an independent clause. Independent clause means it's a complete idea, it stands by itself as a sentence, it doesn't really need anything else. But the problem is "the man". Which man? That man, that man, the man across the street? I don't know. So this sentence, although it's grammatically complete, is technically, in terms of meaning, incomplete because I don't know who this man is. I need to identify him. So you can think of defining or identifying. Okay? I want to point specifically to one man because I have "the man". I'm looking at somebody specific. So here's one way we can do it: "The man who lives next door"-"who lives next door"-"is a doctor". Okay? So, again, I still have my independent clause: "The man is a doctor", but now I have my adjective, my identifying adjective clause telling me who the man is.
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Understanding the US Elections Understanding the US Elections
2 years ago En
Trying to understand the American presidential elections? There's more to it than just Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. Confused about electoral colleges, super delegates, polls, incumbents, and candidates? Let me explain it for you! In this video, I'll teach you the vocabulary, definitions, and expressions you need to know to follow the US elections. You'll learn how the elections work, what the electoral college is, and who is involved in presidential elections. This information is very important for anyone living in the United States and for those who want to follow the US elections and world politics. I'll answer the questions: What is a primary? What is a caucus? What is the electoral college? What is a delegate, and what is a super-delegate? How do nominees become candidates? What is a pundit? What are swing voters? What is a presidential platform? After you've watched the video, take the quiz to test your knowledge of the American voting system! http://www.engvid.com/understanding-the-2016-us-elections/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today we're going to talk about "The American Election". Now, if you live anywhere in the world, it's very hard to escape hearing about what's going on in America. The elections are coming up, everybody's talking about it. They're using a lot of new words, a lot of complicated words that you might not be familiar with, so we're going to talk about this. I'll explain to you a little bit how it works. I'll explain to you some of the words you're going to hear commonly. And keep in mind that although it's a bit more for advanced students because I have a lot to say about all this, there's a lot of new information here, but even if you're a beginner, lots of new words, lots of good words that are everyday words. If you watch CNN ever, you're going to hear some of these words because CNN loves to talk about the election. Okay? So let's get into some of this, and we'll see where we go. First of all we're going to start with the two parties. Okay? So, America is essentially a two-party system. You have the Republicans and you have the Democrats. Now, that doesn't mean there aren't other parties. In fact, there are many parties in America, but usually they don't get many votes, and maybe even... Not even 1% of the total vote for all the little parties. Now, you can also have a third-party candidate, meaning somebody who wants to run by him or herself with his or her own money. Okay? Because the Republicans and the Democrats give money to their candidates to run a campaign. I'm going to go over all these words, so not to worry. So, first let's start with the Republicans. Okay? They're sometimes called the GOP. You're going to hear this often. This is just a nickname, it means "Grand Old Party." I should make this a little bit bigger. Grand Old Party. It's just a nickname given to them a long, long time ago. In fact, both of these parties are over 150 years old, and they have won every election since way back when. And what they do is they often switch. Sometimes they'll go on a streak, like the Democrats will win a bunch of elections, the Republicans will win a bunch of elections. Sometimes they'll switch back and forth every election. It depends on the season, depends on the mindset of Americans. Okay? So here we have the two Democrats. Now, the campaign, the... The attempt to run for office... Okay? So, "running for office" means trying to become president. So what happens is they start their campaign. A "campaign" is an organized effort to reach a goal. Okay? You have an advertisement campaign, you have a sales campaign. It's basically something organized with a target to reach by the end of it. In this case, the target is the presidency of the United States. So, this campaign usually starts well over a year before the actual election. Before they can vote for a president, each party must present a candidate. A "candidate" is the person that the American people will vote for in November, Democrat or Republican. But before you have a candidate for each party, each party has nominees. A "nominee" is the potential candidate, people who are chosen to try to become the candidate. You could have three, four, five, 15. It doesn't matter. Whoever wants to try to be president can try. Now, what they do, all these nominees, they go all over the country and they try to win delegates. I'll explain "delegates" in a second. So what they're trying to do is become the candidate for their party, they go around, they have a campaign, they give speeches, they put TV and radio advertisements, they do all kinds of things so the people will vote for them. Okay? Now, what they do is they go to each state and they have a primary or a caucus.
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Vocabulary: Talking about POLITICS in English Vocabulary: Talking about POLITICS in English
2 years ago En
People all have different views when it comes to leadership and how to run a country. What about you? Are you liberal or conservative? Are you left-wing or right-wing? In this lesson, we will look at common vocabulary used to discuss politics. I will teach you words you need to know in order to understand the news, current events, and even have debates with your friends. Next, watch Benjamin's lesson to learn even more political vocabulary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1NIcll5RErg TAKE THE QUIZ: http://www.engvid.com/vocabulary-talking-about-politics-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today, as in response to some requests, I'm going to give you a few vocabulary words or a few words-sorry-about political views. Now, before I start, I just want to make sure we understand: This is just about English. We're not having any political discussions, here. This is meant to help you read newspapers, watch TV broadcasts, listen to radio broadcasts about political news, and these are words that you will see quite often when you're reading these things or watching these programs. Okay? So, we're going to look at a few common words that come up when we're talking about political views. Now, "political views" are basically opinions about how politics should run, how governments should run or be run, etc. So first we're going to look at the three main types of government. There are "democracy", "authoritarianism", and "dictatorship". "Democracy" is a process by which several parties... Okay? Several parties, each one has its own leaders and its own members, and they compete for the votes of the public. You have several to choose from, the public chooses. The one that gets the most votes or wins somehow the election in their system, they lead the country for a specified period of time. And then you have another election, you can choose the government again, you can choose another government. You can do whatever you need to do. "Authoritarianism" is a system by which only one party... Or "in which" I should say. Only one party controls the government. So, you don't really have any choice, and the elections are not... If there are elections, are not very legitimate. There's one party, they are the controlling power, they make the decisions, everybody does what they want them to do. "...ism". I'm just going to mention this. You're going to hear a lot of ism's when you're hearing about politics. Okay? It just means you're taking the concept of whatever the word is before it. So: "ism" is more about the concept of whatever. "Dictatorship", this is a form of government where one person controls the government and has all the power, all the decision-making power. We're not going to get into the details of how each of these types of government rules or runs the country they're in, but we're just going to talk about what they are very generally. Next, so here we're getting more into the specific views that people have. Most people are "Liberal" or "Conservative". Now, you're going to hear these words a lot. In America, for example, you hear about the Democrats and the Republicans. Generally, the Democrats are Liberal, the Republicans are Conservative. Liberal government or Liberal politicians believe in the individual. They want every individual to have an opportunity to succeed. They want, basically, to help everyone improve their lives somehow. Conservatives, on the other hand, they're more about everybody takes care of themselves. Sorry, Liberals, they want the government to help the individuals; Conservatives want the individuals to help themselves. And "Conservatives" comes from the word "conserve", there would be an "e" here. They want to keep traditions, they want to keep or maintain values, they don't like change. Liberals, on the other hand, want to change all the time to meet the needs of the people. More good for more people, as it were. Now, if you hear about "left-wing" or "right-wing" or "centrist", you're talking about the spectrum. The spectrum is basically the range of political views. You have the far left-wing, you have the far right-wing, and you have the people in the centre; they're not really right, they're not really left. Although, they generally lean. "Lean" means "rooop", I'm leaning to the right or I'm leaning to the left. So, even centrists, they're usually centre-right or centre-left, it means they're a little bit more to one side than the other, but generally, they're... They want a bit of a mix. Left-wing politicians or left-wing views generally go with Liberals. Right-wing views or right-wing politicians generally go the idea of Conservatives. Centrists want a little bit of a mix. They will go with whoever will do the best benefit for everybody.
