CrashCourse
At Crash Course, we believe that high quality educational videos should be available to everyone for free! Subscribe for weekly videos from our current courses! Right now, we're producing Organic Chemistry and European History. We also recently teamed up with Arizona State University to bring you two more courses: Study Hall Composition, and Study Hall Algebra. The Crash Course team has produced more than 32 courses on a wide variety of subjects, including organic chemistry, literature, world history, biology, philosophy, theater, ecology, and many more! Help support Crash Course at Patreon.com/CrashCourse.

1226 videos
How to Identify Molecules - Proton NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #26 How to Identify Molecules - Proton NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #26
7 hours ago En
If you were given a chemical and told to identify it, how would you go about doing that? You could look at different factors like color, boiling point, melting point, or smell, but the answer still might not be clear. Thankfully, today we have a more precise, higher-tech way of identifying chemicals called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, or NMR. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll look at how NMR allows us to visualize a molecule as a spectrum, and what the peaks on the spectrum tell us about the structure of the molecule. Episode Sources: Mahdi, J. G. (2010). Medicinal potential of willow: A chemical perspective of aspirin discovery. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 14(3), 317-322. Dempsey, D.A., Klessig, D.F. How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?. BMC Biol 15, 23 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0364-8 Still, W. C., Kahn, M., & Mitra, A. (1978). Rapid chromatographic technique for preparati
???? How do we Classify Climates? Crash Course Geography #13 ???? How do we Classify Climates? Crash Course Geography #13
2 days ago En
From gnocchi and salchipapas to potato chips and french fries, it seems like every cuisine around the world has embraced the potato! And this humble tuber did not originate in Ireland or France, but near Lake Titicaca near the border of what is now known as Bolivia and Peru 7000-9000 years ago! So today, we're going to trace this history of the potato as we teach you about climate, how we classify it using the Köppen system, and the ways humans have employed their geo-literacy to adapt to their surroundings. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harr
What is an Animal? Crash Course Zoology #1 What is an Animal? Crash Course Zoology #1
6 days ago En
Check out Animal IQ on PBS Terra! https://youtu.be/Ejhbr_t7Blc So what is an animal anyway? In our inaugural episode of Crash Course Zoology, we’ll endeavor to answer just that because as it turns out, it’s complicated! But before we get there we’ll need to introduce you to zoology more broadly, tell you about taxonomy (the branch of science dedicated to naming and describing organisms), and then we’ll get to phylogenetics (which looks at traits, evolutionary history, and relationships among living things). And it’s here that we’ll finally close in on an answer: Animals eat, move, sexually reproduce, and are multicellular. Well, most of the time. Let us explain!    ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by si
???? Crash Course Zoology Preview ???? Crash Course Zoology Preview
1 week ago En
Welcome to Crash Course Zoology! In this fourteen-episode series made in partnership with PBS and Nature, Crash Course Zoology will take a rapid deep dive into the weird and wonderful biology of animals. Host, wildlife ecologist, and conservation scientist, Dr. Rae Wynn-Grant will guide us across the tree of life as we endeavor to answer what makes an animal an animal anyway? We’ll explore the current state of the world and how it's evolving with in-depth looks at particular animals, show how the science is applied, and even take you along for the journey with day-in-the-lives of some astonishing creatures. ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to t
What Are the Different Types of Cyclones? Crash Course Geography #12 What Are the Different Types of Cyclones? Crash Course Geography #12
2 weeks ago En
Today we’re going to talk about two types of cyclones: mid-latitude cyclones and tropical cyclones. Mid-latitude cyclones are huge weather systems that bring day-to-day weather in the mid-latitudes. They're the reason the weather is often unpredictable. We'll focus on the Northern Hemisphere and how these cyclones form along the polar front. Then, we'll shift to tropical cyclones also called hurricanes or typhoons - those smaller spinning vortices of air usually originating in the tropics that can cause widespread damage to coastal communities. We'll talk about the Bhola cyclone, which as of 2021 is the deadliest tropical cyclone in history, and we'll take a closer look at the Sundarbans in the low-lying coastal areas of Bangladesh and India to see how mangroves play a crucial role as a natural ecological barrier to these storms. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2S
Synthesis and Column Chromatography: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #25 Synthesis and Column Chromatography: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #25
3 weeks ago En
