CrashCourse
At Crash Course, we believe that high quality educational videos should be available to everyone for free! Subscribe for weekly videos from our current courses! Right now, we're producing Organic Chemistry and European History. We also recently teamed up with Arizona State University to bring you two more courses: Study Hall Composition, and Study Hall Algebra. The Crash Course team has produced more than 32 courses on a wide variety of subjects, including organic chemistry, literature, world history, biology, philosophy, theater, ecology, and many more! Help support Crash Course at Patreon.com/CrashCourse.

1246 videos
Reproduction: Crash Course Zoology #9 Reproduction: Crash Course Zoology #9
3 days ago En
Today we're (finally) going to talk about animal babies! But more than just puppies and piglets we're going to be looking at their genes. Sexual reproduction is part of the very definition of what it means to be an animal and as you'll see life has found a variety of methods to pass down genetic information. We'll also discuss the differences between sex and gender, take a closer look at sex determination systems, examine how same-sex behavior happens all across the animal kingdom, and live a day-in-the-life of the serially hermaphroditic clownfish! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contri
Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions - Hydrates, Acetals, & Imines: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #29 Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions - Hydrates, Acetals, & Imines: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #29
4 days ago En
We’ve already learned the basics of carbonyl chemistry and talked about how we can synthesize aldehydes and ketones, but there’s still so much more to learn, like the role carbonyl groups play in reactions involving sedatives! In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry we’re diving deeper into aldehydes and ketones by focusing on addition reactions of oxygen and nitrogen based nucleophiles. We’ll cover hydrates, acetals and hemiacetals, imines and enamines, and more! Episode Sources: io9. 2020. This Is The Drug In The Rolling Stones' Song "Mother's Little Helper". [online] Available at: https://io9.gizmodo.com/this-is-the-drug-in-the-rolling-stones-song-mothers-li-1693032181 Bionity.com. 2020. Mickey_Finn_(Drugs). [online] Available at: https://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Mickey_Finn_%28drugs%29.html#The_Chicago_bartender_Michael_.22Mickey.22_Finn Chm.bris.ac.uk. 2020. Ninhydrin - Molecule Of The Month - April 2018. [online] Available at: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/ninhydrin/ninhydrinh.htm E
The Germantown Petition Against Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #5 The Germantown Petition Against Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #5
1 week ago En
In 1688, in Pennsylvania, a group of four men created the Germantown Petition, which made the case that slavery was immoral, and that it was inconsistent with Christian beliefs in general, and Quaker beliefs specifically. While the petition wasn't ultimately adopted by the Quaker hierarchy, examining the document and its authors' goals gives us a better insight into slavery in the colonies and some of the earliest organized attempts at abolition. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is out now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Vincent, Emilee Murphy, Michael Wang, Jordan willis,
Ancestral & Weird Senses: Crash Course Zoology #8 Ancestral & Weird Senses: Crash Course Zoology #8
1 week ago En
Today, we're going to talk about one of the earliest animal senses, one that every life form we've ever found seems to have -- chemosensation -- or our sense of taste and smell. We'll discuss how animals use these senses to explore their environment and communicate, and how that pair of nostrils of yours is an example of convergent evolution. Also, before we wrap up our discussion of animal senses we're going to talk about a couple so specialized that seem straight from the pages of comic books -- the ability to sense electric and magnetic fields! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contribution
Population & Food: Crash Course Geography #16 Population & Food: Crash Course Geography #16
1 week ago En
Today we’re going to talk about the link between population and food energy. As the world's population keeps growing, finding ways to provide enough food and water for everyone while supporting a sustainable environment can be tricky! We'll take a closer look at food chains and how energy is transferred between different trophic levels, follow the trends in human consumption as incomes rise, and talk about the two types of overpopulation as they're related to the planet's carrying capacity. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Vincent, Emilee Murphy, Michael Wang, Jordan willis, Krystle Young, Michael Dowling, Alexis B, Rene D
Slave Codes: Crash Course Black American History #4 Slave Codes: Crash Course Black American History #4
2 weeks ago En
Slave codes were a method of protecting the investment of white enslavers in the Colonies by restricting the lives of enslaved people in almost every imaginable way. The codes restricted enslaved people’s ability to move around, or engage in commerce that could make them financially independent - they restricted the very opportunities that would allow them to live with even relative freedom. Today, we'll learn about how Colonies put laws in place to restrict the movement and freedoms of both enslaved people and free Black people alike. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Check out Clint's book: https://bookshop.org/books/how-the-word-is-passed-a-reckoning-with-the-history-of-slavery-across-america/9780316492935 Thanks to the following patrons for thei
