CrashCourse
At Crash Course, we believe that high quality educational videos should be available to everyone for free! Subscribe for weekly videos from our current courses! Right now, we're producing Organic Chemistry and European History. We also recently teamed up with Arizona State University to bring you two more courses: Study Hall Composition, and Study Hall Algebra. The Crash Course team has produced more than 32 courses on a wide variety of subjects, including organic chemistry, literature, world history, biology, philosophy, theater, ecology, and many more! Help support Crash Course at Patreon.com/CrashCourse.

1308 videos
How Populations Grow and Change: Crash Course Geography #33 How Populations Grow and Change: Crash Course Geography #33
2 months ago En
Is the world overpopulated or underpopulated? While we worry about there being too many people for the planet to support, we can also worry about how fewer people in a given place may affect the economy, what may happen when there are more elderly people who need care than there are healthcare workers, or even be concerned about how many people are necessary to carry on other aspects of culture. Today, we'll discuss Malthusian and Boserup predictions on the planet's carrying capacity and take a close look at a popular demography tool geographers use to predict population change: the Demographic Transition Model or DTM. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Cours
The Great Migration: Crash Course Black American History #24 The Great Migration: Crash Course Black American History #24
2 months ago En
In 1910, 90% of Black Americans lived in the South. By 1940, around 1.5 million Black Americans had left their homes, and 77% lived in the South. By 1970, 52% of Black Americans remained in the South. People moved away for many reasons, including increased opportunity in the more industrial North and West. They sought a relatively safer life away from the lynchings and violence that were concentrated in the South. This Great Migration shaped 20th century America in countless ways, but we're going to try to count some of them in this video. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES https://www.cnn.com/politics/live-news/georgia-voting-restrictions-bill-03-25-21/index.html Davarian Baldwin, Chicago’s New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, and Urban Black Life (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2007). Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (New York: Random House, 2010
Can We Predict An Outbreak's Future? - Modeling: Crash Course Outbreak Science #9 Can We Predict An Outbreak's Future? - Modeling: Crash Course Outbreak Science #9
2 months ago En
When outbreaks happen, we need to be able to predict the course they’ll take in the future, but of course we can’t run experiments on real people to figure that out. Thankfully we can simulate outbreaks and use models to find out how different scenarios could play out! In this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we’ll look at what models are, how they help predict the course of an outbreak, and how we can use them to manage real world outbreaks. This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378437118308896 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6002118/ https://web.stanford.edu/~jhj1/teachingdocs/Jones-on-R0.pdf https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01003-6 https://globalhealth.harvard.edu/understanding-predictions-what-is-r-naught/ https://
Where and Why Do People Move? Crash Course Geography #32 Where and Why Do People Move? Crash Course Geography #32
2 months ago En
People have been migrating and transplanting since before recorded history, and understanding the reasons why people migrate can help explain some of the cultural, economic, and political patterns we see around the world. Today, we’re going to mostly focus on the Indian diaspora, which is the largest in the world with over 18 million people of Indian descent living outside of India. And through this lens, we’ll teach you about many different types of voluntary and involuntary migration throughout history and around the world. SOURCES Migration Getis, Bjelland, and Getis. Introduction to Geography, 15 ed. McGraw-Hill Education. 2017. ISBN: 978-1-259-57000-1 Gregory, Derek, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, and Sarah Whatmore, eds. 2009. The Dictionary of Human Geography. 5th ed. Willey-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-4051-3288-6 https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/international-migrant-stock-2019.html UN Migration Data Sets: https://migrationdataportal.org/?i=stock_abs_&t=2017&m=1 Indi
The Black Women's Club Movement: Crash Course Black American History #23 The Black Women's Club Movement: Crash Course Black American History #23
2 months ago En
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Black American Women were struggling with both racism and misogyny as they fought for their rights. Black Women formed clubs and organized to make sure civil and political rights were extended to ALL Black people, not just Black men. These clubs were grass-roots organizations of middle-class women who were often only one generation removed from slavery. Today we'll learn about the origins of these clubs and some of the notable women who drove this movement. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone fore
More EAS - Electron Donating and Withdrawing Groups: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #38 More EAS - Electron Donating and Withdrawing Groups: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #38
2 months ago En
In the previous episode we discussed what happens when we use electrophilic aromatic substitution to add a group to a benzene ring, but what happens when you try to add even more groups? Well, things get a little more complicated. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll continue our exploration of EAS reactions by looking at electron donating groups and electron withdrawing groups on benzene, and how they affect what happens when we try to add new groups to the ring. Episode Sources: Hammond, G.S. and Douglas, K.J., 1959. Aromatic nitration. III. The ortho to para ratio in nitration of benzonitrile. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 81(5), pp.1184-1187. Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren., S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 2012. Jones