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When and how to use a dictionary – and when NOT to use a dictionary! When and how to use a dictionary – and when NOT to use a dictionary!
2 years ago En
http://www.engvid.com You shouldn't always use a dictionary! In this video, I'll explain when you should use a paper dictionary, an online dictionary, or no dictionary at all! I'll show how to use your dictionary, and answer the question "which dictionary should I use?". A dictionary is an incredible tool when you are learning a language, but knowing how to use it is very important. If you use the dictionary correctly, you can learn a word's definition, spelling, pronunciation, origin, common usage, as well as what part of speech it is. This is a very important lesson for English learners of all levels, and native speakers too. To see if you understood the lesson, take the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/when-and-how-to-use-a-dictionary/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson I want to speak with you about: "How to Use a Dictionary". Now, for some of you, this might seem very obvious. You open the dictionary, you look for your word, there it is, everything's good. But it's not that simple. Now, the reason I say it's not that simple is because a lot of people have a problem with exactly how to use a dictionary, and also when to use the dictionary. You don't always need to go look for every word. So, before I look at a few examples of when you should look for a word in the dictionary, I want to stress that if you really, really want to build your vocabulary quickly and have a very wide range of vocabulary, use an English to English dictionary. I'm going to give you a couple of examples of which dictionaries to use after, but English to English. Now, I've had many students who use English to whatever language, English to Spanish, English to Japanese, English to whatever language is their native language and vice versa. This is good for a very quick check, but don't make it a habit. Okay? Get yourself an English to English dictionary-you can get the book, I'll show you one in a second-or get online and find the apps for the more common dictionaries. Now, the reason I say this is because you will have to look for meanings of words, and if you don't understand the explanation of the meaning, you will probably learn more words in that explanation and then you can look those up. So you're actually going to build your vocabulary exponentially. "Exponentially", very quickly and to a large degree, without end, so you can go very quickly. So, let's look at three sentences, and I underlined the words we're focusing on. Okay? "Salivate", "plethora", "mitigate". Now, you may know these words, you may not, but these are a little bit higher end words, they're not very common. So we're going to think about what to do. First, use context. What I want you to do is I want you to try to guess the meaning of a word before you go to the dictionary. "The hungry dog began to salivate when it saw the steak on the table." Now, most of you have seen a dog, most of you have probably seen a hungry dog. Now, you think of a hungry dog, you think of a steak, what do most dogs do? Even what do humans do? Dogs do it more obviously, they start to salivate. They start... The little wet stuff comes out of their mouths. Right? That wet stuff is "saliva". Dogs have it, you have it, I have it, human beings have it, too. It helps us to eat and digest our food. Now, because of the context, because you have a hungry dog and because you have a steak, it seems pretty obvious that "salivate" means to start emitting or getting... Letting out saliva. Now, another thing to keep in mind: The next sentence will probably use this word, "saliva". So: "The dog began to salivate, and all the saliva gathered in a pool on the floor. So then when I walked by it and I slipped and hurt myself, it's the dog's fault, not my fault." Okay? So, now, do I need to or should you go look at this...? Look for this word in the dictionary? No. You can guess the sentence. You probably are right in your guess of what this means. The next sentence will probably confirm it. Just move on. Don't worry about this word. It's easy. Now you have a new word in your head. But let's look at the next word: "The forum was a grand success as it had generated a plethora of ideas." Now, you have a forum. A "forum" is where people exchange ideas or where they have discussions. On the internet, there are plenty of forums. At www.engvid.com, there's a forum where you can ask questions, and teachers help, and other students help. So, if the forum has all these ideas and it was a grand success - why? Because it had generated, it had made or created a plethora of ideas. Now, you can probably guess what this means. A "plethora" means many and varied. So, a large amount or a large number, and a varied number.
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Common MILITARY expressions & vocabulary in everyday life Common MILITARY expressions & vocabulary in everyday life
3 years ago En
Do you know what it means to go "AWOL" or to be "MIA"? And what is the point of saying "alpha, bravo, charlie" when referring to letters? In this lesson, you will learn many different military words and expressions that have made their way into everyday English. We will discuss the meaning of "I've got your 6", "collateral damage", "FUBAR", and more. This lesson is definitely not a dud, so make sure to watch and do the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/common-military-expressions-vocabulary-in-everyday-life/ afterwards! Copy that? Roger! TRANSCRIPT Hi, everybody. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at some military expressions and slang that are used in everyday English. So, in many situations, when there is a war and there's obviously going to be a military all the time, many words that are used by the soldiers eventually become common in everyday English and are used all the time. Now, especially if you watch war movies, you're going to hear some of these words. Actually, you're going to hear a lot of these words, so it's a good idea to know what they mean. But we also use them in everyday situations, and I'll explain some of these as we go. So, first we're going to look at the actual words and expressions. "AWOL", this means Absent WithOut Leave. Okay? Although... So, I'll explain that in a second. "MIA" means Missing In Action. Okay? Now, you can "have someone's 6", "copy/roger", I'll explain these. These, similar. A "dud", "snafu", "alpha, bravo, charlie, x-ray, yankee, zulu", "Uncle Sam", "collateral damage", "coup de grace", and "FUBAR" or "soup sandwich". Okay, let's start with "AWOL". Absent WithOut Leave. So, in the military, if you leave your base or leave your post without permission... So, "leave" basically means permission. If you leave... If you go away from your base or your post and you don't have permission, then you are considered AWOL. If you're gone long enough, then you will go to jail. Okay? The military... In the military, you can't leave your post, you can't leave jail. But we use this in everyday situations. So, I planned an organization, like I'm helping some people, I'm a volunteer, and I got a group of people to help me, and at our meeting one person didn't show up. And I say: -"Where's Mike?" -"Ah, he's AWOL." It means nobody knows where he is. He left, he didn't show up. Sometimes we call it a "no-show". A "no-show" means the person didn't appear where he was supposed to be. He didn't come to the meeting, he didn't come wherever. In an office, somebody is supposed to get all this work done, but the boss is asking: -"Where's the work? Where is this person who had to do it?" -"I don't know. He's AWOL. He's gone AWOL." It means he's disappeared. Okay? It's not very dissimilar from "missing in action". So, in a war, sometimes soldiers, they're fighting, everybody's working together, but one soldier, nobody knows where he is. Maybe he got killed, or maybe he got injured, or maybe he's making his way back. But right now, I don't know where he is. He is missing in action, in the middle of the battle. So, it's the same thing in everyday life. If somebody is MIA, it means he's disappeared. So, it's very similar to absent without leave, but MIA means he was here but then disappeared. I don't know where he went. So, we had a meeting and in the meeting we had a break, and we come back from break and one person didn't return. -"So, where is he?" -"I don't know. He's MIA." He's missing. He's gone somewhere. Maybe he'll come back later. Just in case you're wondering: "killed in action, KIA" is another expression. Now, to "have someone's 6", you've seen this on police shows or in war movies all the time. In a clock: 12 is forward, 6 is behind you, 3, 9, all the numbers of the clock. Okay? So, to "have someone's 6" means to have someone's back, to watch out for them or to support them, or to make sure that nothing bad is going to come where they can't see it. Okay? So, 6, behind; 12, ahead. "Copy" and "roger". When you're talking on a walkie-talkie or on a telephone these days, however way you communicate, "copy" means message received. So, your boss or your commander sends you the message: "Copy", means I got it, I understood. "Roger" if an order comes in: -"I want you to do this." -"Roger." It means I got the message, and I will do what I've been asked to do. And we use this in everyday life. On the phone your boss says: -"This is what I need." -"Copy. Roger. No problem."
