minutephysics
Simply put: cool physics and other sweet science. "If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough." ~Rutherford via Einstein? (wikiquote) Created by Henry Reich

236 videos
Why Do Mirrors Flip Left & Right (but not up & down)? Why Do Mirrors Flip Left & Right (but not up & down)?
1 week ago En
Go to https://curiositystream.com/minutephysics to check out MinuteBody, and for a free month of CuriosityStream PLUS Nebula! Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about why words flip left & right (aka horizontally) in a mirror but not up & down (aka vertically). The answer has to do with specular reflection, mirrors being like windows into another world (alternate universes, just with in and out flipped!), and transparency of the things we write on. REFERENCES Specular Reflection https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specular_reflection PhysicsGirl video about mirrors https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBpxhfBlVLU Fermat’s principle http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/optics421/modules/m1/Fermat's%20principle.htm Thomas-Fermi screening https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas%E2%80%93Fermi_screening MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Do Photons Cast Shadows? Do Photons Cast Shadows?
1 month ago En
Thanks to CuriosityStream for their support. Go to http://www.curiositystream.com/minutephysics to watch Particle Fever and get Nebula! Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about two-photon (gamma-gamma) physics, and how photons can interact with each other - either mediated by a passing lepton, or gravitationally via lensing, or via vacuum fluctuation pair production of vertical particles (electron-positron pair, for example). This is the so-called "box diagram" feynman diagram. REFERENCES Water waves interact with each other (weakly nonlinear shallow water waves) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korteweg%E2%80%93deVriesequation http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Korteweg-deVriesEquation.html Paper: Absorption of Very High Energy Gamma Rays in the Milky Way https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.01587.pdf Paper: Observing light-by-light scattering at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) https://arxiv.org/pdf/1305.7142.pdf Mass-Energy Scale http://labs.minutelabs.io/Mass-Energy-Scale/ Optical Depth https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opticaldepth The electromagnetic spectrum and photon energies http://labman.phys.utk.edu/phys222core/modules/m6/The%20EM%20spectrum.html Gravitational Lensing http://andybohn.com/research/lensing.html Ask an Astrophysicist on gamma ray scattering and energies in cosmology http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlnasa/reference/imaginedvd/files/imagine/docs/askastro/answers/970412e.html Measuring Vacuum Polarisation with High Power Lasers https://arxiv.org/pdf/1510.08456.pdf Detecting vacuum birefringence with X-ray free electron lasers and high-power optical lasers https://indico.desy.de/indico/event/12654/session/2/contribution/8/material/slides/0.pdf Vacuum birefringence in the head-on collision of XFEL and optical high-intensity laser pulses https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.03302.pdf ATLAS makes first direct detection of Light-by-light scattering at the LHC https://atlas.cern/updates/press-statement/atlas-sees-first-direct-evidence-light-light-scattering-high-energy Two Photon Physics http://www.hep.ucl.ac.uk/opal/gammagamma/gg-tutorial.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-photonphysics Thesis: The Opacity of the Universe for high and very high energy γ-rays http://inspirehep.net/record/1254304/files/desy-thesis-13-033.pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
The Man Who Corrected Einstein The Man Who Corrected Einstein
2 months ago En
Sign up for Brilliant FOR FREE at http://brilliant.org/minutephysics - the first 200 people get 20% of a premium subscription. This video is about how Russian physicist Aleksandr Fridman corrected Albert Einstein about the expansion of the universe. Einstein thought that general relativity implied that space had to be static and unchanging, but he had made a technical error regarding the differentiation of the metric (in particular, I believe he mistook the determinant of the metric for a scalar rather than a tensor density of weight 2). Friedmann didn't make this differential geometric mistake, and the cosmologies he found from the Einstein Equations were more varied in their properties - they could be expanding, or contracting, or (with the cosmological constant), static. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES Alexander Friedmann https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Friedmann Einstein Wrongly Criticizes Alexander Friedmann https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol13-trans/301 Alexander Friedmann Corrects Einstein https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol13-trans/363 Einstein Admits his Mathematical Mistake https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol14-trans/77 Interrogating the Legend of Einstein’s “Biggest Blunder” https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.06768 Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/433 On the General Theory of Relativity (Einstein) https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/110 The Field Equations of Gravitation https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/129 The Einstein Field Equations https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_field_equations Presentation about the Sequence of Events http://web.mit.edu/8.286/www/slides07/Einstein-and-Friedmann.pdf Tensor Densities: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensor_density MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
When It's OK to Violate Privacy When It's OK to Violate Privacy
2 months ago En
Go to http://www.dashlane.com/minutephysics for a free 30 day trial and 10% discount with offer code 'minutephysics' Watch the main video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pT19VwBAqKA Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES Cynthia Dwork (key inventor of Differential Privacy), giving a great intro talk about differential privacy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lg-VhHlztqo Hazards of Smoking: the Effect on Life Span https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMsa1211128 NHL Hockey Birth distributions https://www.quanthockey.com/nhl/birth-month-totals/nhl-players-career-stats.html MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Protecting Privacy with MATH (Collab with the Census) Protecting Privacy with MATH (Collab with the Census)
3 months ago En
This video was made in collaboration with the US Census Bureau and fact-checked by Census Bureau scientists. Any opinions and errors are my own. For more information, visit https://census.gov/about/policies/privacy/statistical_safeguards.html or search "differential privacy" at http://census.gov. REFERENCES Differential Privacy in the Wild: http://www.vldb.org/pvldb/vol9/p1611-machanavajjhala.pdf Harvard University Privacy Tools Project: https://privacytools.seas.harvard.edu/differential-privacy Simons Institute Workshop Video Recordings and Articles Archive: https://simons.berkeley.edu/workshops/schedule/6281 Cynthia Dwork (key inventor of Differential Privacy), giving a great intro talk about differential privacy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lg-VhHlztqo Shiva P Kasiviswanathan and Adam Smith. On the semantics of differential privacy: A Bayesian formulation. Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality, 6(1):1–16, 2014. Shiva Prasad Kasiviswanathan and Adam Smith. On the ‘semantics’ of differential privacy: A Bayesian formulation. 2015. https://arxiv.org/abs/0803.3946 Daniel Kifer and Ashwin Machanavajjhala. A rigorous and customizable framework for privacy. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODS), 2012. Daniel Kifer and Ashwin Machanavajjhala. Pufferfish: A framework for mathematical privacy definitions. ACM Trans. Database Syst., 39(1):3, 2014. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How to Build a Lava Moat (with xkcd) How to Build a Lava Moat (with xkcd)