How Do We Investigate Outbreaks? Epidemiology: Crash Course Outbreak Science #8 How Do We Investigate Outbreaks? Epidemiology: Crash Course Outbreak Science #8
2 months ago En
At the heart of outbreaks are people! People are the ones who get sick, transmit diseases, and change the way they live in response to outbreaks. In outbreak science, we can better understand the relationship between people and disease through the discipline of epidemiology. In this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we’ll look at what epidemiology is and how it helps us track the spread of diseases, and even stop outbreaks. This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_part3.pdf https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2944950/ https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/diagnosistesting/index.html https://www.pnas.org/content/118/17/e2018995118 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349221/ *** Watch our videos and review your learni
How Did Religion Spread Along the Silk Road? Crash Course Geography #31 How Did Religion Spread Along the Silk Road? Crash Course Geography #31
3 months ago En
Today we’re going to talk about the collection of routes known as the Silk Roads, and explore how worldview and other ideas spread along those trade routes. The Silk Roads are responsible for everything from the spices we use when we cook to the cloth we see as beautiful, but today we’re going to focus on religion, and show how these routes influenced the beliefs of billions of people through time and space. SOURCES General: Gregory, Derek, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, and Sarah Whatmore, eds. 2009. The Dictionary of Human Geography. 5th ed. Willey-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-4051-3288-6 Getis, Bjelland, and Getis. Introduction to Geography, 15 ed. McGraw-Hill Education. 2017. ISBN: 978-1-259-57000-1 Hobbs, Joseph J. Fundamental of World Regional Geography, 4th ed. Cengage. 2017. Cracking the AP Human Geography Exam: 2020 edition.  The Princeton Review. SIlk Road: https://silkroaddigressions.com/2021/01/28/unesco-and-the-silk-road-the-role-of-japan/ https://unescosilkroadphotocontest.org/en/no
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B DuBois: Crash Course Black American History #22 Booker T. Washington and W.E.B DuBois: Crash Course Black American History #22
3 months ago En
As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, Black Americans were searching for ways to think about how and where they would fit into a post-slavery society. There were several competing schools of thought. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois were essential to some of the most prominent ideas in this arena. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources: Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (1901; New York: Signet Classics, 2010). W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (1903; New York: Dover, 1994). David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919 (New York: Henry Holt, 1994). Henry Louis Gates Jr., “W. E. B. Du Bois and ‘The Talented Tenth,’” in The Future of the Race, eds. Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Cornel West (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), 115-132. W. E. B. Du Bois, “The Talented Tenth,” in The Negro Problem, ed. Booker T. Washing
How Does Language Move? Crash Course Geography #30 How Does Language Move? Crash Course Geography #30
3 months ago En
While we can’t explore every cultural trait in the world, language is an important system of spoken, signed, or written symbols humans use to express themselves. It’s a major marker of identity that often unites members of the same nation, or people with similar cultural identity. And it’s a cultural trait that has enormous power because language helps other cultural traits move through the spoken, visual, tactile, and musical word. So today, we’re going to explore how words move, because the activities that prompt that movement can tell us a lot about how ideas as well move around the world. SOURCES Gregory, Derek, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, and Sarah Whatmore, eds. 2009. The Dictionary of Human Geography. 5th ed. Willey-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-4051-3288-6 Getis, Bjelland, and Getis. Introduction to Geography, 15 ed. McGraw-Hill Education. 2017. ISBN: 978-1-259-57000-1 Hobbs, Joseph J. Fundamental of World Regional Geography, 4th ed. Cengage. 2017. Cracking the AP Human Geography Ex
How Does the Healthcare System Work During Outbreaks? Crash Course Outbreak Science #7 How Does the Healthcare System Work During Outbreaks? Crash Course Outbreak Science #7
3 months ago En
Day to day, hospitals provide all kinds of services to help us get better and stay healthy, but during an outbreak, hospitals are the front line of the emergency. In this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we'll look at how hospitals and other healthcare facilities adapt in the face of an outbreak, from resources needs, the roles of healthcare workers, and costs. This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/151281/9789241548939_eng.pdf?sequence=1 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-019-7707-z https://militaryhealth.bmj.com/content/166/1/37.full https://academic.oup.com/heapol/article/35/8/1084/5856261?login=true https://www.chathamhouse.org/2021/04/trade-policy-and-medical-supplies-during-covid-19/case-study-1-medical-goods-shortages https:/
Plessy v Ferguson and Segregation: Crash Course Black American History #21 Plessy v Ferguson and Segregation: Crash Course Black American History #21
3 months ago En