How Animals Hear: Crash Course Zoology #7 How Animals Hear: Crash Course Zoology #7
2 weeks ago En
Today we're going to talk about what an ear even is, how ears have evolved, how they work, and some of the cool ways animals have tweaked their ears to work for their lifestyle. So perk up whatever you use for hearing because we're going to be sending vibrations your way for the next 10ish minutes! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Alexis B, Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harrison, Mark & Susan Billian, Junrong Eric Zhu, Alan Bridgeman, Jennifer Smith, Matt Curls, Tim Kwist, J
Organometallic Reagents and Carbanions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #28 Organometallic Reagents and Carbanions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #28
2 weeks ago En
Have you ever wondered why the gas station has “unleaded fuel” but there isn’t a “leaded” option? The answer has to do with a chemical called tetraethyl lead, which is an organometallic compound, or an organic compound with a carbon-metal bond. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about organometallic compounds, including what they are and what kind of reactions we see them in. But beware! This class of compounds may be super useful, but also has a dark side. Episode Sources: Lowe, D., 2009. Things I Won't Work With: Straight Dimethyl Zinc. [online] In the Pipeline. Available at: https://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2009/10/23/things_i_wont_work_with_straight_dimethyl_zinc [Accessed 4 November 2020]. Gilman, H., Jones, R.G. and Woods, L.A., 1952. The preparation of methylcopper and some observations on the decomposition of organocopper compounds. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 17(12), pp.1630-1634, DOI: 10.1021/jo50012a009 Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B.
Elizabeth Key: Crash Course Black American History #3 Elizabeth Key: Crash Course Black American History #3
3 weeks ago En
The legal system can seem like a complicated tangle of arcane rules and loopholes, and it can sometimes seem like it is designed to confuse. But it is possible, with the right application, for the legal system to rectify injustices. Today we're going to tell you about one instance of this, the story of Elizabeth Key, who in 1665 won her freedom in a court in Virginia. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed: https://bookshop.org/books/how-the-word-is-passed-a-reckoning-with-the-history-of-slavery-across-america/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1998). TAUNYA LOVELL BANKS, Dangerous Woman: Elizabeth Key’s Freedom Suit - Subjecthood and Racialized Identity in Seventeenth Century Colonial Virginia (2008), https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=672121 (last visited Aug 20, 2020). Leslie Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1629-1863 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
How Animals See: Crash Course Zoology #6 How Animals See: Crash Course Zoology #6
3 weeks ago En
Check out Otherwords on Storied!: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2UccTPnl4w One of the most common adaptations seen in the animal kingdom is vision. Nearly 96% of all animals have some kind of eyes and they've proven so evolutionary advantageous that they've evolved multiple times in multiple ways and in a surprisingly short amount of time! So today, we'll walk you through the different types of eyes, show you how they work, and even take you on the day in the life of one of the most complex visual systems ever discovered in the mantis shrimp! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributio
What Are Ecosystems? Crash Course Geography #15 What Are Ecosystems? Crash Course Geography #15
3 weeks ago En
Today we're going to take a closer look at ecosystems -- which are communities of living organisms in an area interacting with their environment -- and how this relationship between the amount of energy a place receives and the movement of nutrients is what makes the incredible diversity of life possible. We'll also take a look at the patterns we see in the main global biomes, show you why some biomes (like tropical rainforests) are so productive, and discuss an agricultural practice some farmers have employed to help preserve their local ecosystems. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Alexis B, Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Azi
Slavery in the American Colonies: Crash Course Black American History #2 Slavery in the American Colonies: Crash Course Black American History #2
4 weeks ago En
In the 17th century, as the British colonies in the Americas were getting established in places like Jamestown, VA, the system of chattel slavery was also developing. Today, we'll learn about the role that slavery played in early American economy and how slavery became a legally accepted practice in the first place, and how it contributed to the colony’s early economic success. We'll look at the experiences of Anthony Johnson and John Punch to see how legal precedents that greatly influenced the development of slavery were set. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Clint's book, How the Word is Passed: https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for ev
Brainy & Brainless Animals: Crash Course Zoology #5 Brainy & Brainless Animals: Crash Course Zoology #5