Even though all living things have a lot in common, different organisms can have very different reactions to the same organic chemicals. That means it’s really important for organic chemists to be able to purify chemicals and separate the products we want from reactions, from the side products we don’t. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’re heading into the lab to learn about one of the ways we can separate chemicals in a mixture: chromatography! Episode Sources: Mahdi, J. G. (2010). Medicinal potential of willow: A chemical perspective of aspirin discovery. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 14(3), 317-322. Dempsey, D.A., Klessig, D.F. How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?. BMC Biol 15, 23 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0364-8 Still, W. C., Kahn, M., & Mitra, A. (1978). Rapid chromatographic technique for preparative separations with moderate resolution. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 4
How Can Rain Create Conflict? Precipitation and Water Use: Crash Course Geography #11 How Can Rain Create Conflict? Precipitation and Water Use: Crash Course Geography #11
4 weeks ago En
If you compare precipitation around the world with population distribution we can understand a simple but powerful pattern of human geography: where there is water, there are people. But it gets a little more complicated because where there are people and limited resources, there is often conflict and bigger geographical questions at stake. So today, we’re going to zoom in and look more closely at how precipitation patterns around the Great Plains and the western United States has led to many conflicts involving the use and distribution of water resources. *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Aziz, Christine Phelan, Nick,
Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #24 Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #24
1 month ago En
What comes to mind when you think of alcohol? Probably alcoholic drinks like beer or wine. But in organic chemistry alcohols are an important and versatile family of compounds. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll use alcohols as a starting point to get other types of compounds like ethers, epoxides, and more! Episode Sources: Brunning, A. Compound Interest https://www.compoundchem.com/2016/05/04/oxidation-reactions-of-alcohols/ Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemistry; 5th ed.; Roberts and Company
☁️ What is a Cloud? Crash Course Geography #10 ☁️ What is a Cloud? Crash Course Geography #10
1 month ago En
In addition to just being beautiful one-of-a-kind panoramas in the sky, clouds can tell us so much about how energy and weather patterns flow around the globe. Today, we'll talk about how clouds form, the three main types (cirrus, status, and cumulus), explain how and why we get rain, and end with a discussion on humidity and how high humidity can feel hot and sticky on a warm day but comfortable on a cold day. So join us and countless people throughout history and look up -- at the clouds! Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Aziz, Christine Phelan, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harrison, Mark & Susan Billian,
Determining SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #23 Determining SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #23
1 month ago En
Organic chemistry isn’t that different from an adventure game, with substrates as characters, nucleophiles as magic potions, and reaction conditions as different magical kingdoms. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn the tricks to this game so that we can figure out which transformation, or mechanism, will occur when we combine any substrate with any nucleophile. Let’s go on an adventure! Music Used: Truth of the Legend by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4551-truth-of-the-legend License: https://filmmusic.io/standard-license Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D
How Do Oceans Circulate? Crash Course Geography #9 How Do Oceans Circulate? Crash Course Geography #9
1 month ago En
Today, we're going to take a closer look at how the oceans circulate by following the life of a discarded water bottle as it gets snagged in the North Pacific Garbage Patch. We'll talk about what causes the movement of water, called current, both near the surface and much deeper in the oceans, and we'll show how they follow similar (but not identical) paths to the winds. Ocean circulation plays a huge role in cycling vital nutrients within the seas and helps us transport goods on ships across the globe and it's up to us to protect it. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Christine Phelan, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyc
Where Does Wind Come From? Crash Course Geography #8 Where Does Wind Come From? Crash Course Geography #8
1 month ago En
There's an invisible force shaping our lives, affecting the weather, climate, land, economy, and just whether a flag looks majestic or not - we're talking about the wind! Today we’re going to go into the science of where the wind comes from and take a closer look at the major wind systems and pressure belts across the globe. We'll explain how the Coriolis effect causes the winds to curve (and makes air travel a bit more complicated), explore the doldrums and horse latitudes that could stall ships for days, and show the enormous impact the trade winds had on European colonization of the Americas. Sources Bryant, R.H. 1990. Physical Geography. Rupa and Co. Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Strahler, A. Introducing Physical Geography. 5th Edition.Wiley and Sons. Petersen, J. et al. 2011. Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Cengage. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Andr