The United States' Constitution is not a very detailed document. It lays out the basic structure of government, and the details are filled in with legislation, and clarified and reinforced by court decisions. One of the most consequential Supreme Court decisions was the 1896 case of Plessy v Ferguson, which set the precedent that segregating people by race was acceptable. This meant that every public accommodation had the right to refuse to serve Black Americans, and that even public institutions like schools could be segregated. While the decision did stipulate that the segregated accommodations be "separate but equal," the equal part of that equation was often left out. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ VIDEO SOURCES https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/31/obituaries/homer-plessy-overlooked-black-history-month.html http://projects.leadr.msu.edu/makingmodernus
Intro to Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #37 Intro to Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #37
3 months ago En
We’ve talked about benzene a bit already in this series, but did you know that benzene rings are present in all kinds of familiar substances? The styrofoam packaging that comes with new appliances, some pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and even some explosives contain benzene. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll see how we can use electrophilic aromatic substitution to attach stuff to benzene rings like halogens, carbons, and more! Episode Sources: Rocke, A.J., 1985. Hypothesis and experiment in the early development of Kekule's benzene theory. Annals of Science, 42(4), pp.355-381. Martín, N. and Scott, L.T., 2015. Challenges in aromaticity: 150 years after Kekulé's benzene. Chemical Society Reviews, 44(18), pp.6397-6400. Stuttgart, G., 2018. Charles Friedel (1832–1899) And James Mason Crafts (1839–1917): The Friedel–Crafts Alkylation And Acylation Reactions. [online] Thieme.de. Available at: https://www.thieme.de/statics/bilder/thieme/final/en/bilder/tw_chemistry/CFZ-Synform-Charles-Friede
How Do We Know We're Sick? Crash Course Outbreak Science #06 How Do We Know We're Sick? Crash Course Outbreak Science #06
3 months ago En
Sometimes, diagnosing patients is pretty easy, but other times... not so much. Luckily, in a medical setting we have tools that can help us figure out what's wrong with patients, and how to help them. In this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we'll use clinical symptomatology and diagnostic testing to collect data and test our hypotheses about what may be wrong with some hypothetical patients, and use what we learn to help our patients get better and stop the disease from spreading to more people. This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: Chapters 5 and 6 from the Operation Outbreak textbook (as provided by Todd Brown) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386653216000408 *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https:
Ida B. Wells: Crash Course Black American History #20 Ida B. Wells: Crash Course Black American History #20
3 months ago En
In this video, we'll learn about the life story of journalist, orator, teacher, suffragette, and anti-lynching activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett. Ida B. Wells made her name writing and speaking and working to improve the lives of Black Americans. She wrote for a number of outlets, and covered a wide array of issues. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources and References Mia Bay, To Tell the Truth Freely: the Life of Ida B. Wells. New York: Hill and Wang, 2010. Paula Giddings, Ida: A Sword Among Lions. New York: Amistad, 2009. Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:
The Weaponization of Outbreaks: Crash Course Outbreak Science #5 The Weaponization of Outbreaks: Crash Course Outbreak Science #5
3 months ago En
A sad reality that we have to face when studying outbreak science is that sometimes groups of people use outbreaks intentionally to inflict harm on another group. We call this "weaponizing an outbreak", and it's the focus of this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science. In this episode we'll look at how different groups have weaponized outbreaks throughout history, and the consequences, and we'll discuss what we can learn from those cases to prevent bioweapon attacks in the future. This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://www.who.int/health-topics/biological-weapons#tab=tab_1 https://www.jstor.org/stable/482714?casa_token=q9skcnJCGhQAAAAA%3AOgMprkUY8PO8BINadjnNLhHvmkciiTvfms0CQXOAobSf63g4b8MCCj21o1cUWCWp0FXcgcKXzzA-hrpcPkQUprQ5drgUGpeaaXyUbsSm9RH445VbobEO&seq=4#metadata_info_tab_contents https://
Race, Ethnicity, and the Cultural Landscape: Crash Course Geography #29 Race, Ethnicity, and the Cultural Landscape: Crash Course Geography #29
3 months ago En
Sometimes culture can seem invisible like when we're surrounded by signals that tell us we're with others who are like us, but if we live or travel somewhere where the traits that define social norms are not our traits, culture can suddenly seem everywhere. In the next few episodes, we're going to start exploring the fundamental aspects of culture and how those with and without power are affected by culture, from cultural mixing to cultural violence. We'll also discuss the differences between race, ethnicity, and culture, and help you can spot the warning signs that often lead to xenophobia, racism, and genocide. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free
Aromaticity, Hückel's Rule, and Chemical Equivalence in NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #36 Aromaticity, Hückel's Rule, and Chemical Equivalence in NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #36
3 months ago En
If you’ve been paying attention so far in this series, you’ve probably heard of benzene. This molecule is flat, cyclic, and belongs to a special class of compounds known as aromatics. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about aromatic compounds, their properties, reactivities, and some of the most important examples, like benzene. We’ll also revisit our friend NMR, and hear about some dubious science history! Episode Sources: Browne, M., 1988. THE BENZENE RING: DREAM ANALYSIS. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/1988/08/16/science/the-benzene-ring-dream-analysis.html Lonsdale Kathleen, 1929. The structure of the benzene ring in C6(CH3)6. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A123494–515 http://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1929.0081 Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warr