1 month ago En
Today we're going to take a closer look at brains, how animals use them, and how some animals have even evolved to lose them! It turns out a brain (and intelligence more broadly) isn't easy to define, but what we do know for sure is that brains have evolved over time in response to the challenges in an animals' environment. And what we'll find is that sometimes it's much smarter to have a tiny, simple brain than a big, complicated one! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Alexis B, Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Crash Course Black American History #1 The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Crash Course Black American History #1
1 month ago En
Today we're learning about the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, which brought millions of captive Africans to the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries, with the largest number of people trafficked between 1700 and 1808. We'll look at the ships and crews that brought enslaved people across the ocean via what was known as the Middle Passage and explore the horrific conditions that these captives endured.   Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Check out Clint's book, How the Word is Passed: https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Alexis B, Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harriso
How & What Animals Eat: Crash Course Zoology #4 How & What Animals Eat: Crash Course Zoology #4
1 month ago En
Animals have evolved to eat a lot of different things, even stuff that barely passes for food, and it shapes our entire lives from what we look like to where we live. Today, we’ll talk about why being a carnivore is just easier than being a herbivore, why there are so few omnivores out there, and dedicate a little time to the remaining 2% of animals that really push the definition of food. So grab a snack because today’s episode is gonna make you hungry… well until we start talking about what happens to food after you’ve digested it. ???? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help
What is Climate Change? Crash Course Geography #14 What is Climate Change? Crash Course Geography #14
1 month ago En
Today we’re going to talk about climate change which is when there is a change in the average weather patterns in a region over a long period of time - these changes can be natural or human-caused. We’ll discuss the main driving forces of climate change in the past and show you how what’s happening now is unlike anything in the past. Global warming, or when there is an increase in the average surface temperature of the planet, has been well-documented since the Industrial Revolution, and scientists have concluded that there is a 95% probability that human activities like burning fossil fuels, industrialization, modern agriculture, and deforestation have caused most of this most recent warming. And while individual actions do matter in helping to curb the disastrous implications of a warming planet, it’s also up to us to hold corporations and governments responsible for the policies and the large-scale emissions that play a disproportionate role in impacting our atmosphere and climate. Watch our videos and
Crash Course Black American History Preview Crash Course Black American History Preview
1 month ago En
Over the course of 50 episodes, we're going to learn about Black American History. Clint Smith will to teach you about the experience of Black people in America, from the arrival of the first enslaved Black people who arrived at Jamestown all the way to the Black Lives Matter movement. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harrison, Mark & Susan Billian, Junrong Eric Zhu, Alan Bridgeman, Jennifer Smith, Matt Curls, Tim Kwist, Jonathan Zbikowski, Jennifer Killen, Sarah & Nathan Catchings, Brandon Westmoreland, team dorsey, Trevin Beattie, Eric Koslow,
Diversity of Bodies & Sizes (but mostly crabs): Crash Course Zoology #3 Diversity of Bodies & Sizes (but mostly crabs): Crash Course Zoology #3
1 month ago En
Thanks to KiwiCo for Supporting PBS. For more information go to https://www.kiwico.com/CrashCourse Even though animals can look very different on their surface, there are surprising similarities in how they’ve evolved to solve major problems - like how to support and move their bodies. Today, we’ll take a look at the various ways animals can grow, learn how and why some animals evolved to have a head and others evolved to not have a head, and examine the different types of skeletons - from those inside bodies (like our own), to skeletons outside bodies (like in insects), and even those made of water (like in jellyfish). Evolution is a wild journey that brings us so many different animals with a huge array of bodies and sizes - that is, until everything turns into a crab! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ #CrashCourse #Zoology #PBSNature Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices:
An Overview of Aldehydes and Ketones: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #27 An Overview of Aldehydes and Ketones: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #27
1 month ago En
Ketones and aldehydes are all around and inside us, from the strong smelling component of nail polish remover, acetone, to hormones in our bodies, to drug treatments for allergies, COVID-19, and even cancer! We’ve already learned a bit about aldehydes and ketones in this series, so in this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll review some of that knowledge and start to go even deeper. Episode Sources: Teknoscienze.com. 2020. [online] Available at: https://www.teknoscienze.com/Contents/Riviste/Sfogliatore/CO1_2011/files/assets/common/downloads/page0061.pdf Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic
What’s the Most “Animal” Animal? Crash Course Zoology #2 What’s the Most “Animal” Animal? Crash Course Zoology #2
1 month ago En
Thank you to The Great Courses Plus for supporting PBS. For more information and a trial, go to http://ow.ly/zREQ30rDCDz. Picture an “animal” in your mind right now. What does it look like? A dog? A lion? Maybe a sloth, pangolin, naked mole-rat, or even just a human? There’s a good chance that you imagined a mammal, which is understandable since we are mammals after all, but there is so much more animal life out there! Today, we’re going to try to figure out what that “average” animal would really look like - its size, what it eats, how many legs it has, if it even has a head, if it flies or walks or swims, you get the idea. And what we’ll find might just surprise you, or maybe not, they’re pretty common after all! But what we’ll also discover along the way is that what we think of as average is based on what we KNOW and there is so much animal life still to be identified. So maybe if you’re watching this in five years after you’ve identified a ton of new nematode species our answer will be totally different
How to Identify Molecules - Proton NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #26 How to Identify Molecules - Proton NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #26
1 month ago En
If you were given a chemical and told to identify it, how would you go about doing that? You could look at different factors like color, boiling point, melting point, or smell, but the answer still might not be clear. Thankfully, today we have a more precise, higher-tech way of identifying chemicals called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, or NMR. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll look at how NMR allows us to visualize a molecule as a spectrum, and what the peaks on the spectrum tell us about the structure of the molecule. Episode Sources: Mahdi, J. G. (2010). Medicinal potential of willow: A chemical perspective of aspirin discovery. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 14(3), 317-322. Dempsey, D.A., Klessig, D.F. How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?. BMC Biol 15, 23 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0364-8 Still, W. C., Kahn, M., & Mitra, A. (1978). Rapid chromatographic technique for preparati
???? How do we Classify Climates? Crash Course Geography #13 ???? How do we Classify Climates? Crash Course Geography #13
1 month ago En
From gnocchi and salchipapas to potato chips and french fries, it seems like every cuisine around the world has embraced the potato! And this humble tuber did not originate in Ireland or France, but near Lake Titicaca near the border of what is now known as Bolivia and Peru 7000-9000 years ago! So today, we're going to trace this history of the potato as we teach you about climate, how we classify it using the Köppen system, and the ways humans have employed their geo-literacy to adapt to their surroundings. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harr
What is an Animal? Crash Course Zoology #1 What is an Animal? Crash Course Zoology #1
1 month ago En
Check out Animal IQ on PBS Terra! https://youtu.be/Ejhbr_t7Blc So what is an animal anyway? In our inaugural episode of Crash Course Zoology, we’ll endeavor to answer just that because as it turns out, it’s complicated! But before we get there we’ll need to introduce you to zoology more broadly, tell you about taxonomy (the branch of science dedicated to naming and describing organisms), and then we’ll get to phylogenetics (which looks at traits, evolutionary history, and relationships among living things). And it’s here that we’ll finally close in on an answer: Animals eat, move, sexually reproduce, and are multicellular. Well, most of the time. Let us explain!    ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by si
???? Crash Course Zoology Preview ???? Crash Course Zoology Preview
2 months ago En
Welcome to Crash Course Zoology! In this fourteen-episode series made in partnership with PBS and Nature, Crash Course Zoology will take a rapid deep dive into the weird and wonderful biology of animals. Host, wildlife ecologist, and conservation scientist, Dr. Rae Wynn-Grant will guide us across the tree of life as we endeavor to answer what makes an animal an animal anyway? We’ll explore the current state of the world and how it's evolving with in-depth looks at particular animals, show how the science is applied, and even take you along for the journey with day-in-the-lives of some astonishing creatures. ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to t
What Are the Different Types of Cyclones? Crash Course Geography #12 What Are the Different Types of Cyclones? Crash Course Geography #12
2 months ago En
Today we’re going to talk about two types of cyclones: mid-latitude cyclones and tropical cyclones. Mid-latitude cyclones are huge weather systems that bring day-to-day weather in the mid-latitudes. They're the reason the weather is often unpredictable. We'll focus on the Northern Hemisphere and how these cyclones form along the polar front. Then, we'll shift to tropical cyclones also called hurricanes or typhoons - those smaller spinning vortices of air usually originating in the tropics that can cause widespread damage to coastal communities. We'll talk about the Bhola cyclone, which as of 2021 is the deadliest tropical cyclone in history, and we'll take a closer look at the Sundarbans in the low-lying coastal areas of Bangladesh and India to see how mangroves play a crucial role as a natural ecological barrier to these storms. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2S
Synthesis and Column Chromatography: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #25 Synthesis and Column Chromatography: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #25
2 months ago En
Even though all living things have a lot in common, different organisms can have very different reactions to the same organic chemicals. That means it’s really important for organic chemists to be able to purify chemicals and separate the products we want from reactions, from the side products we don’t. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’re heading into the lab to learn about one of the ways we can separate chemicals in a mixture: chromatography! Episode Sources: Mahdi, J. G. (2010). Medicinal potential of willow: A chemical perspective of aspirin discovery. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 14(3), 317-322. Dempsey, D.A., Klessig, D.F. How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?. BMC Biol 15, 23 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0364-8 Still, W. C., Kahn, M., & Mitra, A. (1978). Rapid chromatographic technique for preparative separations with moderate resolution. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 4
How Can Rain Create Conflict? Precipitation and Water Use: Crash Course Geography #11 How Can Rain Create Conflict? Precipitation and Water Use: Crash Course Geography #11
2 months ago En
If you compare precipitation around the world with population distribution we can understand a simple but powerful pattern of human geography: where there is water, there are people. But it gets a little more complicated because where there are people and limited resources, there is often conflict and bigger geographical questions at stake. So today, we’re going to zoom in and look more closely at how precipitation patterns around the Great Plains and the western United States has led to many conflicts involving the use and distribution of water resources. *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Aziz, Christine Phelan, Nick,
Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #24 Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #24
2 months ago En
What comes to mind when you think of alcohol? Probably alcoholic drinks like beer or wine. But in organic chemistry alcohols are an important and versatile family of compounds. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll use alcohols as a starting point to get other types of compounds like ethers, epoxides, and more! Episode Sources: Brunning, A. Compound Interest https://www.compoundchem.com/2016/05/04/oxidation-reactions-of-alcohols/ Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemistry; 5th ed.; Roberts and Company
☁️ What is a Cloud? Crash Course Geography #10 ☁️ What is a Cloud? Crash Course Geography #10
3 months ago En
In addition to just being beautiful one-of-a-kind panoramas in the sky, clouds can tell us so much about how energy and weather patterns flow around the globe. Today, we'll talk about how clouds form, the three main types (cirrus, status, and cumulus), explain how and why we get rain, and end with a discussion on humidity and how high humidity can feel hot and sticky on a warm day but comfortable on a cold day. So join us and countless people throughout history and look up -- at the clouds! Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Aziz, Christine Phelan, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harrison, Mark & Susan Billian,
Determining SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #23 Determining SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #23
3 months ago En
Organic chemistry isn’t that different from an adventure game, with substrates as characters, nucleophiles as magic potions, and reaction conditions as different magical kingdoms. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn the tricks to this game so that we can figure out which transformation, or mechanism, will occur when we combine any substrate with any nucleophile. Let’s go on an adventure! Music Used: Truth of the Legend by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4551-truth-of-the-legend License: https://filmmusic.io/standard-license Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D
How Do Oceans Circulate? Crash Course Geography #9 How Do Oceans Circulate? Crash Course Geography #9
3 months ago En
Today, we're going to take a closer look at how the oceans circulate by following the life of a discarded water bottle as it gets snagged in the North Pacific Garbage Patch. We'll talk about what causes the movement of water, called current, both near the surface and much deeper in the oceans, and we'll show how they follow similar (but not identical) paths to the winds. Ocean circulation plays a huge role in cycling vital nutrients within the seas and helps us transport goods on ships across the globe and it's up to us to protect it. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Christine Phelan, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyc
Where Does Wind Come From? Crash Course Geography #8 Where Does Wind Come From? Crash Course Geography #8
3 months ago En
There's an invisible force shaping our lives, affecting the weather, climate, land, economy, and just whether a flag looks majestic or not - we're talking about the wind! Today we’re going to go into the science of where the wind comes from and take a closer look at the major wind systems and pressure belts across the globe. We'll explain how the Coriolis effect causes the winds to curve (and makes air travel a bit more complicated), explore the doldrums and horse latitudes that could stall ships for days, and show the enormous impact the trade winds had on European colonization of the Americas. Sources Bryant, R.H. 1990. Physical Geography. Rupa and Co. Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Strahler, A. Introducing Physical Geography. 5th Edition.Wiley and Sons. Petersen, J. et al. 2011. Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Cengage. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Andr
E1 and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #22 E1 and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #22
3 months ago En
We’ve spent the last few episodes talking about substitution reactions, but now it’s time to talk about a related type of reaction: elimination reactions! Elimination reactions are super important because they are the main way we can make compounds with double and triple bonds in organic chemistry. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry we’re going to cover… a lot, including a review of substitution reactions, E1 and E2 mechanisms, Zaitsev’s rule, and more. And of course, we’ll finish with some practice problems. Episode Sources: Chemguide.co.uk. Dehydration Of Ethanol To Give Ethene. [online] Available at: https://www.chemguide.co.uk/mechanisms/elim/dhethanol.html [Accessed 21 September 2020] Hornback, J. M. (1998). Organic Chemistry, Brooks. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S
How Does Air Temperature Shape a Place? Crash Course Geography #7 How Does Air Temperature Shape a Place? Crash Course Geography #7
4 months ago En
Today, we’re going to visit Siberia and take a closer look at how temperatures there (and around the globe) impact the way cultures, communities, and landscapes form. Air temperature plays a much bigger role than just helping us decide what we’re going to wear everyday, it dictates the kind of foods we can grow, how we build our cities and roads, and the kinds of industries that can even exist in a location. And in a region like Siberia, where it can get cold, like REALLY COLD, the air temperature has had an incredible impact on life. But before we end this episode we’ll warm up with a visit to Phoenix, Arizona to talk about how they too have to make a lot of decisions due to the extreme heat of a city in the middle of the desert. Sources Bryant, R.H. 1990. Physical Geography. Rupa and Co. Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Strahler, A. Introducing Physical Geography. 5th Edition.Wiley and Sons. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here
Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21 Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21
4 months ago En
We’ve already learned a bit about substitution reactions in organic chemistry and the two different paths they can follow: SN1 and SN2. In order to better predict the products of a substitution reaction and understand how they work, we need to be able to figure out which mechanism a reaction is likely to follow. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll deepen our knowledge of substitution reactions by looking at factors like substrate structure and reaction conditions to determine whether SN1 or SN2 is the more likely mechanism. Episode Sources: Brookes, P., Lawley, P.D. “The Reaction of Mono-and Di-Functional Alkylating Agents with Nucleic Acids,” , Biochem. J., 1961, 80, 496-503. Copley, Shelley, D., “Microbial dehalogenases: Enzymes recruited to convert xenobiotic substrates,” Current opinion in Chemical Biology, 1998, 2, 613-617. Janssen, D. B., Scheper, A., Dijkhuizen, L, Witholt, B., “Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10,” Applied and Environ
Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21 Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21
4 months ago En
We’ve already learned a bit about substitution reactions in organic chemistry and the two different paths they can follow: SN1 and SN2. In order to better predict the products of a substitution reaction and understand how they work, we need to be able to figure out which mechanism a reaction is likely to follow. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll deepen our knowledge of substitution reactions by looking at factors like substrate structure and reaction conditions to determine whether SN1 or SN2 is the more likely mechanism. Episode Sources: Brookes, P., Lawley, P.D. “The Reaction of Mono-and Di-Functional Alkylating Agents with Nucleic Acids,” , Biochem. J., 1961, 80, 496-503. Copley, Shelley, D., “Microbial dehalogenases: Enzymes recruited to convert xenobiotic substrates,” Current opinion in Chemical Biology, 1998, 2, 613-617. Janssen, D. B., Scheper, A., Dijkhuizen, L, Witholt, B., “Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10,” Applied and Environ
What Does the Atmosphere Do? Crash Course Geography #6 What Does the Atmosphere Do? Crash Course Geography #6
4 months ago En
Much like a cell membrane, our atmosphere forms a protective boundary between outer space and the biosphere that allows for all life to exist on Earth’s surface. Today, we’re going to talk about its composition and layers (the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere), follow the path of a sunbeam of light as it travels through space and (potentially) reaches Earth’s surface, and discuss how the greenhouse effect can be both a good and bad thing! Sources https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM197309132891110 Bryant, R.H. 1990. Physical Geography. Rupa and Co. Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that