E1 and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #22 E1 and E2 Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #22
2 months ago En
We’ve spent the last few episodes talking about substitution reactions, but now it’s time to talk about a related type of reaction: elimination reactions! Elimination reactions are super important because they are the main way we can make compounds with double and triple bonds in organic chemistry. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry we’re going to cover… a lot, including a review of substitution reactions, E1 and E2 mechanisms, Zaitsev’s rule, and more. And of course, we’ll finish with some practice problems. Episode Sources: Chemguide.co.uk. Dehydration Of Ethanol To Give Ethene. [online] Available at: https://www.chemguide.co.uk/mechanisms/elim/dhethanol.html [Accessed 21 September 2020] Hornback, J. M. (1998). Organic Chemistry, Brooks. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S
How Does Air Temperature Shape a Place? Crash Course Geography #7 How Does Air Temperature Shape a Place? Crash Course Geography #7
2 months ago En
Today, we’re going to visit Siberia and take a closer look at how temperatures there (and around the globe) impact the way cultures, communities, and landscapes form. Air temperature plays a much bigger role than just helping us decide what we’re going to wear everyday, it dictates the kind of foods we can grow, how we build our cities and roads, and the kinds of industries that can even exist in a location. And in a region like Siberia, where it can get cold, like REALLY COLD, the air temperature has had an incredible impact on life. But before we end this episode we’ll warm up with a visit to Phoenix, Arizona to talk about how they too have to make a lot of decisions due to the extreme heat of a city in the middle of the desert. Sources Bryant, R.H. 1990. Physical Geography. Rupa and Co. Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Strahler, A. Introducing Physical Geography. 5th Edition.Wiley and Sons. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here
Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21 Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21
2 months ago En
We’ve already learned a bit about substitution reactions in organic chemistry and the two different paths they can follow: SN1 and SN2. In order to better predict the products of a substitution reaction and understand how they work, we need to be able to figure out which mechanism a reaction is likely to follow. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll deepen our knowledge of substitution reactions by looking at factors like substrate structure and reaction conditions to determine whether SN1 or SN2 is the more likely mechanism. Episode Sources: Brookes, P., Lawley, P.D. “The Reaction of Mono-and Di-Functional Alkylating Agents with Nucleic Acids,” , Biochem. J., 1961, 80, 496-503. Copley, Shelley, D., “Microbial dehalogenases: Enzymes recruited to convert xenobiotic substrates,” Current opinion in Chemical Biology, 1998, 2, 613-617. Janssen, D. B., Scheper, A., Dijkhuizen, L, Witholt, B., “Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10,” Applied and Environ
Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21 Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #21
2 months ago En
We’ve already learned a bit about substitution reactions in organic chemistry and the two different paths they can follow: SN1 and SN2. In order to better predict the products of a substitution reaction and understand how they work, we need to be able to figure out which mechanism a reaction is likely to follow. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll deepen our knowledge of substitution reactions by looking at factors like substrate structure and reaction conditions to determine whether SN1 or SN2 is the more likely mechanism. Episode Sources: Brookes, P., Lawley, P.D. “The Reaction of Mono-and Di-Functional Alkylating Agents with Nucleic Acids,” , Biochem. J., 1961, 80, 496-503. Copley, Shelley, D., “Microbial dehalogenases: Enzymes recruited to convert xenobiotic substrates,” Current opinion in Chemical Biology, 1998, 2, 613-617. Janssen, D. B., Scheper, A., Dijkhuizen, L, Witholt, B., “Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10,” Applied and Environ
What Does the Atmosphere Do? Crash Course Geography #6 What Does the Atmosphere Do? Crash Course Geography #6
2 months ago En
Much like a cell membrane, our atmosphere forms a protective boundary between outer space and the biosphere that allows for all life to exist on Earth’s surface. Today, we’re going to talk about its composition and layers (the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere), follow the path of a sunbeam of light as it travels through space and (potentially) reaches Earth’s surface, and discuss how the greenhouse effect can be both a good and bad thing! Sources https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM197309132891110 Bryant, R.H. 1990. Physical Geography. Rupa and Co. Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that