Why Do Outbreaks Affect People Unequally? Crash Course Outbreak Science #4 Why Do Outbreaks Affect People Unequally? Crash Course Outbreak Science #4
3 months ago En
We’re all susceptible to infectious disease of some kind or other, but not everyone is equally likely to be the victim of an outbreak. The fact is, inequalities both between and within communities mean that some people are at higher risk than others. In this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we’ll look deeper at the factors that lead to this uneven distribution of outbreaks. Sources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518324/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5719303/ https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Report.pdf https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7100257/pdf/41271_2005_Article_BF3200004.pdf https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1201971216310682#bib0145 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178566/ https://apps.wr ho.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43644/9789241595346_eng.pdf https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.526.3664&rep=rep1&type=pdf https://ourworldindata.org/war-and-peace https://www.sciencedirect.c
What is Human Geography? Crash Course Geography #28 What is Human Geography? Crash Course Geography #28
3 months ago En
For the next half of this series, we will be discussing Human Geography — so we’ll still be looking at the Earth, but specifically, how human activity affects and is influenced by the Earth. Naturally, we thought the best place to start was to discuss how we name things in the first place! As it turns out, a name carries so much history of a place but also represents the political power and evolving perception of that space. So today, we’re going to tell the story of the highest point in North America - a mountain known by many names including Mount McKinley and Denali. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Shannon McCone, Amel
Reconstruction: Crash Course Black American History #19 Reconstruction: Crash Course Black American History #19
4 months ago En
The American Civil War is one of the deadliest in US History, and let's just get this out of the way: it was about slavery. In the more than 150 years since the end of the Civil War, there have been many attempts to litigate the reasons for the war, but the reality is that the root of the division was slavery. As such, Black Americans experience in that war is particularly interesting. Today, we'll learn about how Black people fought and participated in the war, the Emancipation Proclamation, and lots more. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources and References -Deborah Gray White, Mia Bay, and Waldo E. Martin, Freedom on My Mind : A History of African Americans, with Documents Second edition. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2017) -Kevin Levin, Searching for Bl
Aromaticity, Hückel's Rule, and Chemical Equivalence in NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #36 Aromaticity, Hückel's Rule, and Chemical Equivalence in NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #36
4 months ago En
If you’ve been paying attention so far in this series, you’ve probably heard of benzene. This molecule is flat, cyclic, and belongs to a special class of compounds known as aromatics. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about aromatic compounds, their properties, reactivities, and some of the most important examples, like benzene. We’ll also revisit our friend NMR, and hear about some dubious science history! Episode Sources: Browne, M., 1988. THE BENZENE RING: DREAM ANALYSIS. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/1988/08/16/science/the-benzene-ring-dream-analysis.html Lonsdale Kathleen, 1929. The structure of the benzene ring in C6(CH3)6. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A123494–515 http://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1929.0081 Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warr
Why Do We Have Fewer Outbreaks? Epidemiological Transition: Crash Course Outbreak Science #3 Why Do We Have Fewer Outbreaks? Epidemiological Transition: Crash Course Outbreak Science #3
4 months ago En
We take it for granted that society gets better at tackling infectious disease over time, but when you really think about it the progress we’ve made in the last century is pretty amazing. How does that much progress happen so quickly? That’s what we’ll set out to answer in this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science as we look at the theory of epidemiological transition. This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/768249 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690264/#:~:text=The%20classical%20model%20describes%20the,modernization%20in%20most%20western%20European https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2805833/ https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/updating-the-epidemiological-transition-model/D7933473050
Natural Hazards: Crash Course Geography #27 Natural Hazards: Crash Course Geography #27
4 months ago En
Today we wrap up the first half of our series on physical geography by taking a closer look at natural hazards - which are physical processes like heat waves and cyclones, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and floods and droughts. And when these natural events cause significant harm to humans, we call them natural disasters. So today we'll explore the ways geographers analyze and track these events, and take a closer look at the human impact of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and The Boxing Day Tsunami on the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Shannon McCone, Amelia Ryczek, Ken Davidian, Brian
Black Americans in the Civil War: Crash Course Black American History #18 Black Americans in the Civil War: Crash Course Black American History #18
4 months ago En
The American Civil War is one of the deadliest in US History, and let's just get this out of the way: it was about slavery. In the more than 150 years since the end of the Civil War, there have been many attempts to litigate the reasons for the war, but the reality is that the root of the division was slavery. As such, Black Americans experience in that war is particularly interesting. Today, we'll learn about how Black people fought and participated in the war, the Emancipation Proclamation, and lots more. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources and References -Deborah Gray White, Mia Bay, and Waldo E. Martin, Freedom on My Mind : A History of African Americans, with Documents Second edition. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2017) -Kevin Levin, Searching for Bl
How Do Outbreaks Start? Pathogens and Immunology: Crash Course Outbreak Science #2 How Do Outbreaks Start? Pathogens and Immunology: Crash Course Outbreak Science #2
4 months ago En
You may not realize it, but your body is like a fortress, designed to defend you from tiny foreign invaders known as pathogens. This seemingly small world is actually super diverse, and sometimes super dangerous too. That’s why in this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we’re going to get familiar with all different types of pathogens like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and more! This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209710/#:~:text=Microorganisms%20capable%20of%20causing%20disease,be%20transmitted%E2%80%94by%20several%20routes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4788752/#:~:text=Viruses%20initially%20stick%20to%20cell,the%20cell%20membrane%20(4). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330701/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292075
What Are Glaciers? Crash Course Geography #26 What Are Glaciers? Crash Course Geography #26
4 months ago En
Today we’re going to talk about glaciers. These behemoth globs of compressed ice and snow moving across the land created fertile soils and physical features while also serving as frozen time capsules. They recorded both Earth’s climatic history over several million years and contain clues to its climatic future. By now we hope it’s become clear that the Earth is ever-changing, and glaciers have often been a crucial part of that change from the erratic boulders found in New York City’s Central Park to the beautiful spire of the Matterhorn in the Alps on the border of the Italy and Switzerland. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever
Frederick Douglass: Crash Course Black American History #17 Frederick Douglass: Crash Course Black American History #17
4 months ago En
Clint Smith teaches you about one of the most famous writers, orators, and advocates of the 19th century, Frederick Douglass. Douglass was born in slavery, escaped to the North, and became one of the most influential people of his time. Douglass wrote about the experience of slavery in a way that captured the attention of people throughout the world, and his work and influence helped directly in the struggle to abolish slavery and achieve emancipation. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources and References -David Blight, Frederick Douglass: Prophet of Freedom (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2018) -Christopher James Bonner, Remaking The Republic: Black Politics and the Creation of American Citizenship (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2020) -Kellie
Polymer Chemistry: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #35 Polymer Chemistry: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #35
4 months ago En
So far in this series we’ve focused on molecules with tens of atoms in them, but in organic chemistry molecules can get way bigger! Polymers are molecules that contain hundreds, thousands, or even millions of identical subunits. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll look at different examples of addition and condensation polymers, learn about different types of polymerization, and see how a polymer’s morphology affects its properties. Plus we’ll see how some of the polymers we encounter every day were discovered by accident! Episode Sources: https://www.sciencehistory.org/historical-profile/roy-j-plunkett https://www.compoundchem.com/2015/10/15/superglue/ https://www.pslc.ws/macrog/crystal.htm https://omnexus.specialchem.com/polymer-properties/properties/glass-transition-temperature Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United S
What Is Outbreak Science? Crash Course Outbreak Science #1 What Is Outbreak Science? Crash Course Outbreak Science #1
4 months ago En
Infectious disease has affected the human species for as long as we’ve existed, but in that time we’ve come a long way in understanding what they are and how they spread. In this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we’ll introduce some of the core concepts that will help us throughout this series as we discover the effects of infectious disease, from the microscopic, to the societal level. Thanks for watching this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, which was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. If you want to help keep Crash Course free for everyone, forever, you can join our community on Patreon. Sources: https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13017672-000-latin-america-struggles-as-cholera-spreads/ https://web.archive.org/web/20120831015036/http://www.nytimes.com/1992/03/10/world/latin-nations-feud-over-cholera-outbreak.html https://www.fronti
The Dred Scott Decision: Crash Course Black American History #16 The Dred Scott Decision: Crash Course Black American History #16
4 months ago En
In this video, we'll learn about the US Supreme Court decision in Scott vs Sanford, handed down in 1857. The case ultimately rejected the idea that Black people could be citizens of the United States, and this helped entrench the institution of slavery, denied a host of rights to a huge number of people (both enslaved and free), and increased the tensions between abolitionists and enslavers. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES https://www.britannica.com/event/Missouri-Compromise Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics (Oxford University Press, 1978). https://www.npr.org/2020/09/18/914465793/ice-a-whistleblower-and-forced-sterilization https://www.aclu.org/news/immigrants-rights/immigration-detention-and-coerced-sterilization-history-tragically-repeats-itself/ The Historical Construction of Race and Citizenship in the United States - https://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpAuxPages)
Crash Course Outbreak Science Preview Crash Course Outbreak Science Preview
4 months ago En
Welcome to Crash Course Outbreak Science! What do pathogens actually do to us that makes us sick? Why do societies respond to outbreaks of infectious diseases the way they do? How can we stop the next outbreak? These are the kinds of questions we'll ask ourselves and answer as best we can over the next 15 episodes of this series. Join us and Dr. Pardis Sabeti as we look at outbreaks from the microscopic level, to the big picture, so that we can work together to stop future outbreaks and create a healthier future for everyone. *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto, Mic
Groundwater & the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Crash Course Geography #25 Groundwater & the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Crash Course Geography #25
4 months ago En
The Arab-Israeli Conflict, which is the ongoing political tensions and military conflicts between Arab nations and Israel, is one of the longest and most complex disputes in the world. Today, we're going to focus on more recent events, and look specifically at the role groundwater plays in preventing a pathway to peace between Israelis and Palestinians. Groundwater makes up the largest portion of available fresh water on Earth, but as we'll see, access isn't always fair and its availability doesn't always line up neatly with political borders. *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole,
The Underground Railroad: Crash Course Black American History #15 The Underground Railroad: Crash Course Black American History #15
4 months ago En
Escape was one of the many ways that enslaved people resisted their captivity in the system of American slavery. The Underground Railroad was not literally a railroad. It was a network of people, routes, and safe houses that helped people escape from slavery in the south to freedom in the north. Today we'll talk about the origins of the Underground Railroad, the systems that helped people escape, and the people who helped along the route. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto
Retrosynthesis and Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #34 Retrosynthesis and Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #34
5 months ago En
As we construct more complex organic molecules, it can start to feel like decrypting a complex code. Organic synthesis takes simple starting materials, and turns them into complex structures, and reverse engineering can help us figure out the steps in between. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll practice multistep synthesis problems, learn about how we can use retro synthesis to make more complex molecules, and use liquid-liquid extraction to separate solvents. As always, we’ll work through examples and connect everything back to our Mold Medicine Map! Music: Plucky Daisy by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4226-plucky-daisy License: https://filmmusic.io/standard-license Series Penicillin References: Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wiley & Sons. Sheehan, J. C. (1982). The enchanted ring: the untold story of penicillin. Primary literature for Sheehan’s penicillin synthesis: Sheehan, J.C. &
Why Does Jakarta Flood So Easily? Crash Course Geography #24 Why Does Jakarta Flood So Easily? Crash Course Geography #24
5 months ago En
Today we're going to talk about how and why floods happen both in spite of, and because of, us. Specifically, we'll take a closer look at the island of Java, and its largest city, Jakarta, and explain the factors that lead to serious flooding almost annually. We'll also show you how mangroves can help protect us from flooding, and how wetlands along floodplains act like the kidneys of the Earth filtering out impurities and pollutants. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto, Michael M. Varughese, Kyle & Katherine Callahan, Laurel A Stevens, Evan Lawrence Henderson, Vince
Maria Stewart: Crash Course Black American History #14 Maria Stewart: Crash Course Black American History #14
5 months ago En
Clint Smith teaches you about Maria Stewart, a Black woman who lived in the 19th century, and was a pioneering abolitionist, writer, and orator. When studying history, we often focus on the big picture and world-changing events. Today we'll focus on how one woman flouted the social conventions of her time and place and became a notable public speaker, thinker, and writer. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES -http://www.davidwalkermemorial.org/david-walker -https://time.com/5786710/kimberle-crenshaw-intersectionality/ -https://www.law.columbia.edu/news/archive/kimberle-crenshaw-intersectionality-more-two-decades-later -Kimberle Crenshaw, Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics 31. -Maria W. Stewart, America’s First Black Woman Political Writer: Essays and Speeches, edited and introduced by Marilyn Richardson (Bloomington: Indian
The Rise of Cotton: Crash Course Black American History #13 The Rise of Cotton: Crash Course Black American History #13
5 months ago En
Cotton is everywhere in our modern world, and it became a hugely important crop in the 19th century United States. Cotton was a huge economic boon to the US, and much of that wealth was built on the backs of enslaved laborers. And cotton didn't only benefit the states where slavery was legal. While cotton was mainly grown in the southern states, much of that cotton was processed in northern textile mills. Today we'll learn about the growth of the cotton industry, who benefitted from it, and who was left out. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES -Edward E. Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. New York: Basic Books, 2014. -Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History. New York: Penguin Books, 2014. -Eugene Dattel, Cotton and Race in the Making of America: The Human Costs of Economic Power. Lanham, MD: Ivan R Dee, 2009. -Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins
Chemoselectivity and Protecting Groups: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #33 Chemoselectivity and Protecting Groups: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #33
5 months ago En
Things have been getting more and more complicated here in Crash Course Organic Chemistry, and as we deal with more complex molecules, parts of molecules we don’t want to react will start reacting along with the parts that we do. Luckily, we have protecting groups, which act like a chemical disguise and help us control how molecules react. In this episode, we’ll look at what makes a good protecting group, as well as identify some good protecting groups for different functional groups. We’ll also see what role protecting groups play in the synthesis of penicillin! Series Penicillin References: Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wiley & Sons. Sheehan, J. C. (1982). The enchanted ring: the untold story of penicillin. Primary literature for Sheehan’s penicillin synthesis: Sheehan, J.C. & Izzo, P.T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1948, 70, 1985; Sheehan, J.C. & Izzo, P.T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1949, 71, 4059; Sheehan, J.C. & Bose A.K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1950,
How Rivers Shape the Landscape: Crash Course Geography #23 How Rivers Shape the Landscape: Crash Course Geography #23
5 months ago En
Today we're going to talk about rivers and how these dynamic, delicate, yet powerful systems are able to constantly change the landscape. We'll focus on the Zambezi River in Southeast Africa following its main features from the tributaries that feed into it in the upper course, to the deafening wonder that is Mosi-oa-Tunya waterfall (also called as Victoria Falls) in the middle course, all the way to the delta as the river flows into the Indian Ocean. Along the way, we'll teach you all about why rivers meander, why some rivers have rapids and others are calm, and how we talk about classify and river systems more broadly. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Cou
The Louisiana Rebellion of 1811: Crash Course Black American History #12 The Louisiana Rebellion of 1811: Crash Course Black American History #12
5 months ago En
Uprisings of enslaved people in the United States were not uncommon, and they had a big influence on how the institution of slavery evolved. One uprising that gets less attention, historically, is the German Coast Uprising that took place in Louisiana in 1811. A group of enslaved people rebelled, and the after effects would be felt in Louisiana and throughout the nation for decades. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Sources -https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2020/07/12/haiti-was-first-nation-permanently-ban-slavery/ -Philippe R. Girard, The Slaves Who Defeated Napolean, (Tuscaloosa: Univ. of Alabama Press, 2011), 343 -Address of George Williamson, Commissioner from Louisiana to the Texas Secession Convention,” Causes of the Civil War website, last modified June 8, 2017, accessed October 23, 2020 -Rasmussen, American Uprising Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple
What is Weathering? Crash Course Geography #22 What is Weathering? Crash Course Geography #22
5 months ago En
Weathering breaks down rocks and creates sediments which become the raw materials for other rocks and the formation of our soils. And we call the process of moving that sediment erosion. In today's episode, we're just going to focus on the weathering part. We'll discuss mechanical, chemical, and biological weathering and take you on a tour of some of the landscapes they help shape from landslides and sinkholes to caves! Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto, Michael M. Varughese, Kyle & Katherine Callahan, Laurel A Stevens, Evan Lawrence Henderson, Vincent, Michael Wang,
Women's Experience Under Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #11 Women's Experience Under Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #11
5 months ago En
Slavery was inherently cruel and unjust, and it was cruel and unjust to different people in different ways. Today, Clint Smith teaches you about the experience of enslaved women, and how their experience of slavery was different than men. Women had a unique vantage point to understand slavery, and were particularly vulnerable to some terrible abuses under the institution. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 SOURCES - Samuel H. Williamson & Louis Cain, "Measuring Slavery in 2016 dollars," MeasuringWorth, 2020. -"A Prelude to War: The 1850s." African American Lives: The Struggle for Freedom, by Clayborne Carson et al., Pearson Longman, 2005, pp. 221-222. -Modern History Sourcebook: Sojourner Truth: "Ain't I a Woman?", December 1851 -Quoted in Deborah Gray White, Ar' n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South, rev. ed. (New York: Norton, 1999), 102. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Ap
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives & Hydrolysis Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #31 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives & Hydrolysis Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #31
5 months ago En
Esters have a wide range of uses, from giving perfumes and colognes their fragrances, to preventing diseases like scurvy. Vitamin C, that scurvy preventing antioxidant, is derived from carboxylic acids, a class of organic compounds we’ve already learned a lot about! In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll look at four different carboxylic acid derivatives and their reactivities, react them with nucleophiles, and learn some hydrolysis reaction mechanisms that we can use in our synthesis of penicillin! Music: Vegas Glitz by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4580-vegas-glitz License: https://filmmusic.io/standard-license Episode Sources: Kennedy, J: Common names of carboxylic acids https://jameskennedymonash.wordpress.com/2014/11/26/common-names-of-carboxylic-acids/ Series Penicillin References Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wiley & Sons. Sheehan, J. C. (1982). The enchanted ring: the untold s
