minutephysics

Simply put: cool physics and other sweet science.
"If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough."
~Rutherford via Einstein? (wikiquote)
Created by Henry Reich

247 videos

3 weeks ago

Thanks to Google for sponsoring a portion of this video!
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
This video is about using Bohmian trajectories to visualize the wavefunctions of hydrogen orbitals, rendered in 3D using custom python code in Blender.
REFERENCES
A Suggested Interpretation of the Quantum Theory in Terms of "Hidden" Variables. I
David Bohm, Physical Review, Vol 85 No. 2, January 15, 1952
Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics
J. S. Bell
Trajectory construction of Dirac evolution
Peter Holland
The de Broglie-Bohm Causal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and its Application to some Simple Systems by Caroline Colijn
Bohmian Trajectories as the Foundation of Quantum Mechanics
http://arxiv.org/abs/0912.2666v1
The Pilot-Wave Perspective on Quantum Scattering and Tunneling
http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.7265v2
A Quantum Potential Description of One-Dimensional Time-Dependent Scattering From Square Barriers and Square Wells
Dewdney, Foundations of Physics, VoL

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2 months ago

Watch the bonus material cut from this video and get 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream and Nebula at https://www.curiositystream.com/minutephysics
The Solution to the Windmill Paradox. This video is about the tradeoff of Windmills: the fact that the more kinetic energy you extract from the wind the slower the wind goes, the less wind you have to extract energy from, etc. How much energy is the sweet spot to extract from the wind??
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics
Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute!
Created by Henry Reich

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2 months ago

Go to https://curiositystream.com/minutephysics to get access to CuriosityStream AND Nebula (where you can watch the extended version of this video), plus you'll get a 26% discount on an annual subscription.
This video is about the "Kelvin wake" shape of water wakes behind boats - we talk about mach angle, dispersion, superposition of many waves, and how these all lead to the pattern of a wake. We don't get into Froude number though...
REFERENCES
Boat Wake Wikipedia Page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wake
Interactive Boat Wake Simulation: https://observablehq.com/@rreusser/dispersion-in-water-surface-waves
Feynman Lectures on Water Waves: https://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/I_51.html#Ch51-S4
Building up a Boat Wake from V-Shaped Wakes: https://editor.p5js.org/aatish/full/bDiykicsC
Wave Dispersion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dispersion_relation
Mach angle shock waves:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/mach-angle
Ship Wakes - Kelvin or Mach Angle? Rabaud and Moisy Paper: https://j

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3 months ago

This video was created in partnership with Bill Gates, inspired by his new book “How to Avoid a Climate Disaster.” Find out more here: https://gatesnot.es/3u7UUVU
This video is about how physics dictates the design of modern windmills - why they are so big, have so few blades, and have such skinny blades.
REFERENCES
H. Glauert: Aerodynamic Theory, 1935 Division L (Airplane Propellers), Chapter XI: Windmills and Fans
Wind power extraction fundamentals
https://home.uni-leipzig.de/energy/energy-fundamentals/15.htm
Betz's Law
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betz%27s_law
Tip Speed Ratio
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tip-speed_ratio
Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines Book
https://www.amazon.com/Aerodynamics-Wind-Turbines-Physical-Analysis/dp/1119405610
Penn State Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Lesson
https://www.e-education.psu.edu/aersp583/node/469
Wind Power Physics youtube video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qx_M0nvDIGU
Why do Wind Turbines Have Three Blades?
https://rosemary-barnes.medium.com/why-do-wind-turbine

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3 months ago

Go to https://curiositystream.com/minutephysics get access to CuriosityStream AND Nebula (where you can watch the extended version of this video), plus you'll get a 26% discount on an annual subscription.
This video covers the General theory of Relativity, developed by Albert Einstein, from basic simple levels (it's gravity, curved space) through to the concepts of how curved spacetime is represented by psuedo-Riemannian manifolds with Lorentzian signature (that is, special relativity and minkowski space are the local tangent space), how matter and energy are represented by an energy-momentum tensor, and how these two together obey the Einstein Field Equations. The solutions to the Einstein Field Equations (including the schwarzschild metric, kerr metric, freedman-lemaitre-robertson-walker metric, etc) represent gravity around massive objects like the sun, earth, and black holes, but also the history and expansion and future evolution of the cosmos. The universe on a large scale is described by general relat