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10 Phrasal Verbs with CALL: call for, call up, call in, call upon... 10 Phrasal Verbs with CALL: call for, call up, call in, call upon...
3 years ago En
Learn phrasal verbs to improve your conversational English! I "call on you" to learn these common expressions that you can use in your personal, social, and professional life. I'll teach you these phrasal verbs in a fun way, with many examples, so that you remember them and will be able to start using them right after the lesson. Looking for more phrasal verb lessons? Watch my lesson on phrasal verbs with 'set' next: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EJqq9hBQjs TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, a phrasal lesson, a phrasal verbs lesson. We're going to look at the verb "call". And again, a phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition that together sometimes have meanings completely different than the words themselves. Okay? So, which ones are we going to look at today? We're going to look at "call on". Sometimes you will hear people say: "Call upon". More or less the same usage. "Call up", "call back", "call for", "call in", "call off", "call to"-and this is a little different because you always need something else here, but I'll show you that-"call into"-also you need something at the end here, because by itself it doesn't really work-and "on call". Now, "on call" is not a phrasal verb. In fact, it's not a verb at all. This is actually a situation. So, I'm going to start with this one. So, for example, "on call" is when you're available at any time for a certain position. So, for example, if I'm a doctor or a nurse, at some point in my career, usually at the beginning, I will have a lot of on-call work, meaning that I have to be ready. Anytime somebody calls, I have to go to the hospital and do the work. A lot of jobs, for example, waitresses or even retail jobs, they give you an on-call position. It means it's not part time, it's not full time, it's on call. When they need you, they will call you, you will go to work right away. When they need you again, you'll go back. So, it's... Could be used as an adjective or a noun. A noun as the situation, "on call" to describe your position. Okay, let's get to the verbs. "Call on". So, if I call on you for help, that means I'm asking you for help. So, you call on someone to help you do something. You also "call upon", but this is not necessarily a person. You can call upon your wits, you can call upon your intelligence. It means you want to draw. So you're asking your brain to give you the tools you need to do something. So, this job is going to... Is going to call on all our energy, all our brains, all our confidence to do this job. So that's "call on". Okay? Okay, let's go to the next one. Excuse me. "Call up". A few meanings to this one. One is just telephone. "Oh, yeah, I'll see you next week. I'll call you up sometime and we'll go out for a drink." Okay? So you can say: "Call someone" or you can "call someone up", basically means the same thing. But in sports or in the military, it has a different use. In sports it's a promotion. So, many professional teams, they have the amateur teams or the semi-professional teams that their youngest... Their young athletes play there, and when they get good enough, they're called up to the big team, to the professional team. So, for example, in hockey you have your NHL teams, your professional league teams, you have your farm teams. This is the... We call these the "farm teams". Okay? That's the ones that are just learning, they are young guys, they are trying to get up to the major leagues or the major teams. So, you call them up. They've done well, they're called up to the next level. In military, some countries, they have a draft. It means that they pick out young people to become soldiers and go to war. So, when they draft them, they're calling them up. Okay? They're out of high school or college, or whatever the situation, and they're called up to serve. It means they're going to the army. Okay. So now we're going to look at "call back". So, of course, there's always: "Hey, come back." So you're calling out to somebody, asking them to come back, to return. And the same thing you can do with a telephone call. I call somebody at their office, let's say, the person is not available, out to lunch or away from the office or in a meeting, and I leave a message and I say: "Can you please ask him or her to call me back?" Basically, return my phone call. Okay. Now, another common use of "call back" is when you have an interview or audition. So, an "audition" is when an actor goes to try to get a part in a movie, or a TV show, or a play, whatever. So they go for an audition, they go to show what they can do. Now, if they are called back, that means they are invited to a second audition. Or in an interview, they're invited to a second interview.
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Learn 6 Body Idioms in English: get cold feet, play by ear... Learn 6 Body Idioms in English: get cold feet, play by ear...
3 years ago En Ru
I'm going to stick my neck out and say that you probably don't know of what some of these idioms mean. But don't worry, let your hair down and we'll have some fun with these everyday English idioms that involve body parts, including "get cold feet", "get something off your chest", "play it by ear", and more. I'll give you real-life examples of how these expressions are used in daily conversations, so you'll never feel like you're in over your head! Take the QUIZ: http://www.engvid.com/6-body-idioms-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. My name's Adam. Today's lesson is going to be about idioms, everyday idioms that you will hear people use quite regularly in many situations, and we're going to look at body idioms. All of these idioms have some part of the body inside them. Now, again, just a little refresh... To refresh our memories: What is an idiom? An idiom is an expression whose words alone don't mean what the actual idiom means. What that means is the words themselves and the actual meaning of the idiom are completely different. So, for example: "to get cold feet". Now, of course, in the wintertime if you take your socks off, your feet are going to get cold, but that's not what this means. "To get cold feet" means to get scared. You're about to do something, you've been planning it, you know it's coming, you want to do it, but then at the last minute, you get cold feet. It means you get scared and you don't want to do it anymore; you want to back away from doing this. Okay? You want to back out of it. So, the most common example of getting cold feet is just before your wedding, and this happens to a lot of men. Tomorrow's the wedding, let's say, I'm getting married tomorrow, and tonight I'm thinking: "Oh my god, this is my last night of freedom. I don't want to do it. Forget it. Wedding's off." So I have cold feet. Very common, happens to a lot of people. Doesn't have to be about wedding, it could be about anything; you're about to start a new job, you're about to move to a new house, you're about to do anything - last minute, you get scared, you don't want to do it anymore. "To get something off one's chest", to get something off your chest. Now, this sounds like pretty straightforward, but if you have something on your chest it means you're holding it and it's very heavy, and you really just want to... You just want to get it out. You want to express something. It could be a secret, it could be a feeling you have for someone, it could be a complaint you have, but you just didn't want to say it. You've been holding it inside and holding it inside, and it's been sitting right here, and it's heavy, and you don't want to carry it anymore. You want to get it off your chest. So, you go into your boss and you say: "Boss, I got to get something off my chest. You're a terrible boss. I don't want to work for you anymore. Either pay me a lot more money or I'm leaving." Or there's a girl you really like or a boy you really like, and you go up to this person and you say: "I have to get something off my chest. I've been in love with you for like five years. I can't hold it inside anymore. I have to get it off my chest, so I'm telling you." Okay? Then you feel much lighter, in theory. "To be in over one's head". Over one's head. Now, technically, if you go into the swimming pool and you go below the surface of the water, then you're in over your head, but it's the same idea in other situations. If you're doing something that you can't handle, it's too difficult for you, then you're in over your head. So, for example, you got a job... You just finished university, you got a job, and somebody hired you to be the manager of a whole department, and you think: "Yeah, no problem. I can do this." You have no experience doing it, but yeah, you can do it. So you go and it's... Right away you notice that it's too difficult for you, you don't know what you're doing. The staff don't like you, they don't respect you, they don't listen to you. You don't know what to do because you're in over your head. You've taken on a job that's too big for you. Okay? "To let one's hair down". Now, this obviously sounds like it should be for women, but it could be for men, too. "To let your hair down" means to relax, just go do something fun, enjoy yourself, do whatever you want. We... Generally, we do use this for women. For men, we say: "Loosen your tie". It's the same idea. "To loosen the tie" means relax, don't be so serious, don't be so stiff. Relax, have fun, do whatever you want. Tomorrow's another day, so let your hair down. "To stick one's neck out". So if you stick... If I stick my neck out, you can come and chop it off, and I'm dead. So, "to stick one's neck out" is to take a risk, to take a big risk. So if you... If you gamble, if you invest in something and you put all your money into this investment, then you're sticking your neck out.
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Advanced English Grammar: Noun Clauses Advanced English Grammar: Noun Clauses
3 years ago En
Having trouble finding the subject or object in a sentence? It might be a noun clause. In this lesson, we'll look at the dependent clause and its conjunctions in order to write better sentences and to read high-level texts like those you will find in newspapers, academic essays, and literature. This is also important if you're in university or taking a test like IELTS or TOEFL. As a writer, I focus my attention on the many elements we use to build great sentences and paragraphs. I've broken down this advanced part of English grammar and will teach it to you simply -- so you can understand and use the noun clauses in your own writing. I'll show you many examples of noun clauses, so you can see the noun clause in context. Take the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/advanced-english-grammar-noun-clauses/ to practice identifying the types of noun clauses in example sentences. Watch Adam's series on clauses! Dependent Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BsBbZqwU-c Adjective Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpV39YEmh5k Adverb Clauses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkooLJ9MWVE TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at some more advanced grammar. We're going to look at the noun clause. Now, you may have seen my previous video where I did an introduction to subordinate clauses. Today I'm going to look at only one, only the noun clause, get a little bit deeper into it, show you some examples, show you how it works, how to build it, when to use it, etc. So before we begin, let's review: What is a clause? A clause is a combination of words that must contain a subject and a verb. Okay? Now, every sentence has at least one independent clause. The noun clause is a dependent clause. Okay? I'm going to write that here. It's a dependent. What that means is that this clause cannot be a sentence by itself. It is always part of a sentence that contains an independent clause, but the noun clause can be part of the independent clause, and we're going to see that in a moment. But before we do that, we also have to look at the conjunctions. Okay? So these are the words... The conjunctions are the words that join the noun clause to its independent clause or that begin the noun clause. Okay? And again, we're going to look at examples. So these are the ones you need to know: "that", "which", "who", "whom", "whose", "what", "if", "whether", "when", "where", "how", "why", and then: "whoever", "whomever", "whenever", "wherever", "whatever", "whichever". These can all be conjunctions. Now, you have to be careful with a few of them. Some of these can also be conjunctions to adjective clauses, which will be a different video lesson entirely. And you also have to remember that this clause in particular: "that", is quite often removed. Means it's understood to be there, it's implied, but we don't actually have to write it or say it when we're using the noun clause. And again, we're going to look at examples of that. Another thing to remember is that only some of these can be both the conjunction, the thing that starts the clause, and the subject of the clause. So, for example: "which" can be the subject, "who" can be the subject, "whom" is always an object, never a subject, and "what" can be the subject. "Who", "whoever", "whatever", "whichever" can also be subjects. So I'm going to put an "s" for these. Okay? So it's very important to remember these because sometimes you have to recognize that it is both the conjunction and the clause, and recognize it as a noun clause. Now, of course, it will be much easier to understand all this when we see actual examples, so let's do that. Okay, so now we're going to look at when to use the noun clause and how to use the noun clause. So, noun clauses have basically four uses. Okay? Or actually five, but one of them is similar. First of all we're going to look at it as the subject. So, a noun clause can be the subject of a clause, of an independent clause. So let's look at this example: "What she wore to the party really turned some heads." So, what is the noun clause? "What she wore to the party". Okay? So here's our conjunction, here's our subject, and here's our verb. Okay? And then here's another verb. Now, remember: In every sentence, you're going to have one tense verb, will have one subject that corresponds to it. Here I have two tense verbs, which means I need two subjects. So the subject for "wore" is "she", the subject for "turned" is the entire clause. This is the noun clause subject to this verb. Okay? Turned what? Some heads. And, here, we have the object of the whole sentence. So this sentence is essentially SVO, so we have an independent clause, but the subject of the independent clause is a noun clause. So although you have one independent clause, this is still a complex sentence because we're using an independent and the subordinate, and the dependent clause to build it.
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Learn "Set" Vocabulary, Idioms, and Phrasal Verbs! Learn "Set" Vocabulary, Idioms, and Phrasal Verbs!
3 years ago En
Are you all set to learn English? In this lesson, you'll learn common ways to use "set" as a verb, adjective, and as a noun. You'll even learn phrasal verbs and idioms with 'set'. I've chosen the most common ways we use the word 'set' in English-speaking countries. This is an easy lesson that will teach you some great vocabulary and expressions. Depending on how we use this little word, we can talk about groups of people, collections, placement, building, being ready, and more. After watching the video, practice what you've learned by taking the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/learn-set-vocabulary-idioms-and-phrasal-verbs . Then, use your new vocabulary in English conversations and in writing! TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about the word "set". Now, this word has many meanings and uses, and I was asked to make a lesson about this. And I know that it's in the dictionary, you can look it up, but sometimes it's easier to just hear the lesson, hear the explanations of the words, get some examples of how they're used, and you absorb it a little bit differently this way. So, we're going to look at the different meanings of "set". Now, "set" can be a verb, it can be a noun, it can be an adjective. Okay? So, we're going to look at these. And again, these are the more common uses. There are a few others that I didn't include; you can look those up if you need them. So, first: "to set". Now, the thing you have to remember about "set", this is called an ambitransitive verb. You don't need to know that word "ambitransitive", but it means it can be a transitive or an intransitive, meaning it can take an object or not take an object. Okay? So, we can set something, we can place it somewhere, we can put it down. Right? So, if I'm going to... If I have a vase-a vase/vase, however you want to pronounce it; both are okay-full of flowers, I want to set it on the table. Okay? So, I can set it down on the table. Set the vase, the vase being the object. And you can... I can set the ladder, or I can set the picture over there against the wall. So, I can put it in a place or a position. Sometimes it's actually used to mean "to sit". Okay? So, please set... Set the baby or set the child in the chair. It doesn't mean, like, plop it there, it means make the child sit in the chair. It's essentially the same idea, except we use the verb "set", rather than the verb "to sit". You can't say: "Please sit the child." You can say: "Seat the child in the chair", it means put him in the seat. Or, you could say: "Set the child in the chair", put him there. Okay? So, that's one common use of it. "Establish". Now, here I have "establish" and "build", they're essentially the same idea, but you build something physical-okay?-and you establish something not necessarily physical, more of an idea or a concept. So if I establish something, if I set up a fund... We often use it with the preposition "up", which makes it a phrasal verb: "Set up a fund" means establish. Set up a school, establish a school, or found a school, or begin a school. So, this is a very common use of the word "set", to establish something, to set it up, to begin it, to start it, etc. You can also set up something physical. For example, I'm going to be giving a performance, I want a little stage, so I set up the stage; I get it ready, I get it built, every... All the lights, everything's in place, and then I give my presentation, performance, whatever. If you have... If you're going to a conference or a convention for your company, you want to... You have a little booth where you're going to present your information, you can set up your exhibit, for example. Oops, sorry about that. So, "set up your exhibit" means you're building it, but you're also preparing it at the same time. It's the same idea. You can also "set" means to apply something to something. So, if you "set fire to the building" means you're applying fire, you're putting the fire to the building - the building goes up in flames. Okay? So, you can set, apply, or you can focus. You can "set your mind on something". And again, you notice that I'm using "set fire to", "set your mind on". A lot of the times, "set" is used as a phrasal verb, it's used with prepositions and they have the different meanings. So you're kind of... You're kind of getting a double lesson, here; you're getting phrasals and you're getting just the general word "set" as a verb. So, "set fire to", "set off the alarm" means you... There's smoke, it applied... You apply the source, the trigger to the alarm, the alarm goes off. You "set your mind on something".
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Phrasal Verbs with CARRY: "carry out", "carry away", "carry on"... Phrasal Verbs with CARRY: "carry out", "carry away", "carry on"...
3 years ago En
A phrasal verb is usually a verb plus a preposition that we use in a different context than the verb's original meaning. For example, did you know that "to carry a tune" means to sing well? To "carry" literally means to move something while supporting it, but it can mean different things when used in phrasal verbs. In this lesson, you will learn what it means to "carry out your tasks", "carry on" in class or at work, "get carried away", and more. QUIZ: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-with-carry/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about phrasal verbs, using the verb "carry". And again, phrasal... Phrasal verbs are verbs plus a preposition that, together, means something else than the two words themselves. Now, I know you've seen many of these phrasal verb lessons. Don't worry, I think we're almost done, because I've gone through most of them. "Carry", usually you carry... You carry a basket, you carry a child, you move something in your arms. You carry it. Right? So, most of those have to do with that idea of carrying something. The most common of these is "carry on". Okay? What does it mean to "carry on"? A few meanings. One is to continue. So, my staff is having a meeting, and I say: "Oh, sorry to interrupt everyone, but I need to make an announcement." I make an announcement. "Everybody understands. Yes? Okay, carry on, continue." Okay? It could also mean to continue something that's been going on for a long time. So, for example, Jimmy wants to carry on his father's tradition of having a barbeque every Sunday with the whole family, so to keep something going, like a tradition, a custom, etc. "Carry on with" is a little bit different. Actually, it's quite different. When you "carry on with someone", it usually mean you were flirting. Now, I'm not sure if you know this word, "to flirt". "To flirt" means to, like, have some fun with somebody of the opposite sex, or it could mean to have an actual affair, to have an affair with someone, to carry on with someone. Now, there's quite a few differences between British English and American English. In British English, "carry on" can also mean to talk, and talk, and talk, and talk, usually complaining about something. "Oh, stop carrying on about that. We don't care anymore." In American English, it would just be go on. "Stop. Oh, you're going on and on about this. Just forget it. Let it go. Move on. Continue." Okay? So, British/American, slightly different. "Carry over". "Carry over", it could mean carry something from here over to here, physically, but it could also mean to move something to another time, another place. For example, the meeting we had, we had too many things to speak about, we didn't finish everything on time, so we will carry it over to tomorrow. Tomorrow we will start again, and finish what we need to do. So, "carry over", move to a different time, place, position. "Carry back". Sometimes, you know, I'm driving in my car and I turn on the radio, and I hear this song, and it just carries me back to when I was a teenager in high school, and when I was just having fun. So, "carry back" means sort of like remind, but more in terms of nostalgia. Nostalgia. It just takes you back, carries you back to another time and place, a different mindset, etc. "Carry around". So, I can... If I have a baby, I could put on my little pouch thing on my back, put my baby on the back, and carry it around as I go for a little walk. So, you can, again, physically carry something around, but you can also carry around baggage, emotional baggage. So, for example, if you feel very, very guilty about something you did or something that happened, you can carry that guilt around with you for your whole life. It's like a weight on your shoulders, and you're carrying it around, even though it's just inside your head. Okay? So, that person is carrying around too much baggage, emotional baggage. "Carry off" means to complete something successfully. So, I had a big presentation at work, and after... After the presentation, my boss comes up to me, he goes: "You carried that off great. Good job." Right? I did it, I finished it, successful, everybody was happy. "Carry off" also means to take away. Okay? I picked her up and carried her off into the sunset, my darling, whoever she might be. "Out", "carry out" basically means to do, or more correctly is to perform. You carry out a task. Okay? You do something. If the boss asks you to do something and he wants you to carry... Carry it out as soon as possible. Okay? In British English, "carry out" is the same as American "take out". So you go to a restaurant, you order your food, and carry out; to go.
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IELTS & TOEFL Writing: 5 Common Mistakes IELTS & TOEFL Writing: 5 Common Mistakes
3 years ago En
Are you writing essays and getting the same score over and over again? Would you like to learn some techniques you can use to improve your writing and get a better score on the IELTS or TOEFL? Well, in this lesson, I will teach you five common errors that many students make that can lower their score. After watching this lesson, you will know what to avoid, what to include, and why trying too hard might actually be hurting your score. Take the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/ielts-toefl-writing-5-common-mistakes/ Visit Adam's site at http://www.writetotop.com/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson, we're looking at IELTS and TOEFL, the writing section, and we're going to look at the five most common mistakes that I see when I'm checking students' essays. Okay? Now, as usual, for the IELTS and TOEFL lesson, I will speak a little bit more natural speed, a little bit faster than usual. If you're a beginner, don't worry. Watch the video, listen, practice your listening. Get the vocabulary you need. It's all... It's good for everybody, but just a little bit harder. Okay? So, now, where do I begin? I check a lot of essays. Okay? People send me their essays, I check them, I edit them, I tell them what they're doing wrong, and I've come to the realization that there are certain mistakes that many, many people make. So, I want to tell you five of these common mistakes so that you can avoid making them. Okay? And the first one-and this is the most common mistake that I see-is that you are trying too hard. Now, what does this mean? Trying hard is a good thing, right? Yes, it is. But you're trying too hard to sound impressive. Okay? You're trying to impress the graders of these... Of these exams, IELTS and TOEFL, you think that by using big words or lots of idioms, or very, very long sentences that are very complex and have many clauses that you're getting a higher score. In fact, most of the times, you're actually hurting yourselves. Why? Because you're using words incorrectly, you're using them inappropriately, meaning in the wrong context or the wrong usage or in the wrong parts of speech; you're using a verb when you should use a noun, etc. When you write very, very long sentences, quite often, you have run-on sentences, mean... Meaning you have two independent clauses in one sentence, and no punctuation, and no conjunctions, and then the whole sentence falls apart and means nothing. And also, a lot of people use idioms because... Yeah, idioms will get you extra points, but they're using them incorrectly or in the wrong context. Again, make sure you know the words you're using, make sure you know the idioms you're using, and shorter sentences can actually be better. Simple is often better than complex. If you think about... As an analogy, if you think about cooking, the more spices you put into the dish, the less you taste the actual meat or the actual core of the dish. Simple is best. Let me give you an example. Here are two sentences. Okay? Let me read them to you. "The CEO", Chief Executive Officer, like the head of the company... "The CEO's tenure at the company was abbreviated due to his reluctance to integrate more females into upper managerial posts, thereby drawing the ire of the Board who consequently relieved him of his duties." Now, this sentence is perfectly okay. It's grammatically correct, all the words are being used correctly, but if you can write a sentence like this the way that I wrote it here, then you don't need to worry about the IELTS or the TOEFL; your English is obviously very high level. If you can do this, then this test will be very easy for you. However, a lot of people, a lot of test-takers try to write this sentence, and then they end up making many, many mistakes. They don't use this word correctly: "abbreviated", they say: "abbreviation". Okay? That's the more common thing of it. "Abbreviated" means made shorter. Okay? "Reluctance", hesitance, like not really wanting to. This word: "ire". I write all the time, I write for a living. I never use this word "ire", because it's so old-fashioned. And also, it's a small word. Right? So you don't need many syllables, you don't need very rare words. You need to be simple, you need to get your message across. The most important part of the test is: Answer the question. They give you a task, answer it. Answer it clearly, concisely. Means: Use fewer words, not more words. If you can say the same thing in fewer words, get the message across, make it clear, make the reader interested, then you'll get higher points than if you write something like this. Okay? Let's look at this sentence: "The CEO's time was cut short because he wouldn't promote women to top positions, which angered the Board who then fired him." Okay, look at the two sentences. This sentence means exactly the same thing as this sentence.