Interconversion and Organometallics: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #32 Interconversion and Organometallics: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #32
5 months ago En
We get it, learning so many different organic reactions is probably giving you a headache, but hopefully this episode can help! We’re getting even deeper into carboxylic acid derivatives, some of which are used in common headache relieving painkillers. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn how to convert more reactive carboxylic acid derivatives into less reactive ones, turn carboxylic acids into acid chlorides, reduce carboxylic acid derivatives using metal hydrides, and more! Plus, we’ll get to add the first stage of synthesizing Penicillin V to our Mold Medicine Map! Episode Sources: https://www.worldofmolecules.com/drugs/tylenol.htm https://cen.acs.org/articles/92/i29/Does-Acetaminophen-Work-Researchers-Still.html https://pa01000125.schoolwires.net/cms/lib/PA01000125/Centricity/Domain/366/Chap14%20Ester%20Amide.pdf Gates, M., & Tschudi, G. (1956). The synthesis of morphine. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78(7), 1380-1393. Seavill, P. W., & Wilden, J. D. (2020). The pr
What Are Volcanoes? Crash Course Geography #21 What Are Volcanoes? Crash Course Geography #21
6 months ago En
Today we’re going to take a closer look at these beautiful but dangerous landforms as we explore the different types of volcanoes and trace the patterns of volcanic activity around the world. From the explosive power of a stratovolcano like Mount St. Helens in Washington to the quiet but consistent eruptions of a shield volcano like Kīlauea in Hawaiʻi, volcanoes are like windows into the center of the Earth helping us understand more about how it all works. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Michael M. Varughese, Ben Follows, Kyle & Katherine Callahan, Laurel A Stevens, Chris Routh, Evan Lawrence Henderson, Vincent, Emilee M
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793: Crash Course Black American History #10 The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793: Crash Course Black American History #10
6 months ago En
One of the ways that the US Constitution baked the institution of slavery into the very core of the new United States was through the fugitive slave clause. The clause required that people who escaped slavery be returned to their enslavers. In parts of the US that didn't want slavery, the clause sometimes went unenforced. Today we'll learn about how Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 to enforce that clause, how enslavers throughout the country used that rule, and the long-term effects of this law. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for ever
How Does the Earth Create Different Landforms? Crash Course Geography #20 How Does the Earth Create Different Landforms? Crash Course Geography #20
6 months ago En
Cliffs and canyons, beaches and dunes, floodplains and river valleys, plateaus and mountains — these are all products of a restless Earth. In today’s episode we’re going to take a closer look at how landforms greatly influence how people live and derive meaning and a sense of place. From the hills and ponds we see everyday to impressive landscapes like Uluru in Australia or the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia they all have stories to tell. SOURCES Petersen, et al 2011. Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Cengage Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Strahler, A. 2011. Introducing Physical Geography. 5th Edition.Wiley and Sons. Knox and Marston. 2016. Human Geography Place and Regions in a Global Context. 7th Edition. Pearson Huggett, R.J. 2007. Fundamentals of Geomorphology. 2nd Edition. Routledge Luhr, J.F. 2003. Earth. Dorling Kindersley. Zurick D and Karan P.P. 1999. Himalaya Life on the Edge of the World. John Hopkins Press. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/how-hannibal-cro
Frontiers in Zoology: Crash Course Zoology #14 Frontiers in Zoology: Crash Course Zoology #14
6 months ago En
In this final episode of Crash Course Zoology, we review everything we've learned and even look at advances in the field that took place just in the 14 weeks of this course! Rae also shares various ways YOU can get involved in the zoology field! Special thanks to Angela Chuang, Jason Dinh, Annika May Carlson, Meghan Yap-Chiongco, Trinity Walls, Sydney Hollasch, Helene Forney, Rebekah Pettit, Alonso Delgado, and Emily Thompson for the use of their images. And a thank you to everyone who submitted their images and footage as well. We wish we could have used them all! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous
The Plate Tectonics Revolution: Crash Course Geography #19 The Plate Tectonics Revolution: Crash Course Geography #19
6 months ago En
Today we're going to tell the story of a quiet revolution in the 1960s that shifted our entire understanding of how the Earth works. We currently believe that the Earth's broken outer shell rises from the mantle and folds back in - kind of like a dance of creative destruction and reconstruction - giving us our continents and oceans, mountains and valleys, volcanoes, and earthquakes. And it would take a group of scientists all over the world to get us this grand unifying theory of plate tectonics. SOURCES Petersen, et al 2011. Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Cengage Christopherson, R.W. 2010. Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall. 6th edition Strahler, A. 2011. Introducing Physical Geography. Wiley and Sons. 5th Edition http://metrocosm.com/earth-19000bc-3000ad.html https://dinosaurpictures.org/ancient-earth#750 https://earthsky.org/space/earth-as-seen-from-space-500-million-years-ago https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/lewis_clark01/background/seafloormapping/seafloormapping.html https://www.natio
Loading...