How Does the Earth Move? Crash Course Geography #5 How Does the Earth Move? Crash Course Geography #5
2 months ago En
Today, we're going to talk about how the Earth moves, but to do that, we're going to have to go way back to the early days of the galaxy! Processes that happened before the Earth even formed have led us to the geographic patterns and processes that create Earth's environments and support all living things. We'll talk about how the Earth rotates, the effects of it being slightly tilted, how events like sea ice melting impact how the Earth wobbles, and of course talk about how our elliptical orbit gives us seasons. So many of our life decisions are influenced by the motion of Earth. It guides where we decide to live, what food we eat, or even what weather we experience - which we'll talk about more next time. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks t
Writing Systems: Crash Course Linguistics #16 Writing Systems: Crash Course Linguistics #16
2 months ago En
All societies have spoken or signed language, but not all languages have a written form. Since writing developed in different ways in different places, writing systems differ greatly around the world. In this final episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about writing systems, also called orthographies, the different components that make up a writing system, the development of different writing systems over time, and more! Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: lingthusiasm.com *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Eric Prestemon, Mark, DAV
Intro to Substitution Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #20 Intro to Substitution Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #20
3 months ago En
Substitution reactions can have really powerful effects, both good and bad, in our bodies. You might remember substitution reactions as displacement reactions from general chemistry, but (you guessed it!) in organic chemistry they’re a bit more complicated. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn about the two pathways substitution reactions can take: SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, which substrates prefer which mechanism, and we’ll apply this knowledge by looking at how substitution reactions make chemotherapy treatments work. Episode Sources: Brookes, P., Lawley, P.D. “The Reaction of Mono-and Di-Functional Alkylating Agents with Nucleic Acids,” , Biochem. J., 1961, 80, 496-503. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New
Computational Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #15 Computational Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #15
3 months ago En
Computers are pretty great, and we use them for different language tasks every day. But teaching computers to understand language is surprisingly difficult! In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about programming computers to process human language, which is called computational linguistics, or natural language processing. We’ll look at the types of language tasks computers can and can’t do, how natural language processing works, as well as the different types of biases that exist in machine learning. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous mont
What is Physical Geography? Crash Course Geography #4 What is Physical Geography? Crash Course Geography #4
3 months ago En
Traditionally, geography is studied as two interconnected parts: physical geography and human geography. For the first half of this series, we will be focusing on physical geography, which is all about recognizing the characteristics of the environment and the processes that create, modify, and destroy those environments. But remember, human-environment interactions are fundamental to studying geography so we won't be ignoring human impact, it just won't be the primary lens we're using to view the world. Today, we'll explore erosional gullies in Madagascar as we discuss the world's dynamic landscape, the Great Barrier Reef as we introduce the four major earth system (the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere), and we'll finish with a deep dive into Iceland as we introduce the major realms of physical geography. (These are geographer specializations that you may have heard about like topography, geomorphology, pedology, hydrology, climatology, oceanography, meteorology, and biogeography.) Watch
World Languages: Crash Course Linguistics #14 World Languages: Crash Course Linguistics #14
3 months ago En
Subscribe to Storied for It’s Lit, Monstrum, and Verbatim (coming soon!): https://www.youtube.com/pbsstoried If you ask a linguist “How many languages are there in the world?” the answer most will give you is “around 7000”. We say “around” because there are several factors that make it difficult to determine what exactly counts as a language, including the difficulty of distinguishing between languages and dialects, various political factors, and the fact that not all languages have the same degree of resources and records. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll explore these 3 factors to learn about world languages and linguistic diversity, as well as the inequities that these factors can create. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android De