3 months ago En
Where to Buy "How To" by Randall Munroe: · PRH.com: https://bit.ly/2L2G5hy · Amazon: https://bit.ly/2zfy974 · Barnes and Noble: https://bit.ly/2Zozxmt · IndieBound: https://bit.ly/2ZfwSre · Books-A-Million: https://bit.ly/2ZfxD3y · Apple Books: https://bit.ly/33TK3kX The world's most entertaining and useless self-help guide, from the brilliant mind behind the wildly popular webcomic xkcd and the #1 New York Times bestsellers What If? and Thing Explainer For any task you might want to do, there's a right way, a wrong way, and a way so monumentally complex, excessive, and inadvisable that no one would ever try it. How To is a guide to the third kind of approach. It's full of highly impractical advice for everything from landing a plane to digging a hole. Bestselling author and cartoonist Randall Munroe explains how to predict the weather by analyzing the pixels of your Facebook photos. He teaches you how to tell if you're a baby boomer or a 90's kid by measuring the radioactivity of your teeth. He offers tips for taking a selfie with a telescope, crossing a river by boiling it, and powering your house by destroying the fabric of space-time. And if you want to get rid of the book once you're done with it, he walks you through your options for proper disposal, including dissolving it in the ocean, converting it to a vapor, using tectonic plates to subduct it into the Earth's mantle, or launching it into the Sun. By exploring the most complicated ways to do simple tasks, Munroe doesn't just make things difficult for himself and his readers. As he did so brilliantly in What If?, Munroe invites us to explore the most absurd reaches of the possible. Full of clever infographics and amusing illustrations, How To is a delightfully mind-bending way to better understand the science and technology underlying the things we do every day. REFERENCES How To (Randall Munroe) - see above for links! Rock melting points http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Geophys/meltrock.html Syracuse University Researchers Make Lava Using Keweenawan Basalt http://lavaproject.syr.edu/making-lava/making.html BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF WISCONSIN MAP: UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN–EXTENSION Geological and Natural History Survey Electric Furnace https://www.amazon.com/Automatic-Electric-Refining-Precious-Aluminum/dp/B07LCKKFWX/ Large Geothermal Power Plants https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/largest-geothermal-power-plants-in-the-world.html https://www.calpine.com/operations/power-operations/our-locations/california/ridge-line Coal Power Plant Capacity https://www.talenenergy.com/plant/colstrip/ The size of an A19 or A21 Lightbulb https://blog.1000bulbs.com/home/a21-vs-a19 Low melting point Vanadate glass https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1143/JJAP.50.088002 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Why Some Days Aren’t 24 Hours Why Some Days Aren’t 24 Hours
3 months ago En
Check out the "What is a Day?" interactive video at https://labs.minutelabs.io/what-is-a-day/ It's super cool!! (and made by Jasper Palfree & the MinuteEarth/MinutePhysics team) The MinutePhysics video about Why December Has the Longest Days: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nZMMuv0Ltyo This video is about the length of a solar day vs a stellar day vs a mean standard day, what they all have to do with each other and the earth's orbit, eccentricity, axial tilt, and so on. Also, aliens and asteroids. It'll explain the equation of time, and why the longest day is in December. The lab will also show you what days are like on all the other planets - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and even - though it's not a planet - Pluto. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Einstein's Biggest Blunder, Explained Einstein's Biggest Blunder, Explained
4 months ago En
Thanks to Brilliant for supporting MinutePhysics. Get 20% off a premium subscription at https://www.Brilliant.org/minutephysics This video is about how Albert Einstein made a mistake when applying the Field Equations of General Relativity to cosmology (in particular, to a static, constant density universe), and solved the problem by introducing the cosmological constant, rather than allowing for a dynamic universe with a scale factor - that is, the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe, first developed by Alexander Friedmann of Russia. Later, it was discovered by the Slipher and Hubble red-shift that the universe is indeed expanding, and even later, by Schwarz and company in 1998, that the expansion is accelerating - aka, dark energy. And the cosmological constant was re-introduced. REFERENCES The Einstein Field Equations https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_field_equations Interrogating the Legend of Einstein’s “Biggest Blunder” https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.06768 On the General Theory of Relativity (Einstein) https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/110 The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity (Albert Einstein) https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/158 Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/433 Einstein Wrongly Criticizes Alexander Friedmann https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol13-trans/301 Alexander Friedmann Corrects Einstein https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol13-trans/363 Einstein Admits his Mathematical Mistake https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol14-trans/77 The Field Equations of Gravitation https://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/129 George Gamow https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Gamow Mach’s Principle https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mach%27s_principle Equivalence Principle https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_principle Sean Carroll and William Press Paper https://preposterousuniverse.com/wp-content/uploads/cpt92.pdf Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
The Portal Paradox The Portal Paradox
5 months ago En
Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting this video. Head to http://curiositystream.com/minutephysics and use promo code minutephysics for 30 days FREE! This video is about the Portal Paradox - a paradox in the video game Portal (and Portal 2) regarding whether or not a companion cube passing through a moving portal plops out of the other end with no speed (velocity, momentum), or shoots out at high speed. It’s a question of conservation of momentum, relativity of velocities, wormholes, 3D printers and quantum teleportation, glitches, and more. REFERENCES Conservation of momentum https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Momentum#Conservation_in_a_continuum Principle of Locality https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_locality YouTube video of testing the Portal 2 game engine on the portal Paradox https://youtu.be/S85nudR6D-Y Tutorial for how to program the Portal portals on your own: https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/132164/games_demystified_portal.php Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Our Ignorance About Gravity Our Ignorance About Gravity