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English Vocabulary: Having a BABY English Vocabulary: Having a BABY
3 years ago En
Are you or someone you know expecting a baby? If so, you will need this lesson on vocabulary and expressions relating to childbirth. You will learn words such as "trimester", "embryo", "midwife", "stroller", and more. There are also a few important expressions that need to be clarified. For example, "going into labour" does not mean you have a job interview. And no, an "OBGYN" is not some sort of cocktail. Having a baby is an exciting time! This lesson will help prepare you for that special day. Go to engVid.com to take the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-having-a-baby/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a special one. We're going to talk about having a baby. Everybody loves babies, everybody wants to know: How does this happen? Well, maybe not how it happens, but what happens along the way. So, we're going to talk about having a baby, we're going to talk from the beginning right till you're ready to take the baby home. So, what happens first? You "conceive" a baby. "Conceive" is the verb. What happens is "conception". At this stage, the "sperm", the male sperm goes into the female "egg". Okay? You're on a vacation somewhere, you don't... You know, you're having fun on your anniversary, you're celebrating, and you conceive a baby. It happens. A cold winter night, too cold to go outside, nothing on TV, you don't know what to do - you conceive a baby. It happens this way, too. So, most people don't know when they conceive their baby, but they know roughly when. Eventually, the woman will miss her period, you know, which happens every month, and then she will take a pregnancy test with one of those sticks, or she will go to the doctor, and she will find up... Find out that she was "knocked up". "Knocked up" is a very slang expression to mean pregnant. Or, you could say: "She has a bun in the oven." Okay? So, these are two idioms, slang, for "pregnant". So, the woman is pregnant, what happens next? So, now, she has... She goes to the doctor. The doctor, by the way, is the "OBGYN" for short. "OBGYN, that's what most people say." The "OB" is the obstetrician; the GYN is the gynecologist. These are female doctors. Not... The doctors themselves are not necessarily female. They're doctors for women. Okay? The obstetrician is the one who delivers the baby; the gynecologist is the one who checks the woman's body, makes sure everything's okay, the baby's okay, the woman's okay, everything is set to go. After the visit to the doctor, you will... The woman will get, or the couple will get a "due date". So, the baby is due, generally, roughly nine months later. Okay? Nine months later, the woman will "give birth" to the baby, or she will "deliver" the baby. Just before that happens, she will "go into labour". So, all of these... All these expressions are basically the same time. She goes into labour... I forgot to mention a word, here. She has "contractions". This is when she feels that pain in the stomach or wherever it happens, that it's very quick, very sharp pain. It comes, it goes. The closer the contractions, the closer she is to giving birth. So, she goes into the... Into labour, she goes to the hospital, and that's where the OBGYN will help deliver the baby. Now, over the course of the nine months, there are three "trimesters". Now, this might sound familiar. Maybe you know "semester" from high school, you have semesters; one's fall semester, winter semester, and then summer vacation. In a pregnancy, you have a "trimester", so about three months, three months, three months. During that time, the... The sperm and the egg, basically they come together, and then they start developing. The first stage is called a "zygote", the baby or the zygote is, like, tiny, tiny. Then it becomes an "embryo", this is another stage of the development process. Then it becomes a "fetus", another stage. And finally, it comes out as a "baby". Okay. So, now, the OBGYN will have to help deliver the baby. It could be a "natural birth", and in which case everything just happens naturally. Maybe the woman will want an "epidural". Okay? "Epidural" is a needle, it's a big needle they stick in her spine, basically it relaxes all the muscles so she has less pain and it's a little bit easier to push the baby out. Sometimes and in some situations, the woman will have a "caesarean" or sometimes called a "C-section". This is when the doctor has to cut the stomach and pull the baby out that way. Okay? Sometimes it's by choice, sometimes it's by necessity. Now, one other way... Another person, by the way, who can help with the baby is a "midwife". Some people don't like to go to the hospital to have the baby; they want to have the baby at home. The OBGYN will not come to your house, but there are people who are trained to deliver babies at home naturally, no epidural, no C-section, no medicines, no machines. Just you, your bed, and the baby coming out. Okay?
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Mixed Verb Tenses in English: Conditionals and IF clauses Mixed Verb Tenses in English: Conditionals and IF clauses
3 years ago En Ru
How many verb tenses can you count in the following sentences? "If you practice every day, you will improve. But you also need to know that if you didn't develop good study habits in the past, you might have trouble in the future." There are several verb tenses in this excerpt, and they are all mixed together. But complex sentences like these are what make English a very rich and interesting language. In this challenging lesson, we will look at conditional sentences that mix tenses and even use the verb "will" in the "if" clause. Make sure to do the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/mixed-verb-tenses-in-english-conditionals-and-if-clauses/ to practice and perfect your understanding of mixed tenses. TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit tricky. It's grammar, it's conditionals, but we're going to look at "Mixed Conditionals". Now, before I get into the different types of ways that you can mix tenses and the conditionals, I want to do a very quick review of the conditionals that most of you learn in your ESL classes or your English... Other English classes, because these are the ones that are most commonly taught, and everybody, all your teachers want you to memorize these structures. The problem is then you might see mixed conditionals in other places, and you get all confused. Okay? I'm not going to get too deep into these, because you can find other good lessons by other engVid teachers who have already covered some of these on the site. I'm just going to do a quick review, and then I'll get into... Deeper into the mixed conditionals. So here are the four main types of conditionals you learn: "If I won the lottery, I'd buy a house." So this, just so we are clear, is "would", I've contracted it to "I'd". "If I won", I have simple past tense, plus "would" in the second clause, in the condition clause, in the result clause. "If I had known she was coming, I'd have come too." Okay? Here I have the past perfect, plus "would have" plus PP, past participle verb. Now, these are both unreal, mean... Meaning that they are hypothetical, they are imaginary. This is about a future or present unreal situation. I didn't win the lottery, I'm not buying a house; this is all just imagination. This is about the past. Now, the reason it is unreal is because I can't go and change the past. So, this didn't happen, and so this didn't happen. This is, again, imagination, but we're looking at the past. Okay? "If you boil water, it evaporates." If you notice here, I have simple present verb and simple present verb. This is a real conditional. It means it's true. Whenever you have a fact-okay?-a result is based on this condition and it's always true... By the way, "evaporates" means becomes steam, it goes away. Right? If you boil water, eventually you have no more water in the pot. So this is a real conditional, always true. Simple present, simple present. Lastly: "If you study hard, you will pass the test." Simple present verb, "will", verb, like future. So, again, this is a real situation, because this is true. If you do this, this will happen as a result. So these are the ones that you mostly learn. If you have any questions, again, go to www.engvid.com, find the lessons about these that can explain it in more detail. But now we're going to see other situations, other sentences with "if" conditionals that are not like these. Sometimes we can mix tenses, sometimes you can... Sorry. Let me stop myself, here. Sometimes your teachers tell you: "Never put 'will' with the 'if' clause." Well, what I'm going to show you is that sometimes, yeah, you can. This is the problem with English: There's always exceptions to the rules. Today we're going to look at some of those exceptions. Okay? Let's see what happens. Okay. So now we're going to look at a few different types of mixtures, if you want to call it that, with the "if" clauses. But before I start to show you these examples, I want you to understand that these mixed conditionals are all about context. You can generally understand what is going on, what the relationship between the two verbs are by looking at the context, looking at the time, looking at the place, looking at the situation that's going on, and should... It usually should be very clear, but in case you're wondering how to construct these so you can use them yourselves, I'll show you with a few examples. Okay? These are in no particular order. They're just examples, and we're going to look at them individually.