Radical Reactions & Hammond's Postulate: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #19 Radical Reactions & Hammond's Postulate: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #19
3 months ago En
Throughout this series we’ve mostly talked about pairs of electrons, but electrons don’t always have a buddy. An atom or group of atoms with a single unpaired electron is called a radical. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about radicals including the three key steps in a radical reaction and Hammond’s Postulate, an important tool to help us understand these reactions. We’ll also see ways radicals can react with alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Episode Sources: Davies, K. J., & Doroshow, J. H. (1986). Redox cycling of anthracyclines by cardiac mitochondria. I. Anthracycline radical formation by NADH dehydrogenase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261(7), 3060-3067. Ball, P. (Interview with Nick Lane) Yes, life in the fast lane kills you. May 5, 2016. Bond Dissociation Energies https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Chemical_Bonding/Fundamentals_of_Chemical_Bonding/Bond_E
What is space and how do we study it? Crash Course Geography #3 What is space and how do we study it? Crash Course Geography #3
4 months ago En
Today we're going to talk about SPAAAAAACE, but not like stars and satellites and stuff. Instead, we're going to talk about geographic space. In geography, we can look at the world and the places and spaces we inhabit with four distinct lenses: space as a container, topologically, socially, and how we perceive it. On this journey, we'll make stops in Antarctica, Haiti, and China as we introduce the tools you'll need from surveying and remote sensing to community-created maps to help us better understand and navigate our world. If you want to help create maps for your community visit: https://www.openstreetmap.org https://tasks.hotosm.org Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that
Language Change and Historical Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #13 Language Change and Historical Linguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #13
4 months ago En
Language is constantly changing. Today’s small changes could lead to entirely new dialects or languages in the future. We can’t predict how these changes will occur, but we can better understand the path a language has taken through historical linguistics. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about how and why languages change, what happens when languages come into contact with each other, how linguists piece together the history of a language, and more! Acknowledgment: Kirby Conrod Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions
Alkyne Reactions & Tautomerization: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #18 Alkyne Reactions & Tautomerization: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #18
4 months ago En
Carbon-carbon double bonds are pretty common in nature, but triple bonds between carbons, called alkynes, are not. When alkynes do pop up in nature, it’s usually in a compound that’s toxic to humans, however, we can synthesize alkynes that are life saving medicines and materials. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn about alkynes and some of the reactions we can use them in (hint: it’s a lot of the same reactions we used for alkenes!) Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemistry; 5th ed.; Roberts an
What is a Map? Crash Course Geography #2 What is a Map? Crash Course Geography #2
4 months ago En
From navigating a cross-country road trip (or just finding the nearest coffee shop), to analyzing election results (or the latest meme on K-pop group popularity), maps play a huge role in how we interpret the world! Today, we're going to talk about the differences between reference maps and thematic maps, take a closer look at how projections play a part in how we perceive maps, and discuss the role of the cartographer (or map maker) in all of this. Maps are incredibly powerful tools and play a crucial role in how we understand the world, but they are also made by people, so it is our job to think critically about how these stories are being presented to us. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly
Language Acquisition: Crash Course Linguistics #12 Language Acquisition: Crash Course Linguistics #12
4 months ago En
Babies have to learn a lot of language stuff before they can even say their first word. Exposure to language as infants doesn’t just help us say those first words but gives us the tools we need to acquire advanced language skills and learn more languages later on in life. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about language acquisition and how the process differs for babies and adults. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Eric Prestemon, Mark, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, P
Psycholinguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #11 Psycholinguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #11
4 months ago En
We couldn't have language without the brain, but our brains are a bit harder to study than other parts of the body that we use to make languages like our mouths and hands. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we'll learn about the field that studies where and how language happens in the brain, called psycholinguistics. We'll cover old and new research in the field, classic studies, and the methods psycholinguistics use to uncover the connections between language and the brain. Acknowledgment: Suzy Styles Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly con
Alkene Redox Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #17 Alkene Redox Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #17
4 months ago En
Oxidation-reduction reactions are going on around us, and inside us, all the time, and we can make redox reactions in organic chemistry easier to understand by tracking carbon-oxygen bonds. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll focus on alkene redox reactions and revisit our 3-part secret handshake to help us better understand patterns and predict the products of these reactions. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemistry; 5th ed.; Roberts and Company Publishers, Colorado, 2009. McMurry, J., Organic Chem
???? What is Geography? Crash Course Geography #1 ???? What is Geography? Crash Course Geography #1
4 months ago En
So, what is geography? In our first episode of Crash Course Geography, we will endeavor to answer this seemingly simple question with the help of a similarly simple factoid: that the US imports more than 3 billion pounds of bananas from Guatemala each year. But as it turns out, beneath the kinds of factoids we usually associate with Geography are much grander stories that really are Geography. So let's go a little bananas as we explore the sordid history of the Chiquita banana. Follow Alizé! Twitter: https://twitter.com/alizecarrere Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/alizecarrere/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/alizecarrere/ Website: https://www.alizecarrere.com/ [SOURCES] http://sethrainforestecosystem.weebly.com/the-rainforest.html https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/plantation-agriculture-location-and-characteristics-with-area-maps/25452 https://www.tripsavvy.com/mount-everest-facts-1458258 https://time.com/3923694/mount-everest-nepal-earthquake/ https://sajana1231.wordpress.com/2011/05/0
Phonology: Crash Course Linguistics #10 Phonology: Crash Course Linguistics #10
5 months ago En
Check out Self- Evident on PBS Voices: https://youtu.be/PZHAu09iObU All of the sounds or handshapes in a language can be pronounced differently depending on the context, but in different languages, these differences may be significant, or not. The study of these patterns and variations is known as phonology. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn all about phonology and the different phonological systems we see in different languages, and we’ll begin to retrain our brains in order to gain a better understanding and appreciation for phonological patterns. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse T
Crash Course Geography Preview Crash Course Geography Preview
5 months ago En
Welcome to Crash Course Geography hosted by Alizé Carrère! This course with be split into two parts. In the first half, we will focus on physical geography or the processes and phenomena of the physical world both above and below the Earth's surface. We'll ask questions like, "why is the seafloor so young when the Earth is so old?" or try to identify why winds and ocean currents are so important to life on Earth. Then we'll turn our focus to human geography and explore the ways people occupy the Earth's surface. Like how we've moved, settled, and used the land, resources and space. But ther'e not always a clear line dividing the physical and human, because really, geography is telling the story of the Earth. We'll hope you'll join us on this journey starting November 30, 2020! Follow Alizé! Twitter: https://twitter.com/alizecarrere Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/alizecarrere/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/alizecarrere/ Website: https://www.alizecarrere.com/ Sources https://www.nationalgeog
Phonetics 2 - Vowels: Crash Course Linguistics #9 Phonetics 2 - Vowels: Crash Course Linguistics #9
5 months ago En
In English, we have 5 (well, sometimes 6) vowel letters, but way more vowel sounds. That’s where the IPA can help us! In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about vowels, those sounds you can sing with your mouth open, and how we can represent them clearly using the IPA. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Vincent LaBarca, Bjartur Thorlacius, Scott Harrison, Alexander Thomson, Mark & Susan Billian, Junrong Eric Zhu, Alan Bridgeman, Jennifer Smith, Matt Curls, Tim Kw
Alkene Addition Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #16 Alkene Addition Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #16
5 months ago En