5 months ago En
Thanks to the Heising Simons Foundation (https://www.hsfoundation.org/) for their support of this video, and of short range gravity research. This video is about how little we know about the behavior of gravity at short length and distance scales, what the constraints are on the inverse square law/Newton's law of universal gravitation, at the human and microscopic and atomic scales. Only on solar system scales or larger do we have good constraints on Newton's law of gravitation. REFERENCES Review of short-range gravity experiments in the LHC era https://arxiv.org/abs/1408.3588v2 Zeptonewton force sensing with nanospheres in an optical lattice https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.02122 Large extra dimensions https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_extra_dimension Search for Screened Interactions Associated with Dark Energy Below the 100 μm Length Scale https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.04908 Tests of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law below the Dark-Energy Length Scale https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0611184v1 Photon Mass Experiment http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.13149 Torsion balance experiments: A low-energy frontier of particle physics E.G. Adelberger, J.H. Gundlach, B.R. Heckel, S. Hoedl, S. Schlamminger doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2008.08.002 TESTS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL INVERSE-SQUARE LAW E.G. Adelberger, B.R. Heckel, and A.E. Nelson Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 2003. 53:77–121 doi: 10.1146/annurev.nucl.53.041002.110503 Physical Review A, Vol 33, No 1: Improved result for the accuracy of Coulomb's law: A review of the Williams, Faller, and Hill experiment. Lewis P. Fulcher. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
I Had to Build a Custom Mute Switch for my Violin I Had to Build a Custom Mute Switch for my Violin
6 months ago En
Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this video! The first 200 people to go to https://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics will get 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics This video is about how I designed and made my own custom mute guitar pedal for my clip-on mic and piezo pickup on my violin (fiddle). The mic is an AT Pro35 phantom powered XLR condensor microphone, and the pickup is a Fishman V200 piezoelectric transducer. I got all of the parts from PartsExpress. Thanks to my band (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEKRoVVSZKGih6v_xK4LAdw), Caleb, Pete, Paul and Troy, and to Hannah for filming. Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES: Gearslutz mute wiring for phantom powered vs dynamic/line-level microphones: https://www.gearslutz.com/board/geekslutz-forum/813680-how-wire-external-xlr-off-switch-pedal.html Beavis Audio Research: http://beavisaudio.com/techpages/ Pickups on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pickup_%28music_technology%29 Microphone mute pedal on “I like to make stuff” https://iliketomakestuff.com/make-microphone-mute-pedal/ Balanced vs unbalanced audio: http://www.aviom.com/blog/balanced-vs-unbalanced/ Balanced signals on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balanced_audio Phantom Power: http://acousticguitar.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-microphone-phantom-power/ Phantom Power explained on Sweetwater: https://www.sweetwater.com/insync/how-phantom-power-works/ Piezoelectricity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piezoelectricity#Mechanism MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How Shor's Algorithm Factors 314191 How Shor's Algorithm Factors 314191
6 months ago En
Go to http://www.dashlane.com/minutephysics to download Dashlane for free, and use offer code minutephysics for 10% off Dashlane Premium! Watch the main video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lvTqbM5Dq4Q Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics This video explains how Shor’s Algorithm factors the pseudoprime number 314191 into its prime factors using a quantum computer. The quantum computation relies on the number-theoretic analysis of the factoring problem via modular arithmetic mod N (where N is the number to be factored), and finding the order or period of a random coprime number mod N. The exponential speedup comes in part from the use of the quantum fast fourier transform which achieves interference among frequencies that are not related to the period (period-finding is the goal of the QFT FFT). REFERENCES RSA Numbers (sample large numbers to try factoring) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_numbers IBM on RSA https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSB23S1.1.0.13/gtps7/s7pkey.html Modulo Multiplication Group Tables http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ModuloMultiplicationGroup.html Difference of squares factorization https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Difference_of_two_squares Euclid’s Algorithm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclideanalgorithm Rational sieve for factoring https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rational_sieve General Number field Sieve https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalnumberfieldsieve Scott Aaronson blog post about Shor’s Algorithm https://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=208 Experimental implementation of Shor’s Algorithm (factoring 15, 21, and 35) https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.00768.pdf Adiabatic Quantum Computation factoring the number 291311 https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.08061.pdf Scott Aaronson course notes https://www.scottaaronson.com/qclec/ https://www.scottaaronson.com/qclec/combined.pdf Shor’s Algorithm on Quantiki https://www.quantiki.org/wiki/shors-factoring-algorithm TLS And SSL use RSA encryption https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TransportLayerSecurity Dashlane security whitepaper https://www.dashlane.com/download/DashlaneSecurityWhitePaperOctober2018.pdf Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How Quantum Computers Break Encryption | Shor's Algorithm Explained How Quantum Computers Break Encryption | Shor's Algorithm Explained
7 months ago En
Go to http://www.dashlane.com/minutephysics to download Dashlane for free, and use offer code minutephysics for 10% off Dashlane Premium! Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics This video explains Shor’s Algorithm, a way to efficiently factor large pseudoprime integers into their prime factors using a quantum computer. The quantum computation relies on the number-theoretic analysis of the factoring problem via modular arithmetic mod N (where N is the number to be factored), and finding the order or period of a random coprime number mod N. The exponential speedup comes in part from the use of the quantum fast fourier transform which achieves interference among frequencies that are not related to the period (period-finding is the goal of the QFT FFT). Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Why Do Compressed Air Cans Get Cold? Why Do Compressed Air Cans Get Cold?