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Phrasal Verbs with SET: set up, set in, set to... Phrasal Verbs with SET: set up, set in, set to...
3 years ago En Ru
The verb "set" can mean many different things in English, depending on how you use it. In this lesson, you will build your vocabulary with phrasal verbs using the verb "set". We will look at expressions such as "set in", "set to", "set out", and more. The context of "set" can also change its meaning. For example, you will learn the difference between "setting up someone on a date" and "setting up someone for arrest". Set yourself up for success by watching this lesson and doing the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-with-set/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about phrasal verbs. We're going to look at the phrasal verbs with "set". Okay? Again, a phrasal verb is a verb and a preposition that together have a very different meaning than the two words individually. Okay? Not the literal meaning. So we're going to look at: "set up", "set in", "to", "on", "down", "against", "aside", "back", "apart", "out", "off", and "about"-those are similar so I put them together-and this is an idiom, it's not a phrasal verb, but I thought I would throw it in there: "to set someone straight". Okay, let's start with "set up". "Set up" has quite a few meanings. Okay? We set up something, for example, a display. It means we build it, we construct it, or we put it together. So I want to... For example, I want to display a painting, so I set up the easel, the display. I build it, I put it all together, and then I put the painting on top of that. Okay? In a similar way, we build a business. Okay? So we set up a business. Sometimes we say we "set up shop". We set up shop; we start a business. We also use "set up shop" as a slang expression, it means to start doing something like a professional, but depends on the context for that. Now, you can also set someone up, means to arrange a meeting or create, like, a date. So, I have a single friend, a guy, and my... My girlfriend has a single girlfriend, and we set them up. It means we bring them together, we say: "Oh, let's go out for dinner", we all meet together, and then we introduce them, and maybe they go on a date later. So we arrange this meeting, we set them up for a date. You can also set someone up, meaning, like, frame them. This is usually in terms of crimes. So I want this person to go to jail, so I will set them up. I will put some drugs in their office, and I will call the police and say: "Oh, this guy has drugs." The police will come, they will check, they will find the drugs, and they will arrest this person. So I set him up for arrest. Okay? Now, I put here the "to", because we can say we... "You set someone up to", verb. What this means is you put them in a position. So, for example, I have a child and if I don't educate my child properly, then I am setting him up to fail in the future. Why? Because he doesn't have the tools to succeed. You can also say... You can make it a noun, you can say: "set up" or "set someone up for failure". Put them in that position that the only thing that can happen is they will fail. Okay? So that is "set up". "Set in". "Set in" basically means, like, take hold. But not like physically holding with your hand. Something captures or catches the thing it's meant to do. So here's an example: I'm walking through the jungle, I'm trekking through the jungle and a snake bites me. It's a poisonous snake. So the poison enters my arm, goes into the bloodstream, and starts to move. I'm okay, nothing happens. I'm walking, I think I should go to the hospital. But soon, the poison sets in. It takes hold of the body, of my system, and suddenly I can't move, and I fall to the ground. Or if you're in a dangerous situation, at the beginning, you think: "Okay, you know, it's not so bad", but then suddenly the fear sets in. The fear takes over your mind, it holds your mind, because you realize it's a very, very dangerous situation. We have a couple other expressions. "Set foot in", if you set foot in a place, it means you enter it. So if I'm a storeowner and I catch you stealing something, I will say: "Okay, I will let you go this time, but if you ever set foot in my store again, if you even a little bit come inside, I will call the police and have you arrested." Okay? We also have "set in motion". These are both common expressions. "To set in motion" means to get something started. So, there were riots in the city last week, but the police and the media are still trying to figure out what set it in motion. What was the trigger? What was the initial cause that got this thing started, got it moving? Okay?
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10 ways to use the word WAY in English 10 ways to use the word WAY in English
3 years ago En
The word "way" can be used to talk about work, or to talk about sex. Do you know how to use "way" correctly? In this practical lesson you'll learn 10 expressions using the word "way", and hear examples of when each one can be used. These are very common expressions for native English speakers, and you'll be able to use them correctly after this lesson! Learning expressions is a great way to become more fluent in English. Some of these expressions may surprise and entertain you! QUIZ: http://www.engvid.com/10-ways-to-use-the-word-way-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. My name's Adam. Today's lesson is about expressions using the word "way". Now the reason I decided to have this lesson is because English is a funny language, and it's full of expressions, and for those of you who are studying English and just getting into it, a lot of these expressions and the contexts they are used in will be completely unclear to you; very confusing. So I'm going to clear up some of these. There are 10 here, you'll be ready to go after these. Okay. A very common expression: "a two-way street". Now, you know you're driving, a one-way street means only cars... Cars can only go one way; not the other way. But we use this expression to mean a reciprocal relationship. This is a high-end word for those of you who need it also, but it goes both ways. So if we have a relationship and only one person is making the decisions, or only one person is giving opinions, or only one person is deciding where to go eat every night, for example - that's a one-way street. All the decisions, all the ideas are coming from one person to the other. A two-way street is when both people have equal share in the relationship, equal responsibility, equal duties, etc., and both contribute to their relationship. It's a two-way street. You can think about when you're talking about your boss. If your boss is very tough and what he says goes, then it's a one-way street in terms of command. But if your boss is friendly and listens to his staff, then he has a two-way street relationship. "Get out of someone's way" or "get out of the way", so one like very straightforward according to the words means get out of the way. I'm coming through, move. Get out of my way. Okay? Very, like the physical get out of the way. But you can also get out of someone's way, mean don't put an obstacle in front of them. Okay? I am going to be the President of America, and if you think you're going to stop me, I tell you: "Get out of my way", because nothing's going to stop me. I'm going straight to the White House. Okay? So you better get out of my way, because I feel very sorry for you if you try to stop me. But "get out of the way" has a different expression, that's why I put these... It's a different expression, I put these in brackets. To get something out of the way or to get it out of the way, for example, you go to university, and I know in Canada, we have to take certain courses. It doesn't matter what we major in, what we study, some courses we have to take. So, I studied philosophy, for example, but I had to take astronomy. I had to take a science class. I chose astronomy. I figured, you know, stars, whatever, they're interesting, they're pretty, why not? Right? So, what I did, my first year I took that class and I got it out of the way. It's to the side, now I can continue doing what I want to do, what I want to study. So to get it out of the way, finish it, put it away, move on to the next thing. Oh, "by the way", did I mention that this is another very useful expression? "By the way" is probably the most commonly used of these expressions. When you're talking to someone and you suddenly remember something, or you suddenly thought of something that is related to the idea or even not related, you can say... You can stop, you can interrupt the person, and say: "Oh, by the way, I saw Suzie last week and she says hello." We're talking about old high school friends, I remember: "Oh, yeah, Suzie, we went to high school with her." I just remembered her in the middle of the conversation, say: "Oh, by the way"-it means I just remembered-"I saw Suzie, she says hi. Okay, let's continue the conversation", or talk about Suzie, whatever you want. It's a bit of an interruption, but not rude. It's actually okay to use.
