minutephysics
Simply put: cool physics and other sweet science. "If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough." ~Rutherford via Einstein? (wikiquote) Created by Henry Reich

215 videos
The Twins Paradox Hands-On Explanation | Special Relativity Ch. 8 The Twins Paradox Hands-On Explanation | Special Relativity Ch. 8
5 days ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 8 in my series on special relativity, and it presents a hands-on explanation of the resolution to the Twins Paradox using the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Of course, the Twins paradox can be resolved with an understanding of spacetime intervals, relative inertial frames of reference, etc, but this is a nice hands-on version where you actually measure the proper times on a real, physical spacetime diagram with a ruler. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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The Physics of Caramel: How To Make a Caramelized Sugar Cube The Physics of Caramel: How To Make a Caramelized Sugar Cube
3 weeks ago En
Watch the original video in Spanish here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2Vkv5GQXww This video is about how the physics and chemistry of sugar (in particular, how it melts, and how it caramelizes) is more complicated than you might think. It involves fructose, sucrose, glucose, and a sticky mess. Credits: Gallium melting footage by WorkshopScience https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jow4idr6HNs Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Feynman's Lost Lecture (ft. 3Blue1Brown) Feynman's Lost Lecture (ft. 3Blue1Brown)
1 month ago En
Check out Grant’s channel: 3blue1brown: https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown This video recounts a lecture by Richard Feynman giving an elementary demonstration of why planets orbit in ellipses. See the excellent book by Judith and David Goodstein, "Feynman's lost lecture”, for the full story behind this lecture, and a deeper dive into its content. Tweet referenced at the start: https://twitter.com/3blue1brown/status/1016936129117937664 Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: https://soundcloud.com/drschroeder/elizabeth-the-mouse Music by Vincent Rubinetti: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/one-two-zeta Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Spacetime Intervals: Not EVERYTHING is Relative | Special Relativity Ch. 7 Spacetime Intervals: Not EVERYTHING is Relative | Special Relativity Ch. 7
1 month ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 7 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the idea that some things AREN'T relative: there IS a sense of absolute length and absolute time, which can be agreed upon from all moving perspectives (as long as they're inertial reference frames). In particular, proper length and proper time, aka the spacetime interval. Essentially, this is the spacetime version of the pythagorean theorem, and we'll explore it using the Lorentz transformations of lengths and time intervals, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Extraterrestrial Cycloids - Why Are They on Europa? Extraterrestrial Cycloids - Why Are They on Europa?
1 month ago En
Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. This video is about the cycloid curves on Jupiter's moon Europa - they're ridges or valleys in the icy surface that formed due to some sort of geological or tectonic-esque phenomenon. The answer involves ping pong balls, the pacific ring of fire, subduction, tidal bulges, and tailcracking, REFERENCES Europa image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/PIA19048_realistic_color_Europa_mosaic.jpg Europa “google maps” explorere: https://www.mapaplanet.org/explorer-bin/explorer.cgi?map=Europa&layers=europa_galileo_bw&west=180&south=-90&east=-180&north=90&center_lat=0&center=0&defaultcenter=on&grid=none&stretch=none&projection=SIMP&advoption=NO&info=NO&resolution=2 Cycloid: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycloid Formation of Europa cycloid cracks: http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/HIIPS/Publications/hoppa_abstracts/cycloid.html Smashed ping pong ball: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/222359947_fig2_Ping-pong-balls-are-good-macroscopic-examples-for-shells-as-they-display-the-main Dented ping pong balls: http://www.katharine-yi.com/uploads/1/8/4/0/18406703/1399540277.png Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Relativistic Addition of Velocity | Special Relativity Ch. 6 Relativistic Addition of Velocity | Special Relativity Ch. 6
2 months ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 6 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the topic of relativistic addition of velocity: aka, how things that are moving relative to one inertial reference frame, which is moving relative to another reference frame, what speed or velocity are those things moving relative to the second frame. We'll show this using the Lorentz transformation of moving worldlines, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Length Contraction and Time Dilation | Special Relativity Ch. 5 Length Contraction and Time Dilation | Special Relativity Ch. 5
2 months ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober This video is chapter 5 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that are moving (that is, moving relative to an inertial reference frame) at different speeds appear to be shorter in length... and longer in length. And shorter in time, and longer in time. It all makes sense, I promise, and is clear when you use the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Relativity of Simultaneity | Special Relativity Ch. 4 Relativity of Simultaneity | Special Relativity Ch. 4
3 months ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober The previous videos in this series: Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY& Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw Chapter 3: Lorentz Transformations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rh0pYtQG5wI This video is chapter 4 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that appear simultaneous from one perspective in our universe aren't simultaneous from other moving perspectives - that is, from inertial reference frames moving at different speeds. This is explained via the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Lorentz Transformations | Special Relativity Ch. 3 Lorentz Transformations | Special Relativity Ch. 3
4 months ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant! Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober The previous videos in this series: Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY& Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw This video is chapter 3 in my series on special relativity, and it covers boosts, galilean transformations, newtonian relativity, and of course Lorentz transformations, the constancy of the speed of light, relative changes of velocity between inertial reference frames, etc - some of the stuff Einstein figured out. I introduce the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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The Brown Dwarf Debate The Brown Dwarf Debate
4 months ago En
Thanks to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project and the Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. This video is about the line between Brown dwarfs and gas giant planets (aka super Jupiter's): does it exist? Is it the deuterium-burning threshold? Behavior? Metallicity? Formation? Or is there no meaningful scientific distinction, and are brown dwarfs and giant planets really all on a spectrum with no clear line between them? REFERENCES Giant planet and brown dwarf formation https://arxiv.org/abs/1401.7559 Exoplanets versus brown dwarfs: the CoRoT view and the future https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.00917 Defining and cataloging exoplanets: The exoplanet.eu database https://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0586 A Definition for Giant Planets Based on the Mass-Density Relationship https://arxiv.org/abs/1506.05097 Spatial differences between stars and brown dwarfs: a dynamical origin? https://arxiv.org/abs/1403.7053v1 Hints for Small Disks around Very Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.01952 VLA observations of the disk around the young brown dwarf 2MASS J044427+2512 https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.07197 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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NEW SHOW! | The Science of Seeing NEW SHOW! | The Science of Seeing
5 months ago En
Watch Paradigms Here: http://vrv.co/paradigms And please let me know what you think! Paradigms is a pilot for a new show about how we know what we know, produced in collaboration with MinuteEarth (http://youtube.com/minuteearth), Veritasium (http://youtube.com/veritasium), and Aatish Bhatia. The first episode is about the science of seeing, from the extramission theories of the ancient Greeks (like Plato and Euclid and Galen) to the Islamic scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) who studied the optics of pinhole chambers and images, to Johannes Kepler who understood the role lenses play in vision, to the modern era where we now know that the brain plays a huge role in seeing & processing images from the eyes, too! Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Spacetime Diagrams | Special Relativity Ch. 2 Spacetime Diagrams | Special Relativity Ch. 2
5 months ago En
Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysicsSpecialRelativity to learn more about spacetime diagrams and for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant. This video is chapter 2 in my series on special relativity, and it covers spacetime diagrams, rotational and translational symmetry of both time and space, how certain transformations preserve distances (measured in terms of a reference like a meter or second), and so on. We'll wait until the next video to talk about Lorentz transformations, relativity of velocity, minkowski diagrams, and the speed of light. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Why is Relativity Hard? | Special Relativity Chapter 1 Why is Relativity Hard? | Special Relativity Chapter 1
6 months ago En
Thanks to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for supporting this video! Thanks to my friend Mark Rober (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCY1kMZp36IQSyNx_9h4mpCg) for making the spacetime globe, and to Grant Sanderson (https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown) for inspiration. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This is the first in a series of videos about special relativity. This is definitely not an academic course, but it's going to be a more in depth and developed exploration of a single topic than a typical standalone MinutePhysics video. I've been greatly inspired (and heckled) to do this by my friend Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown who's set the standard for this kind of thing with his excellent series - serieses? - on calculus and linear algebra. So, special relativity. Special relativity is one of the most popularly famous ideas in physics – it's that thing that Einstein figured out about the speed of light and space and time and E=mc^2! It changed our understanding of the universe. And its core ideas are accessible in principle to anyone who understands some basic algebra and geometry - you don't even need to know calculus! And yet in spite of this, special relativity is one of the subjects in physics that confuses the most people, and in many cases turns them away from physics altogether. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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How We Know Black Holes Exist How We Know Black Holes Exist
7 months ago En Ru
Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the astronomical amount of astronomical evidence for black holes, ranging from x-ray binaries with accretion disks, supermassive infrared-radiating galactic nuclei black holes, orbital characteristics of high mass binaries, and direct gravitational wave detection of inspiraling merging black hole binaries with LIGO. Yes, they're real. REFERENCES Interactive: Masses in the Stellar Graveyard https://ligo.northwestern.edu/media/mass-plot/index.html Galactic Center Orbital Models and Inner Stellar Distributions Data provided by Andrea Ghez and Sylvana Yelda, UCLA (obtained with the Keck Telescopes) Visualization by Stuart Levy and Robert Patterson, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign http://avl.ncsa.illinois.edu/astrophysics/galactic-center-orbital-models-and-inner-stellar-distributions Masses of observed black Holes: https://stellarcollapse.org/bhmasses Downloadable LIGO Data: https://losc.ligo.org/events/GW170817/ LIGO Neutron Star Binary Merger: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2017/10/ligo-detects-a-neutron-star-merger Masses of observed neutron stars: https://stellarcollapse.org/nsmasses Cygnus X-1 X-ray binary Black Hole: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cygnus_X-1#Star_system Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf Calvera isolated neutron star X-ray source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvera_(X-ray_source) Scientific American: pulsar that behaves like a black hole https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/black-hole-pretenders-may-be-superfast-spinning-pulsars/ Largest known neutron star: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PSR_J0348%2B0432 http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=PSR+J0348%2B0432 Large Neutron Star: https://arxiv.org/abs/0712.0024 Wandering Black Hole: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/x-ray-telescopes-find-evidence-for-wandering-black-hole.html Sagittarius A* Black Hole Infrared emissions: https://arxiv.org/pdf/0911.4659.pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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The Unreasonable Efficiency of Black Holes The Unreasonable Efficiency of Black Holes
7 months ago En
Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at http://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about how efficient various reactions are at converting mass to energy (as we know from the Einstein mass-energy equivalence of E=mc^2). Antimatter is very efficient but it is not naturally-occurring. Chemical reactions like fire or explosions are very inefficient. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are better, but not amazing on an absolute scale. Non-rotating black holes (Schwarzschild) and rotating (Kerr) are by far the most efficient, due to their accretion disks and very small radius of their innermost stable circular orbits. REFERENCES: Periodic Videos Hydrogen Explosion in slow motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOTgeeTB_kA CIA World Factbook Norway Energy Consumption: https://web.archive.org/web/20120128032332/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html Binding Energy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_energy Hydrogen molecular bonding: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/chemistry/5-73-introductory-quantum-mechanics-i-fall-2005/lecture-notes/sec13.pdf Gibbs free energy of water formation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Gibbs_free_energy_of_formation Party Balloon Size Chart: https://broadwaypartyrental.com/wp-content/uploads/HELIUM-BALOON-CHART.pdf Mass Excess https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_excess Table of Mass Excesses: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/masses/mass.mas12 Deuterium-Tritium Hydrogen Fusion Energy Released: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=((deuterium+atomic+mass)%2B(tritium+atomic+mass)-(helium-4+atomic+mass)-(neutron+mass))%2F((deuterium+atomic+mass)%2B(tritium+atomic+mass)) Hydrogen to Helium Fusion chain efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=(4(proton+mass)-(helium+4+atomic+mass))%2F(4(proton+mass)) Uranium-235 fission efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=(neutron+mass%2B(uranium+235+atomic+mass)-(krypton+92+atomic+mass)-(barium+141+atomic+mass)-3(neutron+mass))%2F(neutron+mass%2B(uranium+235+atomic+mass)) Black Hole Accretion rates: http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~garret/teaching/lecture7-2012.pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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The Black Hole Tipping Point The Black Hole Tipping Point
8 months ago En
Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics/ for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at https://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole, (its "event horizon"), and how much mass and density is required to reach the point of no return where an object like a star, neutron star, red giant, etc will collapse into a black hole singularity. You can calculate it yourself using just the volume equation for a sphere, and the equation for the Schwarzschild radius (and knowing the speed of light and Newton's gravitational constant). REFERENCES Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf Mass of cat: https://www.google.com/search?q=mass+of+cat&oq=mass+of+cat Schwarzschild radius: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius LIGO Neutron Star Binary Merger: http://www.astronomy.com/news/2017/10/ligo-detects-a-neutron-star-merger Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolman%E2%80%93Oppenheimer%E2%80%93Volkoff_limit Neutron Star Equation of State & Density: http://chimera.roma1.infn.it/OMAR/dottorato/papers/annurev-nucl-102711-095018.pdf Neutron Star Radius: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.928.903&rep=rep1&type=pdf MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Are University Admissions Biased? | Simpson's Paradox Part 2 Are University Admissions Biased? | Simpson's Paradox Part 2
9 months ago En
Simpson's Paradox Part 2. Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this video! Head to http://skl.sh/minutephysics for your first two months free. Comments disabled because the discourse failed to remain civil. This video is about how to tell whether or not university admissions are biased using statistics: aka, it's about Simpson's Paradox again! REFERENCES: Original Berkeley Grad Admissions Paper: https://www.unc.edu/~nielsen/soci708/cdocs/Berkeley_admissions_bias.pdf Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ No Lawsuit, But Yes, Berkeley Study on Gender Bias https://www.refsmmat.com/posts/2016-05-08-simpsons-paradox-berkeley.html Statistics on college majors by gender: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2016menu\_tables.asp http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2014/10/28/359419934/who-studies-what-men-women-and-college-majors http://www.randalolson.com/2014/06/14/percentage-of-bachelors-degrees-conferred-to-women-by-major-1970-2012/ Earnings by college major: http://time.com/money/collection-post/3829776/heres-what-the-average-grad-makes-right-out-of-college/ Wall Street Journal Article on Simpson’s Paradox: https://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB125970744553071829 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Time Travel in Fiction Rundown Time Travel in Fiction Rundown
9 months ago Ru En
Thanks to YouTube RED’s new original series, LIFELINE, for sponsoring this video. Watch the first episode for free: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru4zkxNuJ_I And thanks to my friends Sam and Niko (and all the rest) at the Corridor Digital channel for making awesome videos. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ For ages I’ve been thinking about doing a video analyzing time travel in fiction and doing a comparison of different fictional time travels – some do use wormholes, some relativistic/faster than light travel with time dilation, some closed timelike curves, some have essentially “magic” or no consistent rules that make any sense, or TARDIS's, or whatever. This video is an explanation of how time travel functions in different popular movies, books, & shows – not how it works “under the hood", but how it causally affects the perspective of characters’ timelines (who has free will? can you change things by going back to the past or forwards into the future?). In particular, I explain Ender's Game, Planet of the Apes, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Primer, Bill & Ted’s Excellent Adventure, Back to the Future, Groundhog Day, Looper, the video game “Braid”, and Lifeline. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Simpson's Paradox Simpson's Paradox
9 months ago Ru En
Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! This video is about Simpson's paradox, a statistical paradox and ecological fallacy where seemingly contradictory results are implied by a single set of data depending on how it's grouped. The paradox can arise in medical studies, student test scores, and so on. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES: Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer: http://vudlab.com/simpsons/ Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://educationnext.org/are-wisconsin-schools-better-than-those-in-texas/ Detailed analysis of Wisconsin vs Texas schools: http://iowahawk.typepad.com/iowahawk/2011/03/longhorns-17-badgers-1.html National US Standardized Test Data: https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/report.aspx?p=2-SCI-3-20153,20113,20093-SRPUV-SDRACE-NP,AL,AK,AZ,AR,CA,CO,CT,DE,DC,FL,GA,HI,ID,IL,IN,IA,KS,KY,LA,ME,MD,MA,MI,MN,MS,MO,MT,NE,NV,NH,NJ,NM,NY,NC,ND,OH,OK,OR,PA,RI,SC,SD,TN,TX,UT,VT,VA,WA,WV,WI,WY,DS-MN_MN-Y_J-0-0-5 MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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How to Build a Teleporter with Aliens How to Build a Teleporter with Aliens
10 months ago En
The first 200 people to use http://skl.sh/minutephysics30 get 30% off a premium Skillshare subscription. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the international system of units (SI), the international prototype kilogram (the IPK or "le grande k"), and specifically, why we need to redefine our base units in terms of fundamental constants - aka, concepts & ideas - rather than physical objects. The second is already defined in terms of a certain number of oscillations of a photon of the ground state hyperfine splitting energy of Cesium, the meter is then defined as how far light travels in a particular fraction of a second, and hopefully soon, the kilogram will be defined either using the Avogadro approach of counting silicon atoms in a sphere, or using the Watt (Kibble) Balance approach of measuring Planck's constant, h, as used in the formula E=hf for the energy of a photon, which relates to mass via Einstein's famous E=mc^2. REFERENCES: Most Recent Kilogram/Planck Constant Measurement: https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2017/06/new-measurement-will-help-redefine-international-unit-mass International Bureau of Weights and Measures page: http://www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/base-units.html Future Definitions of SI Base Units: http://www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/rev-si/ Resolution to redefine Kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole based on fundamental constants: http://www.bipm.org/en/CGPM/db/25/1/ Hyperfine levels of an atom (Cesium, in this case): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_level#Hyperfine_structure https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperfine_structure Cesium: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium#Atomic_clocks Atomic Clocks: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_clock MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Solar Panels Made With a Particle Accelerator?! Solar Panels Made With a Particle Accelerator?!
11 months ago Ru En
Find more about investing in Rayton solar on http://startengine.com/startup/rayton-solar And on http://www.RaytonSolar.com Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about using particle accelerators as part of the solar panel silicon wafer manufacturing process. The accelerators embed protons into the wafer crystals, allowing them to break and separate from the main crystal in much thinner wafers with no waste silicon. Thus, monocrystalline silicon can be used, which is more efficient. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox Bell's Theorem: The Quantum Venn Diagram Paradox
11 months ago En
Featuring 3Blue1Brown Watch the 2nd video on 3Blue1Brown here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzRCDLre1b4 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about Bell's Theorem, one of the most fascinating results in 20th century physics. Even though Albert Einstein (together with collaborators in the EPR Paradox paper) wanted to show that quantum mechanics must be incomplete because it was nonlocal (he didn't like "spooky action at a distance"), John Bell managed to prove that any local real hidden variable theory would have to satisfy certain simple statistical properties that quantum mechanical experiments (and the theory that describes them) violate. Since then, GHZ and others have managed to extend the theoretical work, and Alain Aspect performed the first Bell test experiment in the late 1980s. Thanks to Vince Rubinetti for the music: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/one-two-zeta And thanks to Evan Miyazono, Aatish Bhatia, and Jasper Palfree for discussions and camaraderie during some of the inception of this video. REFERENCES: John Bell's Original Paper: http://inspirehep.net/record/31657/files/vol1p195-200_001.pdf Quantum Theory and Reality: https://www.scientificamerican.com/media/pdf/197911_0158.pdf "What Bell Did" By Tim Maudlin: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1408.1826 Bell's Theorem on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_theorem 2015 experimental confirmation that QM violates Bell's theorem: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.05949.pdf https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.250402 Bell's Theorem without Inequalities (GHZ): http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.16243 Kochen-Specker Theorem: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kochen–Specker_theorem MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Myths and Facts About Superintelligent AI Myths and Facts About Superintelligent AI
11 months ago Ru En
Join the AI conversation: http://AgeofAI.org This video was based on Max’s book "Life 3.0”, which you can find at: http://amzn.to/2iEwe6w Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ We live in an era of self driving cars, autonomous drones, deep learning algorithms, computers that beat humans at chess and go, and so on. So it’s natural to ask, will artificial superintelligence replace humans, take our jobs, and destroy human civilization? Or will AI just become tools like regular computers. AI researcher Max Tegmark helps explain the myths and facts about superintelligence, the impending machine takeover, etc. MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Misconceptions Footnote †: Randomness and Feedback Misconceptions Footnote †: Randomness and Feedback
2 years ago Ru En
Footnote to the main video here: https://youtu.be/HUti6vGctQM Feedback loops and spurious correlations! REFERENCES: Spurious correlations: http://www.tylervigen.com/spurious-correlations Loopy by Nicky Case: http://ncase.me/loopy/ CERN/CMS paper on di-photon excess: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2139899 Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Correlation CAN Imply Causation! | Statistics Misconceptions Correlation CAN Imply Causation! | Statistics Misconceptions
2 years ago En
Have fun improving your math & physics skills! Head to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics/ Footnote video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMbcMMe0D_Y This video is about how causal models (which use causal networks) allow us to infer causation from correlation, proving the common refrain not entirely accurate: statistics CAN be used to prove causality! Including: Reichenbach's principle, common causes, feedback, entanglement, EPR paradox, and so on. REFERENCES: Causal Discovery Algorithm in Quantum Mechanics Paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1208.4119.pdf Causal Models overview (Quantum and Classical): https://arxiv.org/pdf/1609.09487.pdf Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Black Holes, Neutron Stars, and White Dwarfs (Collab. w/ MinuteEarth) Black Holes, Neutron Stars, and White Dwarfs (Collab. w/ MinuteEarth)
2 years ago En
Watch the MinuteEarth video here – I PROMISE it's really really really good: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAI1N96t8Vk MinutePhysics & MinuteEarth are on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics and http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth This video is about the differences between the corpses or final degenerate dense star forms that dead stars take: black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. The main distinguishing features between them are the mass cutoffs (Chandrasekhar limit and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit), the matter that makes them up (electrons, protons, neutrons, singularity?), and what holds them up against gravity – not thermal pressure from nuclear fusion like in a star like the sun, but electron or neutron degeneracy pressure (fermi pressure/pauli exclusion principle), and the strong nuclear force, and... nothing (in the case of a black hole). REFERENCES: Chandrasekhar Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrasekhar_limit Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff_limit Richard Pogge (Ohio State) on Neutron & White Dwarf Stars: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit3/extreme.html Richard Pogge on Star Formation: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit2/starform.html Richard Pogge on Black Holes Differences between galaxies and galaxy clusters: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20026-when-is-a-group-of-stars-not-a-galaxy/ Introductory/review Paper on Neutron Stars: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1102.5735.pdf White dwarf stars on hyperphysics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/whdwar.html Brown Dwarf: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_dwarf Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Will Batteries Power The World? | The Limits Of Lithium-ion Will Batteries Power The World? | The Limits Of Lithium-ion
2 years ago Ru En
$2000 Anker Contest Link: http://bit.ly/2u5YUqb Link to the PowerCore+ 26800 (the one I showed in the video): http://amzn.to/2vwh9Jr Real Engineering's video: https://youtu.be/ahxBbEwhIE0 Sam and Niko channel: http://www.youtube.com/samandniko Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ Can Batteries Power Everything? This video is about the physical and chemical limitations to electrolytic batteries, and how we might surpass the energy density and specific energy of lithium-ion batteries (like the Panasonic 18650 batteries used in the Tesla Model S, for example). REFERENCES: Lithium Fluorine Hydrogen NASA Rocket fuel test: https://archive.org/details/nasa\_techdoc\_19700018655 Limits on Cell Potential of Batteries: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrochemical_cell Lithium Ion Batteries: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion\_battery Standard Electrode Potential for Lithium, Lithium Graphite, etc: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard\_electrode\_potential\_(data\_page) Trends in Gravimetric Energy Density (Specific Energy): https://www.researchgate.net/figure/255748970\_fig1\_Fig-3-Trend-of-capacity-and-energy-density-increase-in-18-650-cylindrical-type-Li-ion Elon Musk/Telsa on why Lithium-ion is not exactly a lithium battery: http://benchmarkminerals.com/elon-musk-our-lithium-ion-batteries-should-be-called-nickel-graphite/ Lithium Sulfur Problems: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775312019568?via%3Dihub https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225512575\_Lithium-sulfur\_batteries\_Problems\_and\_solutions Supercapacitors: http://www.electronicdesign.com/power/can-supercapacitors-surpass-batteries-energy-storage Panasonic 18650B Battery specs: https://na.industrial.panasonic.com/sites/default/pidsa/files/ncr18650b.pdf Anker PowerCore+ 26800 disassembled: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJS3m\_CGbeY Types of Lithium Ion Batteries: http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/types\_of\_lithium\_ion Batteries & Electrochemical Cells on Hyperphysics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Chemical/electrochem.html MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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What Is The Shape of Space? (ft. PhD Comics) What Is The Shape of Space? (ft. PhD Comics)
2 years ago En
A collaboration with Jorge Cham and Daniel Whiteson, check out "We Have No Idea" at http://www.wehavenoidea.com Jorge's PhDComics: http://www.phdcomics.com Numberphile video about sports in hyperbolic space: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6Got0X41pY Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 This video is about the local and global geometry and curvature of space and spacetime, aka, is space flat? Negatively curved? Positively curved? etc. Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Why It's HARD To Land on Mars Why It's HARD To Land on Mars
2 years ago En
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics This video is about why it's harder to successfully land spacecraft and landers and rovers on Mars than on Earth, or Venus, or the Moon, or Titan, or asteroids. It all comes down to atmospheric density! When there's no atmosphere, you can do a powered descent in a flimsy tinfoil spacecraft like the Lunar Module, and when there's plenty of atmosphere you can do an unpowered descent via heat shield and parachutes like the space shuttle, Apollo command module, Soyuz, Huygens, etc. But on Mars with its thin air, you have to do both powered & unpowered descent, getting the worst of both worlds. Thanks to Hoppy Price from JPL for fact-checking this video! Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ REFERENCES Spreadsheet to calculate landing success rates: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jqeZCG56UBKvd\_wsyW3GD-qd9TAsaW1RPAiZ-1BCUaE/edit?usp=sharing NASA Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Fact Sheets: https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/737628main\_Final\_LDSD\_Fact\_Sheet\_3-26-13.pdf https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/press\_kits/ldsd.pdf LDSD Test Footage: https://www.nasa.gov/mission\_pages/tdm/ldsd/videos.html More LDSD Test Footage:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJzeeYoLn50 List of Missions to Mars: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_Mars List of Missions to the Moon: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_the\_Moon List of Missions to Saturn: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploration\_of\_Saturn List of Missions to Venus: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List\_of\_missions\_to\_Venus Curiosity Rover Landing Overview: https://mars.nasa.gov/msl/mission/technology/insituexploration/edl/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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The "Mountain Or Valley?" Illusion The "Mountain Or Valley?" Illusion
2 years ago En
Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this video: http://skl.sh/MinutePhysics for 2 free months! This video is about a multistable perceptual illusion, similar to the hollow face illusion, whereby maps or aerial or satellite photos look upside down/inside out, ie, concave (valley) parts look convex and convex (mountainous) parts look concave. Just flip the images around and things will make a lot more sense! It's just because our eyes gauge depth based on the location of shadows, and the sun always casts shadows on the bottoms of things. Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 REFERENCES Twitter posts: https://twitter.com/Astro2fish/status/859799730565414912 https://twitter.com/BadAstronomer/status/859800278358528001 Bad Astronomy Blog post: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2010/05/19/a-lunar-illusion-youll-flip-over/ Multistable perception http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multistable_perception Top-left Lighting http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top-left_lighting Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Quantum SHAPE-SHIFTING: Neutrino Oscillations Quantum SHAPE-SHIFTING: Neutrino Oscillations
2 years ago En
Thanks to the Heising-Simons Foundation for supporting this video: http://www.heisingsimons.org CRAZY Double Pendulum Footnote: https://youtu.be/gbJYK7q5ejY Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, which is where neutrinos can change flavors (ie, change between electron, muon, or tau neutrinos) because those interaction states are in non-trivial superpositions of the free traveling/mass eigenstates (𝜈1, 𝜈2 and 𝜈3). MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 REFERENCES History of Neutrino Oscillations: https://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0610064.pdf Solar Neutrino Problem: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_neutrino_problem Neutrino Oscillation on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino_oscillation#Propagation_and_interference Current best fit data for the mixing of neutrinos: http://www.nu-fit.org/?q=node/139 Neutrino Mixing Matrix: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata_matrix Neutrino Oscillation https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/neutrinos/neutrino-types-and-neutrino-oscillations/ Neutrino Masses paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.3518.pdf Neutral Particle Oscillation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutral_particle_oscillation Technical Intro to Neutrino Mass Mixing: http://pdg.lbl.gov/2015/reviews/rpp2015-rev-neutrino-mixing.pdf PROSPECT project: http://prospect.yale.edu/science Neutrino/nucleon deep inelastic scattering: https://www.nevis.columbia.edu/ccfr/index.html Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Footnote †: Double Pendulums Are Crazy Footnote †: Double Pendulums Are Crazy
2 years ago En
A footnote to the video about Neutrino Shape-Shifting: https://youtu.be/7fgKBJDMO54 Sixty Symbols Video on Double Pendulum: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izy4a5erom8 Physics of The Double Pendulum: http://www.theorphys.science.ru.nl/people/fasolino/sub_java/pendula/doublependul-en.shtml Neutral particle oscillation (like neutrino oscillation) is a superposition effect, and a similar effect can also be seen in a coupled double pendulum system where the interaction states are in superpositions of the "free" modes (called eigenstates). Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Footnote †: Unstable Equilibrium Footnote †: Unstable Equilibrium
2 years ago En
This video is a footnote for the video about the ring around the earth: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4xSPlQUejd8 Essentially, a ring around the earth is in unstable equilibrium, so it would stay put, but then fall one way or the other as soon as any asymmetry (even thermal or quantum fluctuations) developed. MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Ring AROUND the Earth? Ring AROUND the Earth?
2 years ago En
Thanks to http://www.squarespace.com/minutephysics for sponsoring this video; you can use offer code MINUTEPHYSICS at checkout for 10% off your first purchase. Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/ This video is about what would happen if we built a giant ring around earth – what would happen to the ring, that is. Would if fall? Collapse? Start spinning? REFERENCES: Why Isn’t It Faster to Fly West? Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gNkgj9h2oM Physics Girl Quarter Shrinking: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2TDXKfBaMQ Symmetry Breaking: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry_breaking Forces through gauge symmetry: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Uh5mTxRQcg Higgs Boson: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Uh5mTxRQcg MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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How Do We Know The Universe Is ACCELERATING? How Do We Know The Universe Is ACCELERATING?
2 years ago En
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Aatish Bhatia helped write this video! A big thanks for his help! Here's his blog: http://www.empiricalzeal.com The universe is expanding – this we know from looking at red shifts of distant galaxies – but the acceleration of the universe's expansion is harder to measure. It requires measuring the change of recession velocity over time, and it's done by comparing Type Ia supernovas as standard candles at different distances, which is how we know the universe is accelerating! Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html REFERENCES Type Ia supernovae http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/snovcn.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_Ia_supernova Luminosity Distance https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminosity_distance Hubble diagram for type Ia supernovas (relatively close to earth): http://www.pnas.org/content/101/1/8/F3.expansion http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~thompson/1101/lecture_fate_of_universe.html Straightforward references: Ryan Foley talking about WFIRST & Dark Energy https://youtu.be/BhOAwXYKdmw?t=23m Dark Energy FAQ: http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2011/10/04/dark-energy-faq/ Why does dark energy make the universe accelerate? http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2013/11/16/why-does-dark-energy-make-the-universe-accelerate/ David Spergel on dark matter & WFIRST https://tvr2c.com/2016/06/01/53116-show-feat-professor-david-spergel-on-his-research-spanning-astrophysical-scales/ Slightly-technical references: Permlutter article (old article but quite well explained & goes into future directions near the end) http://supernova.lbl.gov/PDFs/PhysicsTodayArticle.pdf Technical references: Mukhanov’s Physical Cosmology http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~george/ay21/readings/Mukhanov_PhysFoundCosm.pdf Nobel Prize Summary http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2011/advanced-physicsprize2011.pdf Cosmological redshift https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redshift#Expansion_of_space MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Can We Survive Curiosity? Can We Survive Curiosity?
2 years ago En
There's a March for Science happening all over the world: http://marchforscience.com This is a video about how science is both inherently political and apolitical. And how hopefully we won't end up in nuclear war... REFERENCES: Language acquisition and age of arrival: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813069/ https://www.utdallas.edu/~assmann/hcs6367/marinova_todd_marshall_snow00.pdf National Academies of Sciences report on GMOs: http://nas-sites.org/ge-crops/2016/05/16/report-in-brief/ Gravitational time dilation: https://www.uam.es/personal_pdi/ciencias/jcuevas/Teaching/Chou-Hume-Rosenband-Wineland-Science2010.pdf MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Should You Walk or Run When It's Cold? Should You Walk or Run When It's Cold?
2 years ago Ru En
Hi! My name is Henry, I make MinutePhysics, and you can support me on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Is it better to walk or run when it's cold out? If you run, then you have to deal with wind, wind chill, etc, but your body generates more heat. If you stay still, standing or walking slowly, you don't generate as much heat, but don't deal with the wind. Note: the simple calculations in this video don't very well take into account the baseline metabolic rate/heat generation, even at rest, of humans. REFERENCES Physics of Running Presentation: http://uw.physics.wisc.edu/\~reardon/Physics%20of%20Running.pdf Original Wind Chill Index formula: https://www.amazon.com/Factors-Design-Handbook-Wesley-Woodson/dp/0070717680 “The Basis of Wind Chill” paper: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic48-4-372.pdf Body surface area calculator: http://www.calculator.net/body-surface-area-calculator.html Newton’s Law of Cooling: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27s\_law\_of\_cooling Boundary Layer: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boundary\_layer MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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How to Teleport Schrödinger's Cat How to Teleport Schrödinger's Cat
2 years ago Ru En
Support me on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Previous video on No Cloning: https://youtu.be/owPC60Ue0BE How to teleport Schrödinger’s cat: this video presents the full quantum teleportation procedure, in which an arbitrary qubit (spin, etc) is teleported from Alice to Bob by way of a pair of particles entangled in a bell (EPR) state and the transmission of information via a classical channel. Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html REFERENCES: No Cloning video: https://youtu.be/owPC60Ue0BE The No-Cloning Theorem: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-cloning_theorem MinutePhysics on Schrödinger’s Cat: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOYyCHGWJq4 The History of Schrödinger’s (& Einstein’s) Cat: http://nautil.us/issue/41/selection/how-einstein-and-schrdinger-conspired-to-kill-a-cat Original Quantum Teleportation Paper: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.46.9405 Wikipedia on Quantum Teleportation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_teleportation Calcium ion teleportation: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v429/n6993/abs/nature02570.html Teleporting a 2-qubit state: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0407219v3 Multi-level teleportation: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0106018v2 Scott Aaronson blog post on Teleportation (& Free Will, etc): http://www.scottaaronson.com/democritus/lec18.html Classical Teleportation: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0107082 Blog post on quantum vs classical teleportation: https://marozols.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/three-myths-about-quantum-computing-part-3/ MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder
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The No Cloning Theorem The No Cloning Theorem
2 years ago En
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Three Blue One Brown: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYO_jab_esuFRV4b17AJtAw Why you can’t clone Schrödinger’s cat: this video presents the full proof of the “No Cloning” Theorem in Quantum Mechanics – without any fancy math! (stereotypical qubit has been replaced with Schrödinger’s cat). The full proof relies on the linearity of quantum (aka unitary) transformations, and the tensor product of multiple systems, to show that perfect cloning is impossible (though teleportation is allowed) Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html REFERENCES: The No-Cloning Theorem: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-cloning_theorem MinutePhysics on Schrödinger’s Cat: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOYyCHGWJq4 Original No-Cloning Paper by Wootters and Zurech: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v299/n5886/abs/299802a0.html Original “Beyond No-Cloning” (ie, no-cloning workarounds) paper by Buzek & Hillery: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9607018 Optimal Quantum Cloning paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9801009 Optimal Quantum Cloning paper II: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9910048 Quantum Cloning: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum\_cloning The History of Schrödinger’s (& Einstein’s) Cat: http://nautil.us/issue/41/selection/how-einstein-and-schrdinger-conspired-to-kill-a-cat The Stability of Black Powder (from the Civil War!): http://www.jpyro.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Kos-806-806.pdf Proof by contradiction: http://www.personal.kent.edu/\~rmuhamma/Philosophy/Logic/ProofTheory/proof\_by\_contradictionExamples.htm MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder
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How Perspective Shapes Reality How Perspective Shapes Reality
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minutephysics for supporting this video, which is about how the way we describe the world can influence the way we perceive it. In particular, with regards to Bohmian mechanics, Schrodinger wave functions, Feynman path integrals, and Galilean moons attached to Jupiter by springs. Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html REFERENCES: Scans of Galileo’s notes: http://www.dioi.org/galileo/scans.pdf Scans of Galileo’s publication: http://www.chlt.org/sandbox/lhl/GalileoSkel1610/page.41.a.php?size=240x320 Comparison of Galileo’s observations with modern models: http://www.etwright.org/astro/sidnunj.html Latin version of Galileo’s publication on wikimedia: https://la.wikisource.org/wiki/Sidereus\_nuncius Galilean moons: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilean\_moons Jupiter viewed from its north and south poles: http://www.damianpeach.com/barbados07/jupiter/juppol2007\_05\_25-27dp.jpg Centrifugal & Coriolis Forces: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal\_force Coriolis Force: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriolis\_force Fictitious Forces in rotating reference frames: http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath633/kmath633.htm Dilithium molecule: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dilithium MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder
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What is the Purpose of Life? (Big Picture Ep. 5/5) What is the Purpose of Life? (Big Picture Ep. 5/5)
2 years ago Ru En
This video is about how life arose and what its main function or purpose in the universe seems to be. Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minutephysics for supporting this video, and to Sean Carroll for collaborating on it! Playlist of the full video series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLoaVOjvkzQtyZF-2VpJrxPz7bxK_p1Dd2 Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html This video is about how life arose and what its main function or purpose in the universe seems to be. Throughout the universe there is a driving tendency for entropy to increase and free energy to be used up; however, sometimes there is some sort of barrier holding back further potential increase in entropy - these entropically favored but not directly possible reactions (like hydrogen nuclei fusing to become helium, or carbon dioxide reacting with hydrogen to form methane and water), *can* be achieved by larger systems, often complex or complicated, that allow multi-step reaction chains that ultimately lead to the entropically favored state. These systems, (stars, whose nuclei foster conditions amenable to fusion of hydrogen into helium, and life, which fosters conditions amenable to hydrogenating carbon dioxide) are naturally entropically favored, once they arise. And thus the purpose of both life, and stars, can be seen, in the context of the universe, as being a catalyst system that helps facilitate increases in entropy that are not otherwise possible. Music for the series was especially composed by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL INFORMATION How Life Arose (Hydrogenating CO2 quote): https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/how-life-arose-on-earth-and-how-a-singularity-might-bring-it-down/ Sean’s blog on this topic: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2010/03/10/free-energy-and-the-meaning-of-life/ Michael Russell article: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/302/5645/580.summary The molecular formula for Fructose: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fructose Adenosine Triphosphate (aka ATP): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate Hydrogen Fusion Reaction Chain: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fusion.html Richard Pogge (Ohio State University) on Stellar evolution: http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Unit2/lowmass.html Stellar evolution lecture notes: http://astro.physics.uiowa.edu/~kaaret/s09/L14_starsevolve.pdf Stellar evolution wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_evolution Sean's blog: http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2016/05/11/big-picture-part-four-complexity/ Sean Carroll: The Big Picture (more great articles about entropy, etc on his blog http://preposterousuniverse.com) MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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How Entropy Powers The Earth (Big Picture Ep. 4/5) How Entropy Powers The Earth (Big Picture Ep. 4/5)
2 years ago En
This video is about how we don't just need energy to power our lives, we need *low entropy* energy! Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting this series, and to Sean Carroll for collaborating on it! His book can be found here: http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/316646/the-big-picture-by-sean-carroll/ Playlist of the full video series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLoaVOjvkzQtyZF-2VpJrxPz7bxK_p1Dd2 Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html This video is about how we don't just need energy to power our lives, we need *low entropy* energy! This is also known as "free energy", and one way of thinking about entropy is as the lack of free energy. The sun provides us with useful, low entropy, energy in the form of photons of visible light, which are then absorbed and converted into plants, sugar, complex molecules, etc, before being radiated back into space as heat, which has much higher entropy. Music for the series was especially composed by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Entropy Balance of Radiation of the Earth system http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0038092X9290097T Heat balance of global warming/climate change: http://www.skepticalscience.com/4-Hiroshima-bombs-worth-of-heat-per-second.html More on the Entropy Balance of the Earth System https://www.bnl.gov/envsci/pubs/pdf/2010/BNL-81482-2008-JA.pdf The Entropy of a Photon Gas: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon_gas Sean's blog: http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2016/05/11/big-picture-part-four-complexity/ Another article by Sean about complexity and god: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/writings/dtung/ Sean Carroll: The Big Picture (more great articles about entropy, etc on his blog http://preposterousuniverse.com) Interactive Entropy explainer by Aatish Bhatia: http://aatishb.github.io/entropy/ MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Where Does Complexity Come From? (Big Picture Ep. 3/5) Where Does Complexity Come From? (Big Picture Ep. 3/5)
2 years ago En
This video is about the difference between complexity and entropy, and how complex things like life can arise from disorder. Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting this series, and to Sean Carroll for collaborating on it! His book can be found here: http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/316646/the-big-picture-by-sean-carroll/ Playlist of the full video series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLoaVOjvkzQtyZF-2VpJrxPz7bxK_p1Dd2 Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html This video is about the difference between complexity and entropy, and how we can see complex things like life, planets, galaxies, humans, intelligence, consciousness, etc arising in our universe when the overall tendency of the second law of thermodynamics is towards increasing entropy and disorder. It turns out that gravitational collapse & other complex structures (such as tendrils that form when coffee and milk mix) arise naturally as part of the path towards increasing entropy. REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Sean's blog: http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2016/05/11/big-picture-part-four-complexity/ Another article by Sean about complexity and god: https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/writings/dtung/ Sean Carroll: The Big Picture (more great articles about entropy, etc on his blog http://preposterousuniverse.com) Interactive Entropy explainer by Aatish Bhatia: http://aatishb.github.io/entropy/ Thanks to Micheal Aranda (https://www.youtube.com/user/WhatImDoingRightNow) for help filming the 4k high resolution slow-motion coffee footage Music for the series was especially composed by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Do Cause and Effect Really Exist? (Big Picture Ep. 2/5) Do Cause and Effect Really Exist? (Big Picture Ep. 2/5)
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting this series, and to Sean Carroll for collaborating on it! His book can be found here: http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/316646/the-big-picture-by-sean-carroll/ Playlist of the full video series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLoaVOjvkzQtyZF-2VpJrxPz7bxK_p1Dd2 Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html This video is about why there's no such thing as cause and effect at the level of fundamental particle physics, and how our everyday experience of cause and effect arises due to entropy, the large-scale arrow of time, and the leverage certain events have over others. This can explain not only the existence of causes and effects, but also memories, records and so on. REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Periodic Videos Slow Motion Hydrogen Explosion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOTgeeTB_kA Sean's blog: http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2016/05/08/big-picture-part-one-cosmos/ Sean Carroll: The Big Picture (more great articles about entropy, etc on his blog http://preposterousuniverse.com) Interactive Entropy explainer by Aatish Bhatia: http://aatishb.github.io/entropy/ Music for the series was especially composed by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Why Doesn't Time Flow Backwards? (Big Picture Ep. 1/5) Why Doesn't Time Flow Backwards? (Big Picture Ep. 1/5)
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting this series, and to Sean Carroll for collaborating on it! His book can be found here: http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/316646/the-big-picture-by-sean-carroll/ Playlist of the full video series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLoaVOjvkzQtyZF-2VpJrxPz7bxK_p1Dd2 Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html AMAZING Interactive Entropy explainer by Aatish Bhatia: http://aatishb.github.io/entropy/ This video is about why entropy gives rise to the arrow of time, and also how the initial low-entropy condition of the universe is responsible for the fact that we experience time right now, and how ultimately it will lead to the high-entropy heat death of the universe. REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL INFORMATION David Wallace on entropy of gravitating systems: http://arxiv.org/pdf/0907.0659v1.pdf Sean Carroll: The Big Picture (more great articles about entropy, etc on his blog http://preposterousuniverse.com) Julian Barbour et al on entropic time simulation: https://www.sciencenews.org/article/arrow-time Music by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Complete Solution To The Twins Paradox Complete Solution To The Twins Paradox
2 years ago En
One of the most famous paradoxes of all of physics – who's older? Who's younger? and WHY? ***** Thanks to The Great Courses Plus (free trial here: http://ow.ly/RCty302dIHU) for supporting MinutePhysics ***** Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html This video is about the famous “Twins paradox” of special relativity, how time can appear to be faster for two different observers at the same time, and which twin really is older (or younger) – the one who stays on earth or the one who flies in a rocket ship to the stars? Music by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES Muon lifetime and time dilation/relativity: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/relativ/muon.html#c2 MinutePhysics video about Time Rotations & Einstein: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajhFNcUTJI0 Experimental test of time dilation using doppler shift of light: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ives–Stilwell_experiment Lorentz Transformations: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorentz_transformation Relativity of Simultaneity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relativity_of_simultaneity Paper on twin paradox under constant acceleration: https://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0604025v3.pdf Taking Cesium atomic clocks aboard airplanes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafele–Keating_experiment MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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The Twins Paradox Primer (Rotating TIME!) The Twins Paradox Primer (Rotating TIME!)
3 years ago Ru En
How can time be slower and faster at the same time? Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minutephysics for supporting MinutePhysics This video is about the famous “Twin paradox” of special relativity, and how time can appear to be faster for two different observers at the same time. Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html Music by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES Muon lifetime and time dilation/relativity: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/relativ/muon.html#c2 MinutePhysics video about Time Rotations & Einstein: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajhFNcUTJI0 Experimental test of time dilation using doppler shift of light: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ives–Stilwell_experiment Lorentz Transformations: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorentz_transformation Relativity of Simultaneity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relativity_of_simultaneity Paper on twin paradox under constant acceleration: https://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0604025v3.pdf Taking Cesium atomic clocks aboard airplanes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafele–Keating_experiment Length Contraction: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Length_contraction MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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How Long Is A Day On The Sun? How Long Is A Day On The Sun?
3 years ago Ru En
Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html This video is about the definition of a day, and how it applies (or not) on the sun. Solar day, sidereal day, universal coordinated time (UTC) day, etc. Length of a day. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES: Solar rotation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_rotation Gravitational Time Dilation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_time_dilation UTC Day: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Time#Versions XKCD What-If about being transported to the sun for an instant: http://what-if.xkcd.com/115/ Reference from what-if about time to 2nd degree burns: http://arcadvisor.com/faq/threshold-incident-energy-second-degree-burn Oxygen on the sun: http://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/12381/what-happens-to-oxygen-produced-on-the-sun-or-other-stars Combustion in space: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs\_other/rmrs\_2010\_mcallister\_s001.pdf MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Hitting the Sun is HARD Hitting the Sun is HARD
3 years ago En
Listen to "The Paradox of Choice" for free at http://www.Audible.com/minutephysics This video is about the orbital mechanics of why it’s so hard to crash into the sun – the energy it takes to get there is astoundingly high, compared with leaving the solar system. Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html Music by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES International Atomic Energy Association report on nuclear waste storage: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/LTS-RW_web.pdf And Slate’s article on actual potential solutions to nuclear waste: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/green_room/2009/11/atomic_priesthoods_thorn_landscapes_and_munchian_pictograms.html Info about sun dive delta v from low earth orbit http://space.stackexchange.com/questions/3612/calculating-solar-system-escape-and-and-sun-dive-delta-v-from-lower-earth-orbit Oberth effect https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberth_effect More on rocket burns http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20100033146.pdf Sun dive probe http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/100909-science-space-sun-new-nasa-solar-probe-plus-dive-bomb/ Other plans (jupiter assists) vs repeat Venus assist: http://solarprobe.gsfc.nasa.gov/spp_mission.htm Solar Probe Plus technical paper: http://issfd.org/ISSFD_2014/ISSFD24_Paper_S6-2_Guo.pdf Mercury Messenger Trajectory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MESSENGER#/media/File:MESSENGER_trajectory.svg Online calculator for orbital velocities, escape velocities, etc: http://keisan.casio.com/exec/system/1360310353 Effective potential (possibly with interactive mathematica notebook?): http://physics.oregonstate.edu/portfolioswiki/doku.php?id=activities:main&file=cfeffpotential https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effective_potential https://www.phy.duke.edu/~rgb/Class/phy51/phy51/node8.html Equations for elliptical orbit speeds, etc: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsis MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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Gravitational Waves Explained Using Stick Figures Gravitational Waves Explained Using Stick Figures
3 years ago Ru En
GO HERE NOW: https://www.einsteinathome.org Einstein@Home wikipedia page: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein@Home This video is about gravitational waves in the weak field limit as discovered by the LIGO collaboration, explained by parallels to electromagnetic radiation, sound waves, water waves, etc. I want to see Cat LIGO ASAP! Thanks to everyone who supports MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics Link to Patreon supporters here: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters.html Music by Nathaniel Schroeder, http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES Linearized Einstein Equations: http://web.phys.ntnu.no/\~mika/week10.pdf Gravitational Wave Detection: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0034-4885/72/7/076901/meta LIGO Mirror Test mass suspension/isolation: http://www.gwoptics.org/hardware\_hacks/mirror\_suspension/ Power radiation from Gravitational waves of Earth-Sun system: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational\_wave#Power\_radiated\_by\_orbiting\_bodies Power radiation of electromagnetic waves from accelerating charge (Larmor formula): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larmor\_formula Strength & Directionality of Radiation from a binary source (p 12): http://www.aei.mpg.de/\~schutz/download/lectures/AzoresCosmology/Schutz.AzoresLecture2.pdf Newtonian limit of GR, Metric as gravitational potential: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/March01/Carroll3/Carroll4.html MinutePhysics is on Google+ - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6 And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics And twitter - @minutephysics Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute! Created by Henry Reich
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