8 months ago En
Thanks to http://brilliant.org/minutephysics for supporting MinutePhysics - get 20% a premium subscription at http://brilliant.org/minutephysics Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about compressed air cans (aka gas dusters) and why they get cold when you spray them. They cool off because the refrigerant inside (1,1-difluoroethane) is under pressure and boils off when the pressure lowers, and energy lost to the latent heat of vaporization cools the can a lot. Difluoroethane normally boils at -25°C (-13°F), but under ~6 atm (6 bar, 600 kpa) it is a liquid at room temperature. The gas also cools off slightly due to the Joule-Thompson effect of fluid expansion through a throttled valve. Difluoroethane is heavier than air and water soluble, so it is recommended to use it in a ventilated environment to clean your keyboard, etc. Also, 1,1-difluoroethane is a potent greenhouse gas. It is also known as Freon 152a, Ethylidene difluoride, Ethylidene fluoride, HFC-152a, R-152a, and DFE. Thanks to Tino and Hannah! REFERENCES CRC Air Duster Safety Data Sheet http://docs.crcindustries.com/msds/5185.pdf Latent Heat of vaporization https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latentheat 1,1-difluoroethane chemical and physical properties https://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C75376&Mask=3FFF 1,1-difluoroethane on wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1,1-Difluoroethane Free Expansion of Real Gases, Goussard, 1993 http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.17417 Joule-Thompson Expansion Course Notes http://tccc.iesl.forth.gr/education/local/Labs-PC-II/JT.pdf Properties of 1,1-difluoroethane http://www.inchem.org/documents/sids/sids/75376.pdf https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/11-difluoroethane Medical Effects of difluoroethane https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+5205 MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How ISPs Violate the Laws of Mathematics How ISPs Violate the Laws of Mathematics
9 months ago En
Get a free trial of Audible at https://audible.com/minutephysics or by texting 'minutephysics' to 500500 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics This joke video is about how Internet Service Providers (aka ISPs, internet companies, telecommunications companies, etc) violate the basic axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Like the axiom of choice (sometimes Well-ordering theorem), the Axiom of extensionality, Axiom of regularity (also called the Axiom of foundation), Axiom schema of specification, Axiom of pairing, Axiom of union, Axiom schema of replacement, Axiom of infinity, Axiom of power set. Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Shells of Cosmic Time (ft. @AstroKatie) Shells of Cosmic Time (ft. @AstroKatie)
10 months ago En
Thanks to @AstroKatie (http://astrokatie.com, http://twitter.com/astrokatie) for the collaboration! Go to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for free daily science puzzles Here's the original twitter thread https://twitter.com/astrokatie/status/1066526148149108736 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the cosmic distance scale and how we see objects farther away in space (ie at higher red shift) farther back in time because light takes time to reach us. Thus we can see not only stars and galaxies, but also the primordial stars & proto-galaxies, and even the remnants of the beginning of the universe itself: the CMB cosmic microwave background left over from the big bang. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How To Make MUONS How To Make MUONS
10 months ago En
To keep your brain sharp with quick daily math & science puzzles, head to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics This video is about how to create muons in a particle accelerator via bombardment of heavy nuclei with protons, which results in creation of charged pions (plus and minus). The pions then decay into muons and mu neutrinos, and the muons then decay into electrons or positrons and more neutrinos. Muons also form in the upper atmosphere due to cosmic rays, and the uses of muons includes experimental tests of time dilation in special relativity, catalyzing muonic cold nuclear fusion, and more. Muons on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Hardy's Paradox | Quantum Double Double Slit Experiment Hardy's Paradox | Quantum Double Double Slit Experiment
11 months ago En
Need a last minute holiday gift idea? Go to https://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant (can be given as a gift). Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 This video is about Hardy's Paradox, wherein an electron and positron (or photons polarized horizontally and vertically) pass through Mach-Zehnder interferometers that overlap such that the particles have a chance of annihilating. If they do annihilate, then the interference pattern changes and there is a probability for both particles to be detected in the "dark arms" of the detector, that is, where previously there was no probability for detection for either particle. The paradox has implications for local realism, contextuality, lorentz elements of reality, and has been used as an experimental setup for weak measurements. Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Impossible Muons Impossible Muons
2 years ago En
Thanks to Brilliant.org for supporting MinutePhysics! The first 200 people who go to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics will get 20% off a Premium Subscription to Brilliant. This video is about how terrestrial muons are part of our experimental proof of time dilation, length contraction, and special relativity in general. REFERENCES Cosmic Rays https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_ray Terrestrial Cosmic Rays http://people.physics.tamu.edu/wwu/docs/P225/P225_Project_terrestrial%20cosmic%20rays.pdf Cosmic Ray Interaction Depth & Muon Production Altitude http://cosmic.lbl.gov/SKliewer/Cosmic_Rays/Interaction.htm Cosmic rays are stronger at the poles http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glacial-geology/dating-glacial-sediments-2/cosmic-rays/ Cosmic Rays on Hyperphysics http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/cosmic.html Exponential decay and mean lifetime https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_decay#Mean_lifetime Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How To Stop Structures from SHAKING: LEGO Saturn V Tuned Mass Damper How To Stop Structures from SHAKING: LEGO Saturn V Tuned Mass Damper
2 years ago En
Thanks to LEGO for sponsoring this video. Find your own LEGOs at https://shop.lego.com/?cmp=SOC-OneMinutePhysics or https://shop.lego.com/product?p=21309&cmp=SOC-OneMinutePhysics This video is about Tuned Mass Dampers, which can be used to reduce or avoid unwanted vibrations, swaying, swinging, bending, etc on engineered structures ranging from buildings, skyscrapers, electricity power transmission lines, airplane engines, formula one race cars, etc. TMD's use damped coupled oscillators. REFERENCES Taipei Tower TMD Photo licensed from: Louie Psihoyos http://www.psihoyos.com Coupled oscillators: http://www.reed.edu/physics/faculty/wheeler/documents/Sophmore%20Class%20Notes%202007/Chapter%204.pdf Related things: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockbridge_damper Applications: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuned_mass_damper#Mass_dampers_in_automobiles Formula 1 cars: http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/mass_damper.html Aircraft engines: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pendulum_absorber Audio speaker cones: https://www.focal.com/en/tmd-tuned-mass-damper Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
The Twins Paradox Hands-On Explanation | Special Relativity Ch. 8 The Twins Paradox Hands-On Explanation | Special Relativity Ch. 8
2 years ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 8 in my series on special relativity, and it presents a hands-on explanation of the resolution to the Twins Paradox using the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Of course, the Twins paradox can be resolved with an understanding of spacetime intervals, relative inertial frames of reference, etc, but this is a nice hands-on version where you actually measure the proper times on a real, physical spacetime diagram with a ruler. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
The Physics of Caramel: How To Make a Caramelized Sugar Cube The Physics of Caramel: How To Make a Caramelized Sugar Cube
2 years ago En
Watch the original video in Spanish here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2Vkv5GQXww This video is about how the physics and chemistry of sugar (in particular, how it melts, and how it caramelizes) is more complicated than you might think. It involves fructose, sucrose, glucose, and a sticky mess. Credits: Gallium melting footage by WorkshopScience https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jow4idr6HNs Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Feynman's Lost Lecture (ft. 3Blue1Brown) Feynman's Lost Lecture (ft. 3Blue1Brown)
2 years ago En
Check out Grant’s channel: 3blue1brown: https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown This video recounts a lecture by Richard Feynman giving an elementary demonstration of why planets orbit in ellipses. See the excellent book by Judith and David Goodstein, "Feynman's lost lecture”, for the full story behind this lecture, and a deeper dive into its content. Tweet referenced at the start: https://twitter.com/3blue1brown/status/1016936129117937664 Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: https://soundcloud.com/drschroeder/elizabeth-the-mouse Music by Vincent Rubinetti: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/one-two-zeta Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Spacetime Intervals: Not EVERYTHING is Relative | Special Relativity Ch. 7 Spacetime Intervals: Not EVERYTHING is Relative | Special Relativity Ch. 7
2 years ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 7 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the idea that some things AREN'T relative: there IS a sense of absolute length and absolute time, which can be agreed upon from all moving perspectives (as long as they're inertial reference frames). In particular, proper length and proper time, aka the spacetime interval. Essentially, this is the spacetime version of the pythagorean theorem, and we'll explore it using the Lorentz transformations of lengths and time intervals, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Extraterrestrial Cycloids - Why Are They on Europa? Extraterrestrial Cycloids - Why Are They on Europa?
2 years ago En
Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. This video is about the cycloid curves on Jupiter's moon Europa - they're ridges or valleys in the icy surface that formed due to some sort of geological or tectonic-esque phenomenon. The answer involves ping pong balls, the pacific ring of fire, subduction, tidal bulges, and tailcracking, REFERENCES Europa image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/PIA19048_realistic_color_Europa_mosaic.jpg Europa “google maps” explorere: https://www.mapaplanet.org/explorer-bin/explorer.cgi?map=Europa&layers=europa_galileo_bw&west=180&south=-90&east=-180&north=90&center_lat=0&center=0&defaultcenter=on&grid=none&stretch=none&projection=SIMP&advoption=NO&info=NO&resolution=2 Cycloid: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycloid Formation of Europa cycloid cracks: http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/HIIPS/Publications/hoppa_abstracts/cycloid.html Smashed ping pong ball: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/222359947_fig2_Ping-pong-balls-are-good-macroscopic-examples-for-shells-as-they-display-the-main Dented ping pong balls: http://www.katharine-yi.com/uploads/1/8/4/0/18406703/1399540277.png Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Relativistic Addition of Velocity | Special Relativity Ch. 6 Relativistic Addition of Velocity | Special Relativity Ch. 6
2 years ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 6 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the topic of relativistic addition of velocity: aka, how things that are moving relative to one inertial reference frame, which is moving relative to another reference frame, what speed or velocity are those things moving relative to the second frame. We'll show this using the Lorentz transformation of moving worldlines, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Length Contraction and Time Dilation | Special Relativity Ch. 5 Length Contraction and Time Dilation | Special Relativity Ch. 5
2 years ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 5 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that are moving (that is, moving relative to an inertial reference frame) at different speeds appear to be shorter in length... and longer in length. And shorter in time, and longer in time. It all makes sense, I promise, and is clear when you use the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Relativity of Simultaneity | Special Relativity Ch. 4 Relativity of Simultaneity | Special Relativity Ch. 4
2 years ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober The previous videos in this series: Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY& Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw Chapter 3: Lorentz Transformations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rh0pYtQG5wI This video is chapter 4 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that appear simultaneous from one perspective in our universe aren't simultaneous from other moving perspectives - that is, from inertial reference frames moving at different speeds. This is explained via the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Lorentz Transformations | Special Relativity Ch. 3 Lorentz Transformations | Special Relativity Ch. 3
2 years ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober The previous videos in this series: Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY& Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw This video is chapter 3 in my series on special relativity, and it covers boosts, galilean transformations, newtonian relativity, and of course Lorentz transformations, the constancy of the speed of light, relative changes of velocity between inertial reference frames, etc - some of the stuff Einstein figured out. I introduce the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
The Brown Dwarf Debate The Brown Dwarf Debate
2 years ago En
Thanks to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project and the Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. This video is about the line between Brown dwarfs and gas giant planets (aka super Jupiter's): does it exist? Is it the deuterium-burning threshold? Behavior? Metallicity? Formation? Or is there no meaningful scientific distinction, and are brown dwarfs and giant planets really all on a spectrum with no clear line between them? REFERENCES Giant planet and brown dwarf formation https://arxiv.org/abs/1401.7559 Exoplanets versus brown dwarfs: the CoRoT view and the future https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.00917 Defining and cataloging exoplanets: The exoplanet.eu database https://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0586 A Definition for Giant Planets Based on the Mass-Density Relationship https://arxiv.org/abs/1506.05097 Spatial differences between stars and brown dwarfs: a dynamical origin? https://arxiv.org/abs/1403.7053v1 Hints for Small Disks around Very Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.01952 VLA observations of the disk around the young brown dwarf 2MASS J044427+2512 https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.07197 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
NEW SHOW! | The Science of Seeing NEW SHOW! | The Science of Seeing
2 years ago En
Watch Paradigms Here: http://vrv.co/paradigms And please let me know what you think! Paradigms is a pilot for a new show about how we know what we know, produced in collaboration with MinuteEarth (http://youtube.com/minuteearth), Veritasium (http://youtube.com/veritasium), and Aatish Bhatia. The first episode is about the science of seeing, from the extramission theories of the ancient Greeks (like Plato and Euclid and Galen) to the Islamic scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) who studied the optics of pinhole chambers and images, to Johannes Kepler who understood the role lenses play in vision, to the modern era where we now know that the brain plays a huge role in seeing & processing images from the eyes, too! Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Spacetime Diagrams | Special Relativity Ch. 2 Spacetime Diagrams | Special Relativity Ch. 2
2 years ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysicsSpecialRelativity to learn more about spacetime diagrams and for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant. This video is chapter 2 in my series on special relativity, and it covers spacetime diagrams, rotational and translational symmetry of both time and space, how certain transformations preserve distances (measured in terms of a reference like a meter or second), and so on. We'll wait until the next video to talk about Lorentz transformations, relativity of velocity, minkowski diagrams, and the speed of light. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Why is Relativity Hard? | Special Relativity Chapter 1 Why is Relativity Hard? | Special Relativity Chapter 1
2 years ago En
Thanks to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for supporting this video! Thanks to my friend Mark Rober (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCY1kMZp36IQSyNx_9h4mpCg) for making the spacetime globe, and to Grant Sanderson (https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown) for inspiration. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This is the first in a series of videos about special relativity. This is definitely not an academic course, but it's going to be a more in depth and developed exploration of a single topic than a typical standalone MinutePhysics video. I've been greatly inspired (and heckled) to do this by my friend Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown who's set the standard for this kind of thing with his excellent series - serieses? - on calculus and linear algebra. So, special relativity. Special relativity is one of the most popularly famous ideas in physics – it's that thing that Einstein figured out about the speed of light and space and time and E=mc^2! It changed our understanding of the universe. And its core ideas are accessible in principle to anyone who understands some basic algebra and geometry - you don't even need to know calculus! And yet in spite of this, special relativity is one of the subjects in physics that confuses the most people, and in many cases turns them away from physics altogether. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How We Know Black Holes Exist How We Know Black Holes Exist
2 years ago En Ru
Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the astronomical amount of astronomical evidence for black holes, ranging from x-ray binaries with accretion disks, supermassive infrared-radiating galactic nuclei black holes, orbital characteristics of high mass binaries, and direct gravitational wave detection of inspiraling merging black hole binaries with LIGO. Yes, they're real. REFERENCES Interactive: Masses in the Stellar Graveyard https://ligo.northwestern.edu/media/mass-plot/index.html Galactic Center Orbital Models and Inner Stellar Distributions Data provided by Andrea Ghez and Sylvana Yelda, UCLA (obtained with the Keck Telescopes) Visualization by Stuart Levy and Robert Patterson, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign http://avl.ncsa.illinois.edu/astrophysics/galactic-center-orbital-models-and-inner-stellar-distributions Masses of observed black Holes: https://stellarcollapse.org/bhmasses Downloadable LIGO Data: https://losc.ligo.org/events/GW170817/ LIGO Neutron Star Binary Merger: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2017/10/ligo-detects-a-neutron-star-merger Masses of observed neutron stars: https://stellarcollapse.org/nsmasses Cygnus X-1 X-ray binary Black Hole: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cygnus_X-1#Star_system Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf Calvera isolated neutron star X-ray source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvera_(X-ray_source) Scientific American: pulsar that behaves like a black hole https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/black-hole-pretenders-may-be-superfast-spinning-pulsars/ Largest known neutron star: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PSR_J0348%2B0432 http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=PSR+J0348%2B0432 Large Neutron Star: https://arxiv.org/abs/0712.0024 Wandering Black Hole: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/x-ray-telescopes-find-evidence-for-wandering-black-hole.html Sagittarius A* Black Hole Infrared emissions: https://arxiv.org/pdf/0911.4659.pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
The Unreasonable Efficiency of Black Holes The Unreasonable Efficiency of Black Holes
2 years ago En
Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at http://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about how efficient various reactions are at converting mass to energy (as we know from the Einstein mass-energy equivalence of E=mc^2). Antimatter is very efficient but it is not naturally-occurring. Chemical reactions like fire or explosions are very inefficient. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are better, but not amazing on an absolute scale. Non-rotating black holes (Schwarzschild) and rotating (Kerr) are by far the most efficient, due to their accretion disks and very small radius of their innermost stable circular orbits. REFERENCES: Periodic Videos Hydrogen Explosion in slow motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOTgeeTB_kA CIA World Factbook Norway Energy Consumption: https://web.archive.org/web/20120128032332/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html Binding Energy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_energy Hydrogen molecular bonding: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/chemistry/5-73-introductory-quantum-mechanics-i-fall-2005/lecture-notes/sec13.pdf Gibbs free energy of water formation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Gibbs_free_energy_of_formation Party Balloon Size Chart: https://broadwaypartyrental.com/wp-content/uploads/HELIUM-BALOON-CHART.pdf Mass Excess https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_excess Table of Mass Excesses: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/masses/mass.mas12 Deuterium-Tritium Hydrogen Fusion Energy Released: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=((deuterium+atomic+mass)%2B(tritium+atomic+mass)-(helium-4+atomic+mass)-(neutron+mass))%2F((deuterium+atomic+mass)%2B(tritium+atomic+mass)) Hydrogen to Helium Fusion chain efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=(4(proton+mass)-(helium+4+atomic+mass))%2F(4(proton+mass)) Uranium-235 fission efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=(neutron+mass%2B(uranium+235+atomic+mass)-(krypton+92+atomic+mass)-(barium+141+atomic+mass)-3(neutron+mass))%2F(neutron+mass%2B(uranium+235+atomic+mass)) Black Hole Accretion rates: http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~garret/teaching/lecture7-2012.pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
The Black Hole Tipping Point The Black Hole Tipping Point
3 years ago En
Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics/ for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at https://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole, (its "event horizon"), and how much mass and density is required to reach the point of no return where an object like a star, neutron star, red giant, etc will collapse into a black hole singularity. You can calculate it yourself using just the volume equation for a sphere, and the equation for the Schwarzschild radius (and knowing the speed of light and Newton's gravitational constant). REFERENCES Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf Mass of cat: https://www.google.com/search?q=mass+of+cat&oq=mass+of+cat Schwarzschild radius: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius LIGO Neutron Star Binary Merger: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2017/10/ligo-detects-a-neutron-star-merger Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolman%E2%80%93Oppenheimer%E2%80%93Volkoff_limit Neutron Star Equation of State & Density: http://chimera.roma1.infn.it/OMAR/dottorato/papers/annurev-nucl-102711-095018.pdf Neutron Star Radius: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.928.903&rep=rep1&type=pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Are University Admissions Biased? | Simpson's Paradox Part 2 Are University Admissions Biased? | Simpson's Paradox Part 2
3 years ago En
Simpson's Paradox Part 2. Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this video! Head to http://skl.sh/minutephysics for your first two months free. Comments disabled because the discourse failed to remain civil. This video is about how to tell whether or not university admissions are biased using statistics: aka, it's about Simpson's Paradox again! REFERENCES: Original Berkeley Grad Admissions Paper: https://www.unc.edu/~nielsen/soci708/cdocs/Berkeley_admissions_bias.pdf Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ No Lawsuit, But Yes, Berkeley Study on Gender Bias https://www.refsmmat.com/posts/2016-05-08-simpsons-paradox-berkeley.html Statistics on college majors by gender: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2016menu\_tables.asp http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2014/10/28/359419934/who-studies-what-men-women-and-college-majors http://www.randalolson.com/2014/06/14/percentage-of-bachelors-degrees-conferred-to-women-by-major-1970-2012/ Earnings by college major: http://time.com/money/collection-post/3829776/heres-what-the-average-grad-makes-right-out-of-college/ Wall Street Journal Article on Simpson’s Paradox: https://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB125970744553071829 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Time Travel in Fiction Rundown Time Travel in Fiction Rundown
3 years ago Ru En
Thanks to YouTube RED’s new original series, LIFELINE, for sponsoring this video. Watch the first episode for free: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru4zkxNuJ_I And thanks to my friends Sam and Niko (and all the rest) at the Corridor Digital channel for making awesome videos. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ For ages I’ve been thinking about doing a video analyzing time travel in fiction and doing a comparison of different fictional time travels – some do use wormholes, some relativistic/faster than light travel with time dilation, some closed timelike curves, some have essentially “magic” or no consistent rules that make any sense, or TARDIS's, or whatever. This video is an explanation of how time travel functions in different popular movies, books, & shows – not how it works “under the hood", but how it causally affects the perspective of characters’ timelines (who has free will? can you change things by going back to the past or forwards into the future?). In particular, I explain Ender's Game, Planet of the Apes, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Primer, Bill & Ted’s Excellent Adventure, Back to the Future, Groundhog Day, Looper, the video game “Braid”, and Lifeline. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Simpson's Paradox Simpson's Paradox
3 years ago Ru En
Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! This video is about Simpson's paradox, a statistical paradox and ecological fallacy where seemingly contradictory results are implied by a single set of data depending on how it's grouped. The paradox can arise in medical studies, student test scores, and so on. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES: Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://educationnext.org/are-wisconsin-schools-better-than-those-in-texas/ Detailed analysis of Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://iowahawk.typepad.com/iowahawk/2011/03/longhorns-17-badgers-1.html National US Standardized Test Data: https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/report.aspx?p=2-SCI-3-20153,20113,20093-SRPUV-SDRACE-NP,AL,AK,AZ,AR,CA,CO,CT,DE,DC,FL,GA,HI,ID,IL,IN,IA,KS,KY,LA,ME,MD,MA,MI,MN,MS,MO,MT,NE,NV,NH,NJ,NM,NY,NC,ND,OH,OK,OR,PA,RI,SC,SD,TN,TX,UT,VT,VA,WA,WV,WI,WY,DS-MN_MN-Y_J-0-0-5 MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
How to Build a Teleporter with Aliens How to Build a Teleporter with Aliens
3 years ago En
The first 200 people to use http://skl.sh/minutephysics30 get 30% off a premium Skillshare subscription. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the international system of units (SI), the international prototype kilogram (the IPK or "le grande k"), and specifically, why we need to redefine our base units in terms of fundamental constants - aka, concepts & ideas - rather than physical objects. The second is already defined in terms of a certain number of oscillations of a photon of the ground state hyperfine splitting energy of Cesium, the meter is then defined as how far light travels in a particular fraction of a second, and hopefully soon, the kilogram will be defined either using the Avogadro approach of counting silicon atoms in a sphere, or using the Watt (Kibble) Balance approach of measuring Planck's constant, h, as used in the formula E=hf for the energy of a photon, which relates to mass via Einstein's famous E=mc^2. REFERENCES: Most Recent Kilogram/Planck Constant Measurement: https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2017/06/new-measurement-will-help-redefine-international-unit-mass International Bureau of Weights and Measures page: http://www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/base-units.html Future Definitions of SI Base Units: http://www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/rev-si/ Resolution to redefine Kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole based on fundamental constants: http://www.bipm.org/en/CGPM/db/25/1/ Hyperfine levels of an atom (Cesium, in this case): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_level#Hyperfine_structure https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperfine_structure Cesium: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium#Atomic_clocks Atomic Clocks: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_clock MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Solar Panels Made With a Particle Accelerator?! Solar Panels Made With a Particle Accelerator?!
3 years ago Ru En
Find more about investing in Rayton solar on http://startengine.com/startup/rayton-solar And on http://www.RaytonSolar.com Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about using particle accelerators as part of the solar panel silicon wafer manufacturing process. The accelerators embed protons into the wafer crystals, allowing them to break and separate from the main crystal in much thinner wafers with no waste silicon. Thus, monocrystalline silicon can be used, which is more efficient. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox
3 years ago En
Featuring 3Blue1Brown Watch the 2nd video on 3Blue1Brown here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzRCDLre1b4 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about Bell's Theorem, one of the most fascinating results in 20th century physics. Even though Albert Einstein (together with collaborators in the EPR Paradox paper) wanted to show that quantum mechanics must be incomplete because it was nonlocal (he didn't like "spooky action at a distance"), John Bell managed to prove that any local real hidden variable theory would have to satisfy certain simple statistical properties that quantum mechanical experiments (and the theory that describes them) violate. Since then, GHZ and others have managed to extend the theoretical work, and Alain Aspect performed the first Bell test experiment in the late 1980s. Thanks to Vince Rubinetti for the music: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/one-two-zeta And thanks to Evan Miyazono, Aatish Bhatia, and Jasper Palfree for discussions and camaraderie during some of the inception of this video. REFERENCES: John Bell's Original Paper: http://inspirehep.net/record/31657/files/vol1p195-200_001.pdf Quantum Theory and Reality: https://www.scientificamerican.com/media/pdf/197911_0158.pdf "What Bell Did" By Tim Maudlin: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1408.1826 Bell's Theorem on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_theorem 2015 experimental confirmation that QM violates Bell's theorem: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.05949.pdf https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.250402 Bell's Theorem without Inequalities (GHZ): http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.16243 Kochen-Specker Theorem: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kochen–Specker_theorem MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Myths and Facts About Superintelligent AI Myths and Facts About Superintelligent AI
3 years ago Ru En
Join the AI conversation: http://AgeofAI.org This video was based on Max’s book "Life 3.0”, which you can find at: http://amzn.to/2iEwe6w Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ We live in an era of self driving cars, autonomous drones, deep learning algorithms, computers that beat humans at chess and go, and so on. So it’s natural to ask, will artificial superintelligence replace humans, take our jobs, and destroy human civilization? Or will AI just become tools like regular computers. AI researcher Max Tegmark helps explain the myths and facts about superintelligence, the impending machine takeover, etc. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Misconceptions Footnote †: Randomness and Feedback Misconceptions Footnote †: Randomness and Feedback
3 years ago Ru En