Like a trendy dance, a fighting combo, or a secret handshake, organic reactions can be broken down into simpler steps. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll specifically be looking at alkene addition reactions, and with each new reaction ask ourselves three questions to help us puzzle through the mechanism and understand what’s going on. Episode Sources: Le Couteur, P, Burreson, J. Napoleon’s Buttons: 17 molecules that changed history., Penguin, New York, 2004, Chapter 1. Whipps, H., “How the Spice Trade Changed the World,” https://www.livescience.com/7495-spice-trade-changed-world.html Last accessed, 3/28/2020. Henriques, Martha, “How spices changed the ancient world,” http://www.bbc.com/future/bespoke/made-on-earth/the-flavours-that-shaped-the-world/ Last accessed, 3/28/2020. Hashimoto, K., Yaoi, T., Koshiba, H., Yoshida, T., Maoka, T., Fujiwara, Y., Yaamoto, Y, Mori, K., “Photochemical Isomerization of Piperine, a Pungent Constituent of Pepper”, Food Sci. Technol., Int. 1996, 2 (
Phonetics 1 - Consonants: Crash Course Linguistics #8 Phonetics 1 - Consonants: Crash Course Linguistics #8
5 months ago En
Check out Monstrum on Storied: https://youtu.be/KIGmsxBMnjA The letters in a word don’t always match the sounds they represent, and people can pronounce words in different ways. Lucky for us, linguists have tools to help understand and communicate speech sounds. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll begin our discussion of phonetics, the study of speech sounds, by talking about consonants, and we’ll also get an introduction to the International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Cra
Thermodynamics and Energy Diagrams: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #15 Thermodynamics and Energy Diagrams: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #15
5 months ago En
In organic chemistry, different reactions can take place at vastly different speeds. To better understand whether a reaction actually will happen, and how useful that reaction is, we need to understand thermodynamics and kinetics. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll review some important concepts from general chemistry, learn how to draw energy diagrams, go over the difference between an intermediate and a transition state, and get an introduction to catalysts. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemist
Sociolinguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #7 Sociolinguistics: Crash Course Linguistics #7
6 months ago En
Language is an important part of our identities, and the ways we feel about how others use language is influenced by society. The study of the social element of language, and how it forms part of our identity is sociolinguistics. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll learn about linguistic differences between and within languages based on factors such as location, education, class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality, and how our perceptions of these differences affect our society. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ Pixelland by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4222-pixelland License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support u
Covid-19 and Public Health: A Message from Crash Course Covid-19 and Public Health: A Message from Crash Course
6 months ago En
We’ve heard from so many teachers and students who are using Crash Course videos to help with learning amid all this uncertainty, and we are very grateful. Here is some widely applicable, evidence-based public health advice that we put together with the help of our friends at Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at Harvard. This video is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at Harvard University and at Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Complexly also has other great channels like Healthcare Triage with Dr. Aaron Carroll and SciShow that are providing in-depth updates on COVID-19. SciShow: https://www.youtube.com/c/SciShow Healthcare Triage: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLkfBg8ML-gInLE6sZ304zcFWatvP1REjW Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us d
Pragmatics: Crash Course Linguistics #6 Pragmatics: Crash Course Linguistics #6
6 months ago En
We don’t always say exactly what we mean, and yet we’re still pretty good at understanding each other. That’s because we don’t just use meaning to figure out what’s going on, we also use context. This episode of Crash Course Linguistics is all about pragmatics, the area of linguistics that deals with context. We’ll cover the four main assumptions we make about context in language, also known as Grice’s Maxims, as well as the ways that languages can use grammar to convey politeness, and the different types of conversational styles within and between languages. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ Carefree by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/3476-carefree License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bi
E/Z Alkenes, Electrophilic Addition, & Carbocations: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #14 E/Z Alkenes, Electrophilic Addition, & Carbocations: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #14
6 months ago En
Alkenes are an important type of molecule in organic chemistry that we’re going to see a lot more of in this series. But before we can really get into the many cool reactions alkenes do, we need to go over some of the basics. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll review and build on our knowledge of alkene nomenclature, revisit our friend the carbocation, and learn Markovnikov’s Rule: an important tool that will help us predict the products of addition reactions involving alkenes. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M.