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5 months ago

Thanks to Brilliant for sponsoring this video - the first 200 people to click on https://www.brilliant.org/MinutePhysics will get 20% off a Premium subscription to Brilliant.
This video written & produced in collaboration with Aatish Bhatia, https://www.aatishb.com
This video is about how cheap, fast, and LESS sensitive rapid antigen tests might be better for screening (& maybe surveillance) than PCR COVID tests due to the nature of contagiousness/infectiveness at various points on the viral load trajectory of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID sars-COV-2 carriers.
REFERENCES
Thanks to Daniel Larremore for feedback on early versions of this video https://larremorelab.github.io/
Rapid Antigen Testing:
COVID-19 testing: One size does not fit all. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/371/6525/126
Rethinking Covid-19 Test Sensitivity — A Strategy for Containment. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2025631
Test sensitivity is secondary to frequency and turnaround time for COVID-19 screening. http

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9 months ago

Thanks to the Heising-Simons foundation for their support: https://www.hsfoundation.org (their COVID-19 grants: https://www.hsfoundation.org/grants/covid-19-response-grants/ )
Check out https://aatishb.com/maskmath to explore and for references.
This video is about how masks (whether surgical, or N95, or cloth) are counterintuitive and actually work much better epidemiologically than one might expect. Masks do double-duty, and the fraction of interactions with masks is much higher than the fraction of people wearing masks, so partially adopted, partially effective masks are able to reduce the basic reproduction number surprisingly well.
REFERENCES:
Aatish’s detailed writeup on github: https://github.com/aatishb/maskmath/blob/master/model/mathmodel.ipynb
Amid the Coronavirus Crisis, a Regimen for Re-entry: https://www.newyorker.com/science/medical-dispatch/amid-the-coronavirus-crisis-a-regimen-for-reentry
Face Masks Against COVID-19: An Evidence Review https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202004.0203/v3

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12 months ago

Head to https://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics to sign up for free and get 20% off a Premium subscription to Brilliant!
This video was written in collaboration with Aatish Bhatia - https://aatishb.com
To learn more about using & decontaminating N95 masks: https://www.n95decon.org
Thanks to Manu Prakash for useful discussion and feedback (Manu is involved with the N95 decontamination project)
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
The physics & engineering of N95 mask design is pretty incredible.
REFERENCES
10X efficiency of electrically charged fibers
"The electrostatic charge of N95 masks is a major contributor to their filtration efficiency, improving it at least 10-fold over uncharged fabric" (Tsai et al., Journal of Electrostatics 2002; Peter Tsai, personal communication).
Prakash Lab COVID-19 Response Group Working Draft Document on N95 masks: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1aACcbkyZjR7nZy_w

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2 years ago

This video made possible with support of Brilliant - the first 200 subscribers to go to http://Brilliant.org/MinutePhysics get 20% off a Premium subscription to Brilliant.
Go to http://aatishb.com/covidtrends to explore the graph from the video yourself!
RESOURCES
Grant's 3Blue1Brown Video: Exponential Growth and Epidemics: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kas0tIxDvrg
Aatish's Exponential/Logistic Curve-Fitting Site: https://github.com/aatishb/covid/blob/master/curvefit.ipynb
Data Source: https://github.com/CSSEGISandData/COVID-19
Our World in Data Page on Coronavirus: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus
How many tests for COVID-19 are being performed around the world? https://ourworldindata.org/covid-testing
Understanding logarithmic scales: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/20/health/coronavirus-data-logarithm-chart.html
What we can learn from the countries winning the coronavirus fight: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-26/coronavirus-covid19-global-spread-data-explained/12089028
(Great explainer

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2 years ago

This video was made with the support of the Heising Simons Foundation.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
This video is about the Ozma problem of distinguishing the chirality (ie left-handedness or right-handedness) of matter using weak interaction processes like beta decay (for example in uranium), or neutral kaon/k-meson decay. This is wrapped up in the phenomenon of CP violation, by which charge and parity are both violated by certain weak interaction processes - this enables antimatter to be unambiguously distinguished from matter, and left handed chirality from right handed.
REFERENCES
The Ozma Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Project
https://www.seti.org/seti-institute/project/details/early-seti-project-ozma-arecibo-message
Sean Carroll on CP Symmetry (& why we shouldn’t trot out baryogenesis all the time)
https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2010/06/04/marketing-cp-violat