Footnote to the main video here: https://youtu.be/HUti6vGctQM Feedback loops and spurious correlations! REFERENCES: Spurious correlations: http://www.tylervigen.com/spurious-correlations Loopy by Nicky Case: http://ncase.me/loopy/ CERN/CMS paper on di-photon excess: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2139899 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Correlation CAN Imply Causation! | Statistics Misconceptions Correlation CAN Imply Causation! | Statistics Misconceptions
3 years ago En
Have fun improving your math & physics skills! Head to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics/ Footnote video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMbcMMe0D_Y This video is about how causal models (which use causal networks) allow us to infer causation from correlation, proving the common refrain not entirely accurate: statistics CAN be used to prove causality! Including: Reichenbach's principle, common causes, feedback, entanglement, EPR paradox, and so on. REFERENCES: Causal Discovery Algorithm in Quantum Mechanics Paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1208.4119.pdf Causal Models overview (Quantum and Classical): https://arxiv.org/pdf/1609.09487.pdf Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Black Holes, Neutron Stars, and White Dwarfs (Collab. w/ MinuteEarth) Black Holes, Neutron Stars, and White Dwarfs (Collab. w/ MinuteEarth)
3 years ago En
Watch the MinuteEarth video here – I PROMISE it's really really really good: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAI1N96t8Vk MinutePhysics & MinuteEarth are on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics and http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth This video is about the differences between the corpses or final degenerate dense star forms that dead stars take: black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. The main distinguishing features between them are the mass cutoffs (Chandrasekhar limit and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit), the matter that makes them up (electrons, protons, neutrons, singularity?), and what holds them up against gravity – not thermal pressure from nuclear fusion like in a star like the sun, but electron or neutron degeneracy pressure (fermi pressure/pauli exclusion principle), and the strong nuclear force, and... nothing (in the case of a black hole). REFERENCES: Chandrasekhar Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrasekhar_limit Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff_limit Richard Pogge (Ohio State) on Neutron & White Dwarf Stars: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit3/extreme.html Richard Pogge on Star Formation: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit2/starform.html Richard Pogge on Black Holes Differences between galaxies and galaxy clusters: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20026-when-is-a-group-of-stars-not-a-galaxy/ Introductory/review Paper on Neutron Stars: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1102.5735.pdf White dwarf stars on hyperphysics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/whdwar.html Brown Dwarf: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_dwarf Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Will Batteries Power The World? | The Limits Of Lithium-ion Will Batteries Power The World? | The Limits Of Lithium-ion
3 years ago Ru En
$2000 Anker Contest Link: http://bit.ly/2u5YUqb Link to the PowerCore+ 26800 (the one I showed in the video): http://amzn.to/2vwh9Jr Real Engineering's video: https://youtu.be/ahxBbEwhIE0 Sam and Niko channel: http://www.youtube.com/samandniko Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ Can Batteries Power Everything? This video is about the physical and chemical limitations to electrolytic batteries, and how we might surpass the energy density and specific energy of lithium-ion batteries (like the Panasonic 18650 batteries used in the Tesla Model S, for example). REFERENCES: Lithium Fluorine Hydrogen NASA Rocket fuel test: https://archive.org/details/nasa\_techdoc\_19700018655 Limits on Cell Potential of Batteries: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrochemical_cell Lithium Ion Batteries: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion\_battery Standard Electrode Potential for Lithium, Lithium Graphite, etc: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard\_electrode\_potential\_(data\_page) Trends in Gravimetric Energy Density (Specific Energy): https://www.researchgate.net/figure/255748970\_fig1\_Fig-3-Trend-of-capacity-and-energy-density-increase-in-18-650-cylindrical-type-Li-ion Elon Musk/Telsa on why Lithium-ion is not exactly a lithium battery: http://benchmarkminerals.com/elon-musk-our-lithium-ion-batteries-should-be-called-nickel-graphite/ Lithium Sulfur Problems: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775312019568?via%3Dihub https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225512575\_Lithium-sulfur\_batteries\_Problems\_and\_solutions Supercapacitors: http://www.electronicdesign.com/power/can-supercapacitors-surpass-batteries-energy-storage Panasonic 18650B Battery specs: https://na.industrial.panasonic.com/sites/default/pidsa/files/ncr18650b.pdf Anker PowerCore+ 26800 disassembled: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJS3m\_CGbeY Types of Lithium Ion Batteries: http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/types\_of\_lithium\_ion Batteries & Electrochemical Cells on Hyperphysics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Chemical/electrochem.html MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
What Is The Shape of Space? (ft. PhD Comics) What Is The Shape of Space? (ft. PhD Comics)
3 years ago En
A collaboration with Jorge Cham and Daniel Whiteson, check out "We Have No Idea" at http://www.wehavenoidea.com Jorge's PhDComics: http://www.phdcomics.com Numberphile video about sports in hyperbolic space: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6Got0X41pY Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 This video is about the local and global geometry and curvature of space and spacetime, aka, is space flat? Negatively curved? Positively curved? etc. Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
Why It's HARD To Land on Mars Why It's HARD To Land on Mars
3 years ago En
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics This video is about why it's harder to successfully land spacecraft and landers and rovers on Mars than on Earth, or Venus, or the Moon, or Titan, or asteroids. It all comes down to atmospheric density! When there's no atmosphere, you can do a powered descent in a flimsy tinfoil spacecraft like the Lunar Module, and when there's plenty of atmosphere you can do an unpowered descent via heat shield and parachutes like the space shuttle, Apollo command module, Soyuz, Huygens, etc. But on Mars with its thin air, you have to do both powered & unpowered descent, getting the worst of both worlds. Thanks to Hoppy Price from JPL for fact-checking this video! Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES Spreadsheet to calculate landing success rates: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jqeZCG56UBKvd\_wsyW3GD-qd9TAsaW1RPAiZ-1BCUaE/edit?usp=sharing NASA Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Fact Sheets: https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/737628main\_Final\_LDSD\_Fact\_Sheet\_3-26-13.pdf https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/press\_kits/ldsd.pdf LDSD Test Footage: https://www.nasa.gov/mission\_pages/tdm/ldsd/videos.html More LDSD Test Footage:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJzeeYoLn50 List of Missions to Mars: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_Mars List of Missions to the Moon: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_the\_Moon List of Missions to Saturn: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploration\_of\_Saturn List of Missions to Venus: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_Venus Curiosity Rover Landing Overview: https://mars.nasa.gov/msl/mission/technology/insituexploration/edl/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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