How Does the Earth Move? Crash Course Geography #5 How Does the Earth Move? Crash Course Geography #5
4 months ago En
Today, we're going to talk about how the Earth moves, but to do that, we're going to have to go way back to the early days of the galaxy! Processes that happened before the Earth even formed have led us to the geographic patterns and processes that create Earth's environments and support all living things. We'll talk about how the Earth rotates, the effects of it being slightly tilted, how events like sea ice melting impact how the Earth wobbles, and of course talk about how our elliptical orbit gives us seasons. So many of our life decisions are influenced by the motion of Earth. It guides where we decide to live, what food we eat, or even what weather we experience - which we'll talk about more next time. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks t
Writing Systems: Crash Course Linguistics #16 Writing Systems: Crash Course Linguistics #16
4 months ago En
All societies have spoken or signed language, but not all languages have a written form. Since writing developed in different ways in different places, writing systems differ greatly around the world. In this final episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about writing systems, also called orthographies, the different components that make up a writing system, the development of different writing systems over time, and more! Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: lingthusiasm.com *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Eric Prestemon, Mark, DAV
Intro to Substitution Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #20 Intro to Substitution Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #20
4 months ago En
Substitution reactions can have really powerful effects, both good and bad, in our bodies. You might remember substitution reactions as displacement reactions from general chemistry, but (you guessed it!) in organic chemistry they’re a bit more complicated. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn about the two pathways substitution reactions can take: SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, which substrates prefer which mechanism, and we’ll apply this knowledge by looking at how substitution reactions make chemotherapy treatments work. Episode Sources: Brookes, P., Lawley, P.D. “The Reaction of Mono-and Di-Functional Alkylating Agents with Nucleic Acids,” , Biochem. J., 1961, 80, 496-503. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New
Computational Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #15 Computational Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #15
4 months ago En
Computers are pretty great, and we use them for different language tasks every day. But teaching computers to understand language is surprisingly difficult! In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about programming computers to process human language, which is called computational linguistics, or natural language processing. We’ll look at the types of language tasks computers can and can’t do, how natural language processing works, as well as the different types of biases that exist in machine learning. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous mont
What is Physical Geography? Crash Course Geography #4 What is Physical Geography? Crash Course Geography #4
5 months ago En
Traditionally, geography is studied as two interconnected parts: physical geography and human geography. For the first half of this series, we will be focusing on physical geography, which is all about recognizing the characteristics of the environment and the processes that create, modify, and destroy those environments. But remember, human-environment interactions are fundamental to studying geography so we won't be ignoring human impact, it just won't be the primary lens we're using to view the world. Today, we'll explore erosional gullies in Madagascar as we discuss the world's dynamic landscape, the Great Barrier Reef as we introduce the four major earth system (the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere), and we'll finish with a deep dive into Iceland as we introduce the major realms of physical geography. (These are geographer specializations that you may have heard about like topography, geomorphology, pedology, hydrology, climatology, oceanography, meteorology, and biogeography.) Watch
World Languages: Crash Course Linguistics #14 World Languages: Crash Course Linguistics #14
5 months ago En
Subscribe to Storied for It’s Lit, Monstrum, and Verbatim (coming soon!): https://www.youtube.com/pbsstoried If you ask a linguist “How many languages are there in the world?” the answer most will give you is “around 7000”. We say “around” because there are several factors that make it difficult to determine what exactly counts as a language, including the difficulty of distinguishing between languages and dialects, various political factors, and the fact that not all languages have the same degree of resources and records. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll explore these 3 factors to learn about world languages and linguistic diversity, as well as the inequities that these factors can create. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android De
Radical Reactions & Hammond's Postulate: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #19 Radical Reactions & Hammond's Postulate: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #19