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Learn English: How to understand native speakers Learn English: How to understand native speakers
3 years ago En Ru
Do you find it hard to understand casual English conversations? It's not your fault! Native speakers don't speak clearly, but you still need to understand them. In daily conversation, we take shortcuts in our speech. This is usually done by "dropping" consonant sounds. In today's video I'll explain why this happens, and how you can improve your understanding of native speaker pronunciation. You'll get to hear some of the most common words and expressions that English speakers drop consonants from so you'll be prepared when you hear them. I'll also teach you strategies to improve your English listening skills and recommend some listening exercises you can do while listening to music and watching movies. http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-how-to-understand-native-speakers/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit tricky because I want to help you understand native speakers. I want you to understand how they speak. So, for example, if you hear somebody say: "What did you do that for?" You should be able to understand what the person said. Now, whether you understood what I just said or not, not important yet; we're going to get to that. So "Native Speaker Pronunciation". Now, before I get into this lesson, I want you to understand: I don't want to teach you how to speak like this. Okay? I don't want you to speak like this. I want you to speak good, clear, strong English, just like I'm speaking to you now. But I also want you to understand that when I am with my Canadian friends, for example, I speak a little bit more like this. It's just natural, it's habit. It's not a good habit, but it's habit. Okay? Now, I had a few comments on www.engvid.com, quite a few people asking me: Why do I understand you? Like why do you understand me, Adam, but when I watch a TV show or when I watch a movie, I don't know what they're saying? Why? Why such a big difference? Well, first of all, let me say that I am speaking to you, knowing what you can and cannot understand, for the most part. So I don't speak to you like I... Like I would with my Canadian friends who are native English speakers. I don't speak to you like Hollywood actors speak on the movie. Okay? I'm speaking to an audience. I know that they need to listen to me, that you need to understand everything I say, so I enunciate, I speak very clearly. I stress each syllable so that you can catch every word I say. But I'm going to talk about when and where to speak like this in a minute. So, I did actually do a lesson about how to speak like a native speaker before. You can learn how to make elisions, how to connect sounds, how to... When you have two sounds that are the same, to drop one of them. This is a little bit different. We're going to look at dropped sounds inside words. Now, these words, for example: "listen", no "t"; "plumber", no "b"; "dumb", no "b". These words are not dropped sounds words. These are just the way these words are constructed; we are supposed to make the "t" silent, we are supposed to make the "b" silent. That's just how the word is built. But native speakers, native English speakers... And I'm sure this is the same in your native language if you pay attention carefully to how you speak and how your friends speak, we like to take shortcuts. Okay? We don't like too many syllables. We like to have fewer and fewer syllables to make the speech go faster. We don't want to think too much about what we're saying. So, for example, here are a few words. Now, I'm looking at consonant clusters. Does everybody remember what a consonant is? B, c, d, f, g, etc. Vowels: a, e, i, o, u. All the other letters, consonants. So when we have consonant clusters, these are groups when you have consonants bunched together; you have a few of them together. When we have words with this situation, we tend to drop one, maybe two of those consonants. So, for example, the word "probably". Pro-bab-ly, pro-bab-ly-. I have three syllables in this word, but when I'm speaking in natural speed, I say: "Probly". -"Are you coming to the party tomorrow night?" -"Yeah, probly." Now you're watching me on a TV or you're watching me in a movie, and you're thinking: -"What?" -"Probly." -"What?" -"Probly." Okay? All I'm saying is "probably", but what I'm doing, because I have "b, b, l", I have a little cluster of consonant sounds, I'll just drop this one; I don't need it. You'll understand me without it, right? I think with another native speaker. "Probly". "Good bye", even two consonants, ah, too much. "Gobye. Gobye". I barely even say the o's, I just say like: "Gobye". Okay? "Old friend". Now, in the other video, I told you if the letters... The very last letter and the first letter are the same, you can drop one, but we do it anyway, even if they're not the same. "I have an ol' friend. Ol' friend who I met for dinner last night. Oh, I met an ol' friend from high school."
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The 4 English Sentence Types – simple, compound, complex, compound-complex The 4 English Sentence Types – simple, compound, complex, compound-complex
3 years ago En
Did you know there are only four sentence types in English? To improve your writing and reading skills in English, I'll teach you all about simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences in this grammar video. You'll learn how to identify the independent and dependent clauses. Don't worry, it's easier than it sounds! By learning to identify and use these sentence structures, you'll make your writing more interesting and dynamic. I'll also share many example sentences in the lesson, so you can practice with my help. http://www.engvid.com/the-4-english-sentence-types-simple-compound-complex-compound-complex/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a writing lesson, but it's also a spoken English lesson. It's about anything to do with English, because we're going to be looking at sentence types. Now, of course, when you speak, you're using all kinds of sentence types. But, especially in writing, it's important to know the different types of sentences, because, especially if you're going to be writing tests, they want to see sentence variety. And even if you're not writing tests, anything you write, if you're using only one type of sentence, your writing becomes very bland, very boring, very hard to follow, because it's a little bit monotone. So what you need to do is you need to vary... You need a variety of sentence structures in your writing to give it a little bit more life. Okay? Luckily, you only need to know four sentence types. We have simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences, and compound-complex. Now, this is not exactly easy, but it's not exactly hard, either. If you figure out what you need to have in each one, in each sentence type, just make sure it's there. Okay? Let's start. A simple sentence has one independent clause. A little bit of review: What is an independent clause? An independent clause has a subject and a verb, and can complete an idea. It can stand by itself, because the idea in that clause is complete. I don't need to add anything else to it. Okay. A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses, joined by a conjunction. A compound conjunction: "and", "but", "or", "so", "for" (not very common), etc. So, we join two independent clauses with a compound conjunction. You can have more, but again, you have to be a little bit careful. Once you get to three, start to look for a way to finish your sentence, because if you get to the fourth, you already have a crazy sentence that has the... Runs the risk of being a run-on sentence. Eventually, you're going to make a mistake, you're going to miss something, and the whole sentence falls apart. I don't recommend three, but you can put three. Then we have a complex sentence. A complex sentence has one independent clause, plus one or more dependent clause. A dependent clause is a clause that has a subject and a verb, but cannot stand by itself. It is not a complete idea. It has some sort of relationship to the independent clause. We have three types of dependent clauses. We have noun clauses, we have adjective clauses, and we have adverb clauses. Okay? That's a whole separate lesson. You can look at that later. But you have to have one of these, plus one of these, and you have a complex sentence. Next we have a compound-complex sentence. Here you have two or more independent clauses, again, joined by a conjunction, and one or more dependent clause. Okay? So you have basically all the elements in this sentence. Then, once you have all this stuff, you can add as many complements, or basically extras, as you want. So, let's look at an example. We're going to start with the simple sentence: "Layla studied biology." Very simple. I have a subject, I have a verb, I have an object. Okay? This is a simple sentence. It's an independent clause; it can stand by itself as a complete idea. Now, I can add anything I want to this that is not another clause of any type, and it'll still be a simple sentence. So I can say: "My friend Layla studied biology in university." I'll just say "uni" for short. I have more information, but do I have a different type of sentence? No. It's still a simple sentence. Now, let's look at this sentence. First, let me read it to you: "Even with the weather being that nasty, the couple and their families decided to go ahead with the wedding as planned." Now you're thinking: "Wow, that's got to be a complex sentence", right? "It's so long. There's so much information in it." But, if we look at it carefully, it is still a simple sentence. Why? Because we only have one independent clause. Where is it? Well, find the subject and verb combination first. So, what is the subject in this sentence? I'll give you a few seconds, figure it out. Hit the pause key, look at it. Okay, we're back. Here is the subject: "the couple and their families". Now, don't get confused with this "and".
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