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2 years ago

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This video is about cutting, taping, and rearranging the periodic table into the Left Step form, the Mendeleev's flower form, the cake form, the wide form, the standard form, and so on. A great holiday craft!!
REFERENCES
Alternate Periodic Tables
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_periodic_tables
Electronegativity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronegativity
Atomic Radius Radii
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_radius
First Ionization energy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionization_energy
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics
And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6
Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics --

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2 years ago

Go to https://curiositystream.com/minutephysics to check out MinuteBody, and for a free month of CuriosityStream PLUS Nebula!
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
This video is about why words flip left & right (aka horizontally) in a mirror but not up & down (aka vertically). The answer has to do with specular reflection, mirrors being like windows into another world (alternate universes, just with in and out flipped!), and transparency of the things we write on.
REFERENCES
Specular Reflection
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specular_reflection
PhysicsGirl video about mirrors
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBpxhfBlVLU
Fermat’s principle
http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/optics421/modules/m1/Fermat's%20principle.htm
Thomas-Fermi screening
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas%E2%80%93Fermi_screening
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics
And Google+ (

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2 years ago

Thanks to CuriosityStream for their support. Go to http://www.curiositystream.com/minutephysics to watch Particle Fever and get Nebula!
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
This video is about two-photon (gamma-gamma) physics, and how photons can interact with each other - either mediated by a passing lepton, or gravitationally via lensing, or via vacuum fluctuation pair production of vertical particles (electron-positron pair, for example). This is the so-called "box diagram" feynman diagram.
REFERENCES
Water waves interact with each other (weakly nonlinear shallow water waves)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korteweg%E2%80%93deVriesequation
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Korteweg-deVriesEquation.html
Paper: Absorption of Very High Energy Gamma Rays in the Milky Way
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.01587.pdf
Paper: Observing light-by-light scattering at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
https://arxiv.org/pdf/130

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2 years ago

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This video is about how Russian physicist Aleksandr Fridman corrected Albert Einstein about the expansion of the universe. Einstein thought that general relativity implied that space had to be static and unchanging, but he had made a technical error regarding the differentiation of the metric (in particular, I believe he mistook the determinant of the metric for a scalar rather than a tensor density of weight 2). Friedmann didn't make this differential geometric mistake, and the cosmologies he found from the Einstein Equations were more varied in their properties - they could be expanding, or contracting, or (with the cosmological constant), static.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
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REFERENCES
Alexander Friedmann
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Friedmann
Einstein Wron

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2 years ago

Go to http://www.dashlane.com/minutephysics for a free 30 day trial and 10% discount with offer code 'minutephysics'
Watch the main video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pT19VwBAqKA
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
REFERENCES
Cynthia Dwork (key inventor of Differential Privacy), giving a great intro talk about differential privacy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lg-VhHlztqo
Hazards of Smoking: the Effect on Life Span
https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMsa1211128
NHL Hockey Birth distributions
https://www.quanthockey.com/nhl/birth-month-totals/nhl-players-career-stats.html
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics
And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6
Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute!
Created by Henry Reich

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2 years ago

This video was made in collaboration with the US Census Bureau and fact-checked by Census Bureau scientists. Any opinions and errors are my own. For more information, visit https://census.gov/about/policies/privacy/statistical_safeguards.html or search "differential privacy" at http://census.gov.
REFERENCES
Differential Privacy in the Wild: http://www.vldb.org/pvldb/vol9/p1611-machanavajjhala.pdf
Harvard University Privacy Tools Project: https://privacytools.seas.harvard.edu/differential-privacy
Simons Institute Workshop Video Recordings and Articles Archive: https://simons.berkeley.edu/workshops/schedule/6281
Cynthia Dwork (key inventor of Differential Privacy), giving a great intro talk about differential privacy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lg-VhHlztqo
Shiva P Kasiviswanathan and Adam Smith. On the semantics of differential privacy: A Bayesian formulation. Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality, 6(1):1–16, 2014.
Shiva Prasad Kasiviswanathan and Adam Smith. On the ‘semantics’ of differential priva

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2 years ago

Where to Buy "How To" by Randall Munroe:
· PRH.com: https://bit.ly/2L2G5hy
· Amazon: https://bit.ly/2zfy974
· Barnes and Noble: https://bit.ly/2Zozxmt
· IndieBound: https://bit.ly/2ZfwSre
· Books-A-Million: https://bit.ly/2ZfxD3y
· Apple Books: https://bit.ly/33TK3kX
The world's most entertaining and useless self-help guide, from the brilliant mind behind the wildly popular webcomic xkcd and the #1 New York Times bestsellers What If? and Thing Explainer
For any task you might want to do, there's a right way, a wrong way, and a way so monumentally complex, excessive, and inadvisable that no one would ever try it. How To is a guide to the third kind of approach. It's full of highly impractical advice for everything from landing a plane to digging a hole.
Bestselling author and cartoonist Randall Munroe explains how to predict the weather by analyzing the pixels of your Facebook photos. He teaches you how to tell if you're a baby boomer or a 90's kid by measuri

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2 years ago

Check out the "What is a Day?" interactive video at https://labs.minutelabs.io/what-is-a-day/
It's super cool!! (and made by Jasper Palfree & the MinuteEarth/MinutePhysics team)
The MinutePhysics video about Why December Has the Longest Days: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nZMMuv0Ltyo
This video is about the length of a solar day vs a stellar day vs a mean standard day, what they all have to do with each other and the earth's orbit, eccentricity, axial tilt, and so on. Also, aliens and asteroids. It'll explain the equation of time, and why the longest day is in December. The lab will also show you what days are like on all the other planets - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and even - though it's not a planet - Pluto.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics
And Google+ (does anyone use this

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2 years ago

Thanks to Brilliant for supporting MinutePhysics. Get 20% off a premium subscription at https://www.Brilliant.org/minutephysics
This video is about how Albert Einstein made a mistake when applying the Field Equations of General Relativity to cosmology (in particular, to a static, constant density universe), and solved the problem by introducing the cosmological constant, rather than allowing for a dynamic universe with a scale factor - that is, the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe, first developed by Alexander Friedmann of Russia. Later, it was discovered by the Slipher and Hubble red-shift that the universe is indeed expanding, and even later, by Schwarz and company in 1998, that the expansion is accelerating - aka, dark energy. And the cosmological constant was re-introduced.
REFERENCES
The Einstein Field Equations
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_field_equations
Interrogating the Legend of Einstein’s “Biggest Blunder”
https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.06768
On the General Theory of Relativi

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2 years ago

Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting this video. Head to http://curiositystream.com/minutephysics and use promo code minutephysics for 30 days FREE!
This video is about the Portal Paradox - a paradox in the video game Portal (and Portal 2) regarding whether or not a companion cube passing through a moving portal plops out of the other end with no speed (velocity, momentum), or shoots out at high speed. It’s a question of conservation of momentum, relativity of velocities, wormholes, 3D printers and quantum teleportation, glitches, and more.
REFERENCES
Conservation of momentum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Momentum#Conservation_in_a_continuum
Principle of Locality
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_locality
YouTube video of testing the Portal 2 game engine on the portal Paradox https://youtu.be/S85nudR6D-Y
Tutorial for how to program the Portal portals on your own: https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/132164/games_demystified_portal.php
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreo

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2 years ago

Thanks to the Heising Simons Foundation (https://www.hsfoundation.org/) for their support of this video, and of short range gravity research.
This video is about how little we know about the behavior of gravity at short length and distance scales, what the constraints are on the inverse square law/Newton's law of universal gravitation, at the human and microscopic and atomic scales. Only on solar system scales or larger do we have good constraints on Newton's law of gravitation.
REFERENCES
Review of short-range gravity experiments in the LHC era
https://arxiv.org/abs/1408.3588v2
Zeptonewton force sensing with nanospheres in an optical lattice
https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.02122
Large extra dimensions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_extra_dimension
Search for Screened Interactions Associated with Dark Energy Below the 100 μm Length Scale
https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.04908
Tests of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law below the Dark-Energy Length Scale
https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0611184v1
Photon Mass E

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3 years ago

Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this video! The first 200 people to go to https://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics will get 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
This video is about how I designed and made my own custom mute guitar pedal for my clip-on mic and piezo pickup on my violin (fiddle). The mic is an AT Pro35 phantom powered XLR condensor microphone, and the pickup is a Fishman V200 piezoelectric transducer. I got all of the parts from PartsExpress.
Thanks to my band (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEKRoVVSZKGih6v_xK4LAdw), Caleb, Pete, Paul and Troy, and to Hannah for filming.
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
REFERENCES:
Gearslutz mute wiring for phantom powered vs dynamic/line-level microphones:
https://www.gearslutz.com/board/geekslutz-forum/813680-how-wire-external-xlr-off-switch-pedal.html
Beavis Audio Research:
http://beavisaudio.com/techpages/
Pickups on wikipedia: https://

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3 years ago

Go to http://www.dashlane.com/minutephysics to download Dashlane for free, and use offer code minutephysics for 10% off Dashlane Premium!
Watch the main video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lvTqbM5Dq4Q
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This video explains how Shor’s Algorithm factors the pseudoprime number 314191 into its prime factors using a quantum computer. The quantum computation relies on the number-theoretic analysis of the factoring problem via modular arithmetic mod N (where N is the number to be factored), and finding the order or period of a random coprime number mod N. The exponential speedup comes in part from the use of the quantum fast fourier transform which achieves interference among frequencies that are not related to the period (period-finding is the goal of the QFT FFT).
REFERENCES
RSA Numbers (sample large numbers to try factoring)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_numbers
IBM on RSA https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSB23S1.1.0.13

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3 years ago

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This video explains Shor’s Algorithm, a way to efficiently factor large pseudoprime integers into their prime factors using a quantum computer. The quantum computation relies on the number-theoretic analysis of the factoring problem via modular arithmetic mod N (where N is the number to be factored), and finding the order or period of a random coprime number mod N. The exponential speedup comes in part from the use of the quantum fast fourier transform which achieves interference among frequencies that are not related to the period (period-finding is the goal of the QFT FFT).
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
And facebook - http://facebook.com/minut

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3 years ago

Thanks to http://brilliant.org/minutephysics for supporting MinutePhysics - get 20% a premium subscription at http://brilliant.org/minutephysics
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This video is about compressed air cans (aka gas dusters) and why they get cold when you spray them. They cool off because the refrigerant inside (1,1-difluoroethane) is under pressure and boils off when the pressure lowers, and energy lost to the latent heat of vaporization cools the can a lot. Difluoroethane normally boils at -25°C (-13°F), but under ~6 atm (6 bar, 600 kpa) it is a liquid at room temperature. The gas also cools off slightly due to the Joule-Thompson effect of fluid expansion through a throttled valve. Difluoroethane is heavier than air and water soluble, so it is recommended to use it in a ventilated environment to clean your keyboard, etc. Also, 1,1-difluoroethane is a potent greenhouse gas. It is also known

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3 years ago

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This joke video is about how Internet Service Providers (aka ISPs, internet companies, telecommunications companies, etc) violate the basic axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Like the axiom of choice (sometimes Well-ordering theorem), the Axiom of extensionality, Axiom of regularity (also called the Axiom of foundation), Axiom schema of specification, Axiom of pairing, Axiom of union, Axiom schema of replacement, Axiom of infinity, Axiom of power set.
Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute!
Created by Henry Reich

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3 years ago

Thanks to @AstroKatie (http://astrokatie.com, http://twitter.com/astrokatie) for the collaboration!
Go to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for free daily science puzzles
Here's the original twitter thread https://twitter.com/astrokatie/status/1066526148149108736
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This video is about the cosmic distance scale and how we see objects farther away in space (ie at higher red shift) farther back in time because light takes time to reach us. Thus we can see not only stars and galaxies, but also the primordial stars & proto-galaxies, and even the remnants of the beginning of the universe itself: the CMB cosmic microwave background left over from the big bang.
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
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Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute!
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3 years ago

To keep your brain sharp with quick daily math & science puzzles, head to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics
This video is about how to create muons in a particle accelerator via bombardment of heavy nuclei with protons, which results in creation of charged pions (plus and minus). The pions then decay into muons and mu neutrinos, and the muons then decay into electrons or positrons and more neutrinos. Muons also form in the upper atmosphere due to cosmic rays, and the uses of muons includes experimental tests of time dilation in special relativity, catalyzing muonic cold nuclear fusion, and more.
Muons on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon
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Need a last minute holiday gift idea? Go to https://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant (can be given as a gift).
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This video is about Hardy's Paradox, wherein an electron and positron (or photons polarized horizontally and vertically) pass through Mach-Zehnder interferometers that overlap such that the particles have a chance of annihilating. If they do annihilate, then the interference pattern changes and there is a probability for both particles to be detected in the "dark arms" of the detector, that is, where previously there was no probability for detection for either particle. The paradox has implications for local realism, contextuality, lorentz elements of rea