5 months ago En
Throughout this series we’ve mostly talked about pairs of electrons, but electrons don’t always have a buddy. An atom or group of atoms with a single unpaired electron is called a radical. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about radicals including the three key steps in a radical reaction and Hammond’s Postulate, an important tool to help us understand these reactions. We’ll also see ways radicals can react with alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Episode Sources: Davies, K. J., & Doroshow, J. H. (1986). Redox cycling of anthracyclines by cardiac mitochondria. I. Anthracycline radical formation by NADH dehydrogenase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261(7), 3060-3067. Ball, P. (Interview with Nick Lane) Yes, life in the fast lane kills you. May 5, 2016. Bond Dissociation Energies https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Chemical_Bonding/Fundamentals_of_Chemical_Bonding/Bond_E
What is space and how do we study it? Crash Course Geography #3 What is space and how do we study it? Crash Course Geography #3
5 months ago En
Today we're going to talk about SPAAAAAACE, but not like stars and satellites and stuff. Instead, we're going to talk about geographic space. In geography, we can look at the world and the places and spaces we inhabit with four distinct lenses: space as a container, topologically, socially, and how we perceive it. On this journey, we'll make stops in Antarctica, Haiti, and China as we introduce the tools you'll need from surveying and remote sensing to community-created maps to help us better understand and navigate our world. If you want to help create maps for your community visit: https://www.openstreetmap.org https://tasks.hotosm.org Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that
Language Change and Historical Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #13 Language Change and Historical Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #13
5 months ago En
Language is constantly changing. Today’s small changes could lead to entirely new dialects or languages in the future. We can’t predict how these changes will occur, but we can better understand the path a language has taken through historical linguistics. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about how and why languages change, what happens when languages come into contact with each other, how linguists piece together the history of a language, and more! Acknowledgment: Kirby Conrod Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions
Alkyne Reactions & Tautomerization: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #18 Alkyne Reactions & Tautomerization: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #18
5 months ago En
Carbon-carbon double bonds are pretty common in nature, but triple bonds between carbons, called alkynes, are not. When alkynes do pop up in nature, it’s usually in a compound that’s toxic to humans, however, we can synthesize alkynes that are life saving medicines and materials. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn about alkynes and some of the reactions we can use them in (hint: it’s a lot of the same reactions we used for alkenes!) Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemistry; 5th ed.; Roberts an
What is a Map? Crash Course Geography #2 What is a Map? Crash Course Geography #2
6 months ago En
From navigating a cross-country road trip (or just finding the nearest coffee shop), to analyzing election results (or the latest meme on K-pop group popularity), maps play a huge role in how we interpret the world! Today, we're going to talk about the differences between reference maps and thematic maps, take a closer look at how projections play a part in how we perceive maps, and discuss the role of the cartographer (or map maker) in all of this. Maps are incredibly powerful tools and play a crucial role in how we understand the world, but they are also made by people, so it is our job to think critically about how these stories are being presented to us. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly
Language Acquisition: Crash Course Linguistics #12 Language Acquisition: Crash Course Linguistics #12
6 months ago En
Babies have to learn a lot of language stuff before they can even say their first word. Exposure to language as infants doesn’t just help us say those first words but gives us the tools we need to acquire advanced language skills and learn more languages later on in life. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about language acquisition and how the process differs for babies and adults. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Eric Prestemon, Mark, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, P
Psycholinguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #11 Psycholinguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #11
6 months ago En
We couldn't have language without the brain, but our brains are a bit harder to study than other parts of the body that we use to make languages like our mouths and hands. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we'll learn about the field that studies where and how language happens in the brain, called psycholinguistics. We'll cover old and new research in the field, classic studies, and the methods psycholinguistics use to uncover the connections between language and the brain. Acknowledgment: Suzy Styles Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly con
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