Semantics: Crash Course Linguistics #5 Semantics: Crash Course Linguistics #5
6 months ago En
If you want to know what a word means, all you have to do is look it up in the dictionary, right? Actually, it’s a little more complicated than that. This episode of Crash Course Linguistics is all about semantics, or the area of linguistics concerned with meaning. We’ll learn about different types of semantic relationships, and how different languages define these relationships, as well as different approaches to semantics. And we’ll discover that the humble definition may be more complicated than we think. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contribu
Syntax 2 - Trees: Crash Course Linguistics #4 Syntax 2 - Trees: Crash Course Linguistics #4
6 months ago En
There are many theories of syntax and different ways to represent grammatical structures, but one of the simplest is tree structure diagrams! In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’ll use tree structure diagrams to keep track of words and groups of words within sentences, and we’ll break down what roles different types of words and phrases play within a sentence. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ Acknowledgements: Elizabeth Allyn Smith (Categorical Grammar/Logical Notation), Emily M. Bender (Dependency Grammar), Ellen Jovin (Reed-Kellogg Diagrams), Peter Hurst (LFG), Jamie Findlay (LFG), Francis Bond (Dependency Grammar) *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.p
Intro to Reaction Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #13 Intro to Reaction Mechanisms: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #13
6 months ago En
When we venture to new places, we need navigational tools to guide us. In organic chemistry, those are reaction mechanisms! In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about how to write reaction mechanisms. Having this super useful skill means we don’t have to worry about memorizing every reaction that has ever existed. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemistry; 5th ed.; Roberts and Company Publishers, Colorado, 2009. McMurry, J., Organic Chemistry, 9th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2016. Smith, J
Syntax 1 - Morphosyntax: Crash Course Linguistics #3 Syntax 1 - Morphosyntax: Crash Course Linguistics #3
6 months ago En
Grammar sometimes gets a bad reputation, but we're actually doing grammar all the time! And we're pretty good at it! In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we'll begin our discussion of syntax by learning how we can take words and morphemes and turn them into sentences, questions, stories, and even videos like this! Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ Acknowledgements: Ian Woolford, Jill Vaughan, Gabrielle Hodge *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Catherine Conroy, Patty Laqua, Leonora Rossé Muñoz, Stephen Saar,
Morphology: Crash Course Linguistics #2 Morphology: Crash Course Linguistics #2
7 months ago En
Check out Self-Evident on PBS Voices: https://youtu.be/Bwsne4eMVyU What even is a word? Well… linguists don’t really know! But that’s ok! When linguists want to get super specific, we don’t even talk about words, we talk about morphemes instead. In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we’re diving into the topic of morphology and what makes up these things we call words. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ Acknowledgements: Daniela Diedrich, William Forshaw, Hannah Gibson, Diane Lillo-Martin *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for eve
Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #12 Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #12
7 months ago En
Organic reactions are kind of like carefully choreographed fight scenes, and nucleophilic attack is a key move. This episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry is all about nucleophiles and electrophiles, or what happens at those molecular hot spots we’ve been talking about. We’ll also learn about what IR spectra can tell us about reactions, and how cyanide is more than just a poison from mystery stories. Let’s get to it organophiles! Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones Jr., M.; Fleming, S. A., Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014. Klein., D., Organic Chemistry; 1st ed.; John Wiley & Sons, United States, 2012. Louden M., Organic Chemistry; 5th ed.; Roberts and Company Publishers, Color
What is Linguistics?: Crash Course Linguistics #1 What is Linguistics?: Crash Course Linguistics #1
7 months ago En
Language is everywhere. Linguistics is the study of language, but what does that even mean? In this episode of Crash Course Linguistics, we'll begin talking about some of the features and levels of structure of language, and introduce some of the other topics we'll be covering throughout this series. Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Catherine Conroy, Patty Laqua, Leonora Rossé Muñoz, Stephen Saar, John Lee, Phil Simmons, Alexander Thomson, Mark & Susan Billian, Junrong Eric Zhu, A
Crash Course Linguistics Preview Crash Course Linguistics Preview
7 months ago En
Welcome to Crash Course Linguistics! Linguistics is everywhere and is super useful for pretty much everyone. Over 16 episodes, Taylor Behnke will teach you all about language, from its structure, to the relationship between language and our identity, the brain, and computers, to writing, language acquisition, and the diversity of human languages! Want even more linguistics? Check out the Lingthusiasm podcast, hosted by the writers of Crash Course Linguistics: https://lingthusiasm.com/ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Catherine Conroy, Patty Laqua, Leonora Rossé Muñoz, Stephen Saar, John Lee, Phil Simmons, Alexander Th
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