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3 years ago

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This video is about how terrestrial muons are part of our experimental proof of time dilation, length contraction, and special relativity in general.
REFERENCES
Cosmic Rays
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_ray
Terrestrial Cosmic Rays
http://people.physics.tamu.edu/wwu/docs/P225/P225_Project_terrestrial%20cosmic%20rays.pdf
Cosmic Ray Interaction Depth & Muon Production Altitude
http://cosmic.lbl.gov/SKliewer/Cosmic_Rays/Interaction.htm
Cosmic rays are stronger at the poles
http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glacial-geology/dating-glacial-sediments-2/cosmic-rays/
Cosmic Rays on Hyperphysics
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/cosmic.html
Exponential decay and mean lifetime
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_decay#Mean_lifetime
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3 years ago

Thanks to Brilliant.org for supporting MinutePhysics - the first 200 people to go to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics will get 20% off of a premium subscription to all of Brilliant's courses and puzzles.
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This video is about the original cold fusion: μ muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium, tritium, hydrogen, into helium-3 and helium 4. The problems with it are the half-life of muons and the sticking of muons to alpha particles. Also involved are neutrons, protons, break-even, etc. This has nothing to do with fusion by capture in palladium electrodes.
REFERENCES:
The original papers: L.W. Alvarez 1957, F.C. Frank 1947, and J.D. Jackson 1957
A History of Muon Catalyzed “Cold” Fusion
http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2016/ph241/yoon1/
Fusion rates
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/atomic_and_nuclear_physics/4_7/4_7_4.html
Cold Fusion
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

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3 years ago

Thanks to LEGO for sponsoring this video. Find your own LEGOs at https://shop.lego.com/?cmp=SOC-OneMinutePhysics
or https://shop.lego.com/product?p=21309&cmp=SOC-OneMinutePhysics
This video is about Tuned Mass Dampers, which can be used to reduce or avoid unwanted vibrations, swaying, swinging, bending, etc on engineered structures ranging from buildings, skyscrapers, electricity power transmission lines, airplane engines, formula one race cars, etc. TMD's use damped coupled oscillators.
REFERENCES
Taipei Tower TMD Photo licensed from: Louie Psihoyos http://www.psihoyos.com
Coupled oscillators: http://www.reed.edu/physics/faculty/wheeler/documents/Sophmore%20Class%20Notes%202007/Chapter%204.pdf
Related things: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockbridge_damper
Applications: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuned_mass_damper#Mass_dampers_in_automobiles
Formula 1 cars: http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/mass_damper.html
Aircraft engines: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pendulum_absorber
Audio speaker co

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3 years ago

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Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober
This video is chapter 8 in my series on special relativity, and it presents a hands-on explanation of the resolution to the Twins Paradox using the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe. Of course, the Twins paradox can be resolved with an understanding of spacetime intervals, relative inertial frames of reference, etc, but this is a nice hands-on version where you actually measure the proper times on a real, physical spacetime diagram with a ruler.
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3 years ago

Watch the original video in Spanish here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2Vkv5GQXww
This video is about how the physics and chemistry of sugar (in particular, how it melts, and how it caramelizes) is more complicated than you might think. It involves fructose, sucrose, glucose, and a sticky mess.
Credits:
Gallium melting footage by WorkshopScience
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jow4idr6HNs
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Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute!
Created by Henry Reich

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3 years ago

Check out Grant’s channel: 3blue1brown: https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown
This video recounts a lecture by Richard Feynman giving an elementary demonstration of why planets orbit in ellipses. See the excellent book by Judith and David Goodstein, "Feynman's lost lecture”, for the full story behind this lecture, and a deeper dive into its content.
Tweet referenced at the start: https://twitter.com/3blue1brown/status/1016936129117937664
Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: https://soundcloud.com/drschroeder/elizabeth-the-mouse
Music by Vincent Rubinetti: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/one-two-zeta
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Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minu

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3 years ago

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant!
Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober
This video is chapter 7 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the idea that some things AREN'T relative: there IS a sense of absolute length and absolute time, which can be agreed upon from all moving perspectives (as long as they're inertial reference frames). In particular, proper length and proper time, aka the spacetime interval. Essentially, this is the spacetime version of the pythagorean theorem, and we'll explore it using the Lorentz transformations of lengths and time intervals, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe.
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3 years ago

Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video.
This video is about the cycloid curves on Jupiter's moon Europa - they're ridges or valleys in the icy surface that formed due to some sort of geological or tectonic-esque phenomenon. The answer involves ping pong balls, the pacific ring of fire, subduction, tidal bulges, and tailcracking,
REFERENCES
Europa image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/PIA19048_realistic_color_Europa_mosaic.jpg
Europa “google maps” explorere: https://www.mapaplanet.org/explorer-bin/explorer.cgi?map=Europa&layers=europa_galileo_bw&west=180&south=-90&east=-180&north=90¢er_lat=0¢er=0&defaultcenter=on&grid=none&stretch=none&projection=SIMP&advoption=NO&info=NO&resolution=2
Cycloid: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycloid
Formation of Europa cycloid cracks: http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/HIIPS/Publications/hoppa_abstracts/cycloid.html
Smashed ping pong ball: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/

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4 years ago

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant!
Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober
This video is chapter 6 in my series on special relativity, and it covers the topic of relativistic addition of velocity: aka, how things that are moving relative to one inertial reference frame, which is moving relative to another reference frame, what speed or velocity are those things moving relative to the second frame. We'll show this using the Lorentz transformation of moving worldlines, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe.
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4 years ago

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant!
Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober
This video is chapter 5 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that are moving (that is, moving relative to an inertial reference frame) at different speeds appear to be shorter in length... and longer in length. And shorter in time, and longer in time. It all makes sense, I promise, and is clear when you use the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe.
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Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining v

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4 years ago

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant!
Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober
The previous videos in this series:
Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY&
Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw
Chapter 3: Lorentz Transformations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rh0pYtQG5wI
This video is chapter 4 in my series on special relativity, and it covers how things that appear simultaneous from one perspective in our universe aren't simultaneous from other moving perspectives - that is, from inertial reference frames moving at different speeds. This is explained via the Lorentz transformation of coordinates of the events in question, enacted with a mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe.
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4 years ago

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysics for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant!
Mark Rober's youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/markrober
The previous videos in this series:
Chapter 1: Why Relativity is Hard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rLWVZVWfdY&
Chapter 2: Spacetime Diagrams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTxWAQGgeQw
This video is chapter 3 in my series on special relativity, and it covers boosts, galilean transformations, newtonian relativity, and of course Lorentz transformations, the constancy of the speed of light, relative changes of velocity between inertial reference frames, etc - some of the stuff Einstein figured out. I introduce the mechanical minkowski diagram, aka mechanical Lorentz transformation, aka spacetime globe.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
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4 years ago

Thanks to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project and the Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video.
This video is about the line between Brown dwarfs and gas giant planets (aka super Jupiter's): does it exist? Is it the deuterium-burning threshold? Behavior? Metallicity? Formation? Or is there no meaningful scientific distinction, and are brown dwarfs and giant planets really all on a spectrum with no clear line between them?
REFERENCES
Giant planet and brown dwarf formation https://arxiv.org/abs/1401.7559
Exoplanets versus brown dwarfs: the CoRoT view and the future https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.00917
Defining and cataloging exoplanets: The exoplanet.eu database https://arxiv.org/abs/1106.0586
A Definition for Giant Planets Based on the Mass-Density Relationship
https://arxiv.org/abs/1506.05097
Spatial differences between stars and brown dwarfs: a dynamical origin? https://arxiv.org/abs/1403.7053v1
Hints for Small Disks around Very Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs
https://arxi

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4 years ago

Watch Paradigms Here: http://vrv.co/paradigms
And please let me know what you think!
Paradigms is a pilot for a new show about how we know what we know, produced in collaboration with MinuteEarth (http://youtube.com/minuteearth), Veritasium (http://youtube.com/veritasium), and Aatish Bhatia. The first episode is about the science of seeing, from the extramission theories of the ancient Greeks (like Plato and Euclid and Galen) to the Islamic scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) who studied the optics of pinhole chambers and images, to Johannes Kepler who understood the role lenses play in vision, to the modern era where we now know that the brain plays a huge role in seeing & processing images from the eyes, too!
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
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4 years ago

Go to http://brilliant.org/MinutePhysicsSpecialRelativity to learn more about spacetime diagrams and for 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant.
This video is chapter 2 in my series on special relativity, and it covers spacetime diagrams, rotational and translational symmetry of both time and space, how certain transformations preserve distances (measured in terms of a reference like a meter or second), and so on. We'll wait until the next video to talk about Lorentz transformations, relativity of velocity, minkowski diagrams, and the speed of light.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
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MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
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And Google+ (does anyone use this any more?) - http://bit.ly/qzEwc6
Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute!
Created by Henry Reich

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4 years ago

Thanks to http://www.brilliant.org/minutephysics for supporting this video!
Thanks to my friend Mark Rober (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCY1kMZp36IQSyNx_9h4mpCg) for making the spacetime globe, and to Grant Sanderson (https://www.youtube.com/3blue1brown) for inspiration.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
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This is the first in a series of videos about special relativity. This is definitely not an academic course, but it's going to be a more in depth and developed exploration of a single topic than a typical standalone MinutePhysics video. I've been greatly inspired (and heckled) to do this by my friend Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown who's set the standard for this kind of thing with his excellent series - serieses? - on calculus and linear algebra.
So, special relativity. Special relativity is one of the most popularly famous ideas in physics – it's that thing that Einstein figured out about the spe

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4 years ago

Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Telescope Science Institute for supporting this video.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
This video is about the astronomical amount of astronomical evidence for black holes, ranging from x-ray binaries with accretion disks, supermassive infrared-radiating galactic nuclei black holes, orbital characteristics of high mass binaries, and direct gravitational wave detection of inspiraling merging black hole binaries with LIGO. Yes, they're real.
REFERENCES
Interactive: Masses in the Stellar Graveyard https://ligo.northwestern.edu/media/mass-plot/index.html
Galactic Center Orbital Models and Inner Stellar Distributions
Data provided by Andrea Ghez and Sylvana Yelda, UCLA (obtained with the Keck Telescopes)
Visualization by Stuart Levy and Robert Patterson, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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4 years ago

Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at http://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
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This video is about how efficient various reactions are at converting mass to energy (as we know from the Einstein mass-energy equivalence of E=mc^2). Antimatter is very efficient but it is not naturally-occurring. Chemical reactions like fire or explosions are very inefficient. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are better, but not amazing on an absolute scale. Non-rotating black holes (Schwarzschild) and rotating (Kerr) are by far the most efficient, due to their accretion disks and very small radius of their innermost stable circular orbits.
REFERENCES:
Periodic Videos Hydrogen Explosion in slow motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOTgeeTB_kA
CIA World Factbook Norway Energy Consumption: https://web.archive

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4 years ago

Thanks to https://brilliant.org/minutephysics/ for sponsoring this video! Check out their black hole course at https://brilliant.org/minutephysicsblackhole
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
This video is about the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole, (its "event horizon"), and how much mass and density is required to reach the point of no return where an object like a star, neutron star, red giant, etc will collapse into a black hole singularity. You can calculate it yourself using just the volume equation for a sphere, and the equation for the Schwarzschild radius (and knowing the speed of light and Newton's gravitational constant).
REFERENCES
Lecture notes on black holes: http://eagle.phys.utk.edu/guidry/astro616/lectures/lecture_ch18.pdf
Mass of cat: https://www.google.com/search?q=mass+of+cat&oq=mass+of+cat
Schwarzschild radius: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius
LIGO Neutron S

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4 years ago

Simpson's Paradox Part 2. Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this video! Head to http://skl.sh/minutephysics for your first two months free.
Comments disabled because the discourse failed to remain civil.
This video is about how to tell whether or not university admissions are biased using statistics: aka, it's about Simpson's Paradox again!
REFERENCES:
Original Berkeley Grad Admissions Paper: https://www.unc.edu/~nielsen/soci708/cdocs/Berkeley_admissions_bias.pdf
Interactive Simpson’s Paradox Explainer:
http://vudlab.com/simpsons/
No Lawsuit, But Yes, Berkeley Study on Gender Bias
https://www.refsmmat.com/posts/2016-05-08-simpsons-paradox-berkeley.html
Statistics on college majors by gender:
https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2016menu\_tables.asp
http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2014/10/28/359419934/who-studies-what-men-women-and-college-majors
http://www.randalolson.com/2014/06/14/percentage-of-bachelors-degrees-conferred-to-women-by-major-1970-2012/
Earnings by college major:
http://time.com/mon

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4 years ago

Thanks to YouTube RED’s new original series, LIFELINE, for sponsoring this video. Watch the first episode for free: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru4zkxNuJ_I
And thanks to my friends Sam and Niko (and all the rest) at the Corridor Digital channel for making awesome videos.
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
For ages I’ve been thinking about doing a video analyzing time travel in fiction and doing a comparison of different fictional time travels – some do use wormholes, some relativistic/faster than light travel with time dilation, some closed timelike curves, some have essentially “magic” or no consistent rules that make any sense, or TARDIS's, or whatever. This video is an explanation of how time travel functions in different popular movies, books, & shows – not how it works “under the hood", but how it causally affects the perspective of characters’ timelines (who has free will? can you change things

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