CrashCourse
At Crash Course, we believe that high quality educational videos should be available to everyone for free! Subscribe for weekly videos from our current courses! Right now, we're producing Organic Chemistry and European History. We also recently teamed up with Arizona State University to bring you two more courses: Study Hall Composition, and Study Hall Algebra. The Crash Course team has produced more than 32 courses on a wide variety of subjects, including organic chemistry, literature, world history, biology, philosophy, theater, ecology, and many more! Help support Crash Course at Patreon.com/CrashCourse.

1287 videos
Aromaticity, Hückel's Rule, and Chemical Equivalence in NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #36 Aromaticity, Hückel's Rule, and Chemical Equivalence in NMR: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #36
8 hours ago En
If you’ve been paying attention so far in this series, you’ve probably heard of benzene. This molecule is flat, cyclic, and belongs to a special class of compounds known as aromatics. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about aromatic compounds, their properties, reactivities, and some of the most important examples, like benzene. We’ll also revisit our friend NMR, and hear about some dubious science history! Episode Sources: Browne, M., 1988. THE BENZENE RING: DREAM ANALYSIS. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/1988/08/16/science/the-benzene-ring-dream-analysis.html Lonsdale Kathleen, 1929. The structure of the benzene ring in C6(CH3)6. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A123494–515 http://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1929.0081 Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United States, 2014. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warr
Why Do We Have Fewer Outbreaks? Epidemiological Transition: Crash Course Outbreak Science #3 Why Do We Have Fewer Outbreaks? Epidemiological Transition: Crash Course Outbreak Science #3
2 days ago En
We take it for granted that society gets better at tackling infectious disease over time, but when you really think about it the progress we’ve made in the last century is pretty amazing. How does that much progress happen so quickly? That’s what we’ll set out to answer in this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science as we look at the theory of epidemiological transition. This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/768249 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690264/#:~:text=The%20classical%20model%20describes%20the,modernization%20in%20most%20western%20European https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2805833/ https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/updating-the-epidemiological-transition-model/D7933473050
Natural Hazards: Crash Course Geography #27 Natural Hazards: Crash Course Geography #27
3 days ago En
Today we wrap up the first half of our series on physical geography by taking a closer look at natural hazards - which are physical processes like heat waves and cyclones, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and floods and droughts. And when these natural events cause significant harm to humans, we call them natural disasters. So today we'll explore the ways geographers analyze and track these events, and take a closer look at the human impact of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and The Boxing Day Tsunami on the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Shannon McCone, Amelia Ryczek, Ken Davidian, Brian
Black Americans in the Civil War: Crash Course Black American History #18 Black Americans in the Civil War: Crash Course Black American History #18
6 days ago En
The American Civil War is one of the deadliest in US History, and let's just get this out of the way: it was about slavery. In the more than 150 years since the end of the Civil War, there have been many attempts to litigate the reasons for the war, but the reality is that the root of the division was slavery. As such, Black Americans experience in that war is particularly interesting. Today, we'll learn about how Black people fought and participated in the war, the Emancipation Proclamation, and lots more. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources and References -Deborah Gray White, Mia Bay, and Waldo E. Martin, Freedom on My Mind : A History of African Americans, with Documents Second edition. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2017) -Kevin Levin, Searching for Bl
How Do Outbreaks Start? Pathogens and Immunology: Crash Course Outbreak Science #2 How Do Outbreaks Start? Pathogens and Immunology: Crash Course Outbreak Science #2
1 week ago En
You may not realize it, but your body is like a fortress, designed to defend you from tiny foreign invaders known as pathogens. This seemingly small world is actually super diverse, and sometimes super dangerous too. That’s why in this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we’re going to get familiar with all different types of pathogens like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and more! This episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Sources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209710/#:~:text=Microorganisms%20capable%20of%20causing%20disease,be%20transmitted%E2%80%94by%20several%20routes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4788752/#:~:text=Viruses%20initially%20stick%20to%20cell,the%20cell%20membrane%20(4). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330701/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292075
What Are Glaciers? Crash Course Geography #26 What Are Glaciers? Crash Course Geography #26
1 week ago En
Today we’re going to talk about glaciers. These behemoth globs of compressed ice and snow moving across the land created fertile soils and physical features while also serving as frozen time capsules. They recorded both Earth’s climatic history over several million years and contain clues to its climatic future. By now we hope it’s become clear that the Earth is ever-changing, and glaciers have often been a crucial part of that change from the erratic boulders found in New York City’s Central Park to the beautiful spire of the Matterhorn in the Alps on the border of the Italy and Switzerland. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever
Frederick Douglass: Crash Course Black American History #17 Frederick Douglass: Crash Course Black American History #17
1 week ago En
Clint Smith teaches you about one of the most famous writers, orators, and advocates of the 19th century, Frederick Douglass. Douglass was born in slavery, escaped to the North, and became one of the most influential people of his time. Douglass wrote about the experience of slavery in a way that captured the attention of people throughout the world, and his work and influence helped directly in the struggle to abolish slavery and achieve emancipation. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources and References -David Blight, Frederick Douglass: Prophet of Freedom (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2018) -Christopher James Bonner, Remaking The Republic: Black Politics and the Creation of American Citizenship (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2020) -Kellie
Polymer Chemistry: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #35 Polymer Chemistry: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #35
2 weeks ago En
So far in this series we’ve focused on molecules with tens of atoms in them, but in organic chemistry molecules can get way bigger! Polymers are molecules that contain hundreds, thousands, or even millions of identical subunits. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll look at different examples of addition and condensation polymers, learn about different types of polymerization, and see how a polymer’s morphology affects its properties. Plus we’ll see how some of the polymers we encounter every day were discovered by accident! Episode Sources: https://www.sciencehistory.org/historical-profile/roy-j-plunkett https://www.compoundchem.com/2015/10/15/superglue/ https://www.pslc.ws/macrog/crystal.htm https://omnexus.specialchem.com/polymer-properties/properties/glass-transition-temperature Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B. L., Ansyln, E. V., Foote, C., Organic Chemistry; 8th ed.; Cengage Learning, Boston, 2018. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc., United S
What Is Outbreak Science? Crash Course Outbreak Science #1 What Is Outbreak Science? Crash Course Outbreak Science #1
2 weeks ago En
Infectious disease has affected the human species for as long as we’ve existed, but in that time we’ve come a long way in understanding what they are and how they spread. In this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, we’ll introduce some of the core concepts that will help us throughout this series as we discover the effects of infectious disease, from the microscopic, to the societal level. Thanks for watching this episode of Crash Course Outbreak Science, which was produced by Complexly in partnership with Operation Outbreak and the Sabeti Lab at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard—with generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. If you want to help keep Crash Course free for everyone, forever, you can join our community on Patreon. Sources: https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13017672-000-latin-america-struggles-as-cholera-spreads/ https://web.archive.org/web/20120831015036/http://www.nytimes.com/1992/03/10/world/latin-nations-feud-over-cholera-outbreak.html https://www.fronti
The Dred Scott Decision: Crash Course Black American History #16 The Dred Scott Decision: Crash Course Black American History #16
2 weeks ago En
In this video, we'll learn about the US Supreme Court decision in Scott vs Sanford, handed down in 1857. The case ultimately rejected the idea that Black people could be citizens of the United States, and this helped entrench the institution of slavery, denied a host of rights to a huge number of people (both enslaved and free), and increased the tensions between abolitionists and enslavers. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES https://www.britannica.com/event/Missouri-Compromise Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics (Oxford University Press, 1978). https://www.npr.org/2020/09/18/914465793/ice-a-whistleblower-and-forced-sterilization https://www.aclu.org/news/immigrants-rights/immigration-detention-and-coerced-sterilization-history-tragically-repeats-itself/ The Historical Construction of Race and Citizenship in the United States - https://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpAuxPages)
Crash Course Outbreak Science Preview Crash Course Outbreak Science Preview
3 weeks ago En
Welcome to Crash Course Outbreak Science! What do pathogens actually do to us that makes us sick? Why do societies respond to outbreaks of infectious diseases the way they do? How can we stop the next outbreak? These are the kinds of questions we'll ask ourselves and answer as best we can over the next 15 episodes of this series. Join us and Dr. Pardis Sabeti as we look at outbreaks from the microscopic level, to the big picture, so that we can work together to stop future outbreaks and create a healthier future for everyone. *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto, Mic
Groundwater & the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Crash Course Geography #25 Groundwater & the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Crash Course Geography #25
3 weeks ago En
The Arab-Israeli Conflict, which is the ongoing political tensions and military conflicts between Arab nations and Israel, is one of the longest and most complex disputes in the world. Today, we're going to focus on more recent events, and look specifically at the role groundwater plays in preventing a pathway to peace between Israelis and Palestinians. Groundwater makes up the largest portion of available fresh water on Earth, but as we'll see, access isn't always fair and its availability doesn't always line up neatly with political borders. *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole,
The Underground Railroad: Crash Course Black American History #15 The Underground Railroad: Crash Course Black American History #15
3 weeks ago En
Escape was one of the many ways that enslaved people resisted their captivity in the system of American slavery. The Underground Railroad was not literally a railroad. It was a network of people, routes, and safe houses that helped people escape from slavery in the south to freedom in the north. Today we'll talk about the origins of the Underground Railroad, the systems that helped people escape, and the people who helped along the route. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto
Retrosynthesis and Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #34 Retrosynthesis and Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #34
4 weeks ago En
As we construct more complex organic molecules, it can start to feel like decrypting a complex code. Organic synthesis takes simple starting materials, and turns them into complex structures, and reverse engineering can help us figure out the steps in between. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll practice multistep synthesis problems, learn about how we can use retro synthesis to make more complex molecules, and use liquid-liquid extraction to separate solvents. As always, we’ll work through examples and connect everything back to our Mold Medicine Map! Music: Plucky Daisy by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4226-plucky-daisy License: https://filmmusic.io/standard-license Series Penicillin References: Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wiley & Sons. Sheehan, J. C. (1982). The enchanted ring: the untold story of penicillin. Primary literature for Sheehan’s penicillin synthesis: Sheehan, J.C. &
Why Does Jakarta Flood So Easily? Crash Course Geography #24 Why Does Jakarta Flood So Easily? Crash Course Geography #24
1 month ago En
Today we're going to talk about how and why floods happen both in spite of, and because of, us. Specifically, we'll take a closer look at the island of Java, and its largest city, Jakarta, and explain the factors that lead to serious flooding almost annually. We'll also show you how mangroves can help protect us from flooding, and how wetlands along floodplains act like the kidneys of the Earth filtering out impurities and pollutants. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto, Michael M. Varughese, Kyle & Katherine Callahan, Laurel A Stevens, Evan Lawrence Henderson, Vince
Maria Stewart: Crash Course Black American History #14 Maria Stewart: Crash Course Black American History #14
1 month ago En
Clint Smith teaches you about Maria Stewart, a Black woman who lived in the 19th century, and was a pioneering abolitionist, writer, and orator. When studying history, we often focus on the big picture and world-changing events. Today we'll focus on how one woman flouted the social conventions of her time and place and became a notable public speaker, thinker, and writer. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES -http://www.davidwalkermemorial.org/david-walker -https://time.com/5786710/kimberle-crenshaw-intersectionality/ -https://www.law.columbia.edu/news/archive/kimberle-crenshaw-intersectionality-more-two-decades-later -Kimberle Crenshaw, Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics 31. -Maria W. Stewart, America’s First Black Woman Political Writer: Essays and Speeches, edited and introduced by Marilyn Richardson (Bloomington: Indian
The Rise of Cotton: Crash Course Black American History #13 The Rise of Cotton: Crash Course Black American History #13
1 month ago En
Cotton is everywhere in our modern world, and it became a hugely important crop in the 19th century United States. Cotton was a huge economic boon to the US, and much of that wealth was built on the backs of enslaved laborers. And cotton didn't only benefit the states where slavery was legal. While cotton was mainly grown in the southern states, much of that cotton was processed in northern textile mills. Today we'll learn about the growth of the cotton industry, who benefitted from it, and who was left out. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES -Edward E. Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. New York: Basic Books, 2014. -Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History. New York: Penguin Books, 2014. -Eugene Dattel, Cotton and Race in the Making of America: The Human Costs of Economic Power. Lanham, MD: Ivan R Dee, 2009. -Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins
Chemoselectivity and Protecting Groups: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #33 Chemoselectivity and Protecting Groups: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #33
1 month ago En
Things have been getting more and more complicated here in Crash Course Organic Chemistry, and as we deal with more complex molecules, parts of molecules we don’t want to react will start reacting along with the parts that we do. Luckily, we have protecting groups, which act like a chemical disguise and help us control how molecules react. In this episode, we’ll look at what makes a good protecting group, as well as identify some good protecting groups for different functional groups. We’ll also see what role protecting groups play in the synthesis of penicillin! Series Penicillin References: Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wiley & Sons. Sheehan, J. C. (1982). The enchanted ring: the untold story of penicillin. Primary literature for Sheehan’s penicillin synthesis: Sheehan, J.C. & Izzo, P.T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1948, 70, 1985; Sheehan, J.C. & Izzo, P.T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1949, 71, 4059; Sheehan, J.C. & Bose A.K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1950,
How Rivers Shape the Landscape: Crash Course Geography #23 How Rivers Shape the Landscape: Crash Course Geography #23
1 month ago En
Today we're going to talk about rivers and how these dynamic, delicate, yet powerful systems are able to constantly change the landscape. We'll focus on the Zambezi River in Southeast Africa following its main features from the tributaries that feed into it in the upper course, to the deafening wonder that is Mosi-oa-Tunya waterfall (also called as Victoria Falls) in the middle course, all the way to the delta as the river flows into the Indian Ocean. Along the way, we'll teach you all about why rivers meander, why some rivers have rapids and others are calm, and how we talk about classify and river systems more broadly. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Cou
The Louisiana Rebellion of 1811: Crash Course Black American History #12 The Louisiana Rebellion of 1811: Crash Course Black American History #12
1 month ago En
Uprisings of enslaved people in the United States were not uncommon, and they had a big influence on how the institution of slavery evolved. One uprising that gets less attention, historically, is the German Coast Uprising that took place in Louisiana in 1811. A group of enslaved people rebelled, and the after effects would be felt in Louisiana and throughout the nation for decades. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Sources -https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2020/07/12/haiti-was-first-nation-permanently-ban-slavery/ -Philippe R. Girard, The Slaves Who Defeated Napolean, (Tuscaloosa: Univ. of Alabama Press, 2011), 343 -Address of George Williamson, Commissioner from Louisiana to the Texas Secession Convention,” Causes of the Civil War website, last modified June 8, 2017, accessed October 23, 2020 -Rasmussen, American Uprising Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple
What is Weathering? Crash Course Geography #22 What is Weathering? Crash Course Geography #22
1 month ago En
Weathering breaks down rocks and creates sediments which become the raw materials for other rocks and the formation of our soils. And we call the process of moving that sediment erosion. In today's episode, we're just going to focus on the weathering part. We'll discuss mechanical, chemical, and biological weathering and take you on a tour of some of the landscapes they help shape from landslides and sinkholes to caves! Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Toni Miles, Oscar Pinto-Reyes, Erin Nicole, Steve Segreto, Michael M. Varughese, Kyle & Katherine Callahan, Laurel A Stevens, Evan Lawrence Henderson, Vincent, Michael Wang,
Women's Experience Under Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #11 Women's Experience Under Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #11
1 month ago En
Slavery was inherently cruel and unjust, and it was cruel and unjust to different people in different ways. Today, Clint Smith teaches you about the experience of enslaved women, and how their experience of slavery was different than men. Women had a unique vantage point to understand slavery, and were particularly vulnerable to some terrible abuses under the institution. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 SOURCES - Samuel H. Williamson & Louis Cain, "Measuring Slavery in 2016 dollars," MeasuringWorth, 2020. -"A Prelude to War: The 1850s." African American Lives: The Struggle for Freedom, by Clayborne Carson et al., Pearson Longman, 2005, pp. 221-222. -Modern History Sourcebook: Sojourner Truth: "Ain't I a Woman?", December 1851 -Quoted in Deborah Gray White, Ar' n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South, rev. ed. (New York: Norton, 1999), 102. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Ap
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives & Hydrolysis Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #31 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives & Hydrolysis Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #31
1 month ago En
Esters have a wide range of uses, from giving perfumes and colognes their fragrances, to preventing diseases like scurvy. Vitamin C, that scurvy preventing antioxidant, is derived from carboxylic acids, a class of organic compounds we’ve already learned a lot about! In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll look at four different carboxylic acid derivatives and their reactivities, react them with nucleophiles, and learn some hydrolysis reaction mechanisms that we can use in our synthesis of penicillin! Music: Vegas Glitz by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4580-vegas-glitz License: https://filmmusic.io/standard-license Episode Sources: Kennedy, J: Common names of carboxylic acids https://jameskennedymonash.wordpress.com/2014/11/26/common-names-of-carboxylic-acids/ Series Penicillin References Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wiley & Sons. Sheehan, J. C. (1982). The enchanted ring: the untold s
Interconversion and Organometallics: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #32 Interconversion and Organometallics: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #32
1 month ago En
We get it, learning so many different organic reactions is probably giving you a headache, but hopefully this episode can help! We’re getting even deeper into carboxylic acid derivatives, some of which are used in common headache relieving painkillers. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn how to convert more reactive carboxylic acid derivatives into less reactive ones, turn carboxylic acids into acid chlorides, reduce carboxylic acid derivatives using metal hydrides, and more! Plus, we’ll get to add the first stage of synthesizing Penicillin V to our Mold Medicine Map! Episode Sources: https://www.worldofmolecules.com/drugs/tylenol.htm https://cen.acs.org/articles/92/i29/Does-Acetaminophen-Work-Researchers-Still.html https://pa01000125.schoolwires.net/cms/lib/PA01000125/Centricity/Domain/366/Chap14%20Ester%20Amide.pdf Gates, M., & Tschudi, G. (1956). The synthesis of morphine. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78(7), 1380-1393. Seavill, P. W., & Wilden, J. D. (2020). The pr
What Are Volcanoes? Crash Course Geography #21 What Are Volcanoes? Crash Course Geography #21
1 month ago En
Today we’re going to take a closer look at these beautiful but dangerous landforms as we explore the different types of volcanoes and trace the patterns of volcanic activity around the world. From the explosive power of a stratovolcano like Mount St. Helens in Washington to the quiet but consistent eruptions of a shield volcano like Kīlauea in Hawaiʻi, volcanoes are like windows into the center of the Earth helping us understand more about how it all works. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Michael M. Varughese, Ben Follows, Kyle & Katherine Callahan, Laurel A Stevens, Chris Routh, Evan Lawrence Henderson, Vincent, Emilee M
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793: Crash Course Black American History #10 The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793: Crash Course Black American History #10
2 months ago En
One of the ways that the US Constitution baked the institution of slavery into the very core of the new United States was through the fugitive slave clause. The clause required that people who escaped slavery be returned to their enslavers. In parts of the US that didn't want slavery, the clause sometimes went unenforced. Today we'll learn about how Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 to enforce that clause, how enslavers throughout the country used that rule, and the long-term effects of this law. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for ever
How Does the Earth Create Different Landforms? Crash Course Geography #20 How Does the Earth Create Different Landforms? Crash Course Geography #20
2 months ago En
Cliffs and canyons, beaches and dunes, floodplains and river valleys, plateaus and mountains — these are all products of a restless Earth. In today’s episode we’re going to take a closer look at how landforms greatly influence how people live and derive meaning and a sense of place. From the hills and ponds we see everyday to impressive landscapes like Uluru in Australia or the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia they all have stories to tell. SOURCES Petersen, et al 2011. Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Cengage Christopherson, R.W. 2010: Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall Strahler, A. 2011. Introducing Physical Geography. 5th Edition.Wiley and Sons. Knox and Marston. 2016. Human Geography Place and Regions in a Global Context. 7th Edition. Pearson Huggett, R.J. 2007. Fundamentals of Geomorphology. 2nd Edition. Routledge Luhr, J.F. 2003. Earth. Dorling Kindersley. Zurick D and Karan P.P. 1999. Himalaya Life on the Edge of the World. John Hopkins Press. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/how-hannibal-cro
Frontiers in Zoology: Crash Course Zoology #14 Frontiers in Zoology: Crash Course Zoology #14
2 months ago En
In this final episode of Crash Course Zoology, we review everything we've learned and even look at advances in the field that took place just in the 14 weeks of this course! Rae also shares various ways YOU can get involved in the zoology field! Special thanks to Angela Chuang, Jason Dinh, Annika May Carlson, Meghan Yap-Chiongco, Trinity Walls, Sydney Hollasch, Helene Forney, Rebekah Pettit, Alonso Delgado, and Emily Thompson for the use of their images. And a thank you to everyone who submitted their images and footage as well. We wish we could have used them all! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous
The Plate Tectonics Revolution: Crash Course Geography #19 The Plate Tectonics Revolution: Crash Course Geography #19
2 months ago En
Today we're going to tell the story of a quiet revolution in the 1960s that shifted our entire understanding of how the Earth works. We currently believe that the Earth's broken outer shell rises from the mantle and folds back in - kind of like a dance of creative destruction and reconstruction - giving us our continents and oceans, mountains and valleys, volcanoes, and earthquakes. And it would take a group of scientists all over the world to get us this grand unifying theory of plate tectonics. SOURCES Petersen, et al 2011. Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Cengage Christopherson, R.W. 2010. Elemental Geosystems. Prentice Hall. 6th edition Strahler, A. 2011. Introducing Physical Geography. Wiley and Sons. 5th Edition http://metrocosm.com/earth-19000bc-3000ad.html https://dinosaurpictures.org/ancient-earth#750 https://earthsky.org/space/earth-as-seen-from-space-500-million-years-ago https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/lewis_clark01/background/seafloormapping/seafloormapping.html https://www.natio
The US Constitution, 3/5, and the Slave Trade Clause: Crash Course Black American History #9 The US Constitution, 3/5, and the Slave Trade Clause: Crash Course Black American History #9
2 months ago En
The drafting and adoption of the United States Constitution recalled many of the high ideals of liberty and freedom that were espoused during the Revolutionary War. But the compromises that were made to get all of the new states on board to ratify the Constitution undermined those ideals in a lot of ways. Today we'll learn about the 3/5 Clause and the Fugitive Slave clause, which entrenched the institution of slavery in the fundamental law of the new United States. VIDEO SOURCES -David Waldstreicher, From Revolution to Ratification (New York: Hill & Wang, 2009)John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 3rd ed. (New York: Knopf, 1967). Interpretation: The Slave Trade Clause | The National Constitution Center, , https://constitutioncenter.org/interactive-constitution/interpretation/article-i/clauses/761 (last visited Nov 13, 2020). -Article 1 Section 9 Clause 1 | Constitution Annotated | Congress.gov | Library of Congress, , https://constitution.congress.gov/browse/article-1
What is a Species? Crash Course Zoology #13 What is a Species? Crash Course Zoology #13
2 months ago En
Today, in the penultimate episode of Crash Course Zoology, we're going to use everything we've learned so far to try and figure out what a "species" even is anyway! As you'll see, the incredible diversity of animals makes it really difficult to fit animals into neat categories so scientists have employed a variety of approaches to categorizing animals. Check out Bizarre Beast's Episode on the Western Fence Lizard! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGgg50OOHBo ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Michael M. Varughese, Ben Foll
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives & Hydrolysis Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #31 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives & Hydrolysis Reactions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #31
2 months ago En
Esters have a wide range of uses, from giving perfumes and colognes their fragrances, to preventing diseases like scurvy. Vitamin C, that scurvy preventing antioxidant, is derived from carboxylic acids, a class of organic compounds we’ve already learned a lot about! In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll look at four different carboxylic acid derivatives and their reactivities, react them with nucleophiles, and learn some hydrolysis reaction mechanisms that we can use in our synthesis of penicillin! Music: Vegas Glitz by Kevin MacLeod Link: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/4580-vegas-glitz License: https://filmmusic.io/standard-license Episode Sources: Kennedy, J: Common names of carboxylic acids https://jameskennedymonash.wordpress.com/2014/11/26/common-names-of-carboxylic-acids/ Series Penicillin References Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wiley & Sons. Sheehan, J. C. (1982). The enchanted ring: the untold s
The American Revolution: Crash Course Black American History #8 The American Revolution: Crash Course Black American History #8
2 months ago En
When we talk about the American Revolution and Revolutionary War, the discussion often involves lofty ideals like liberty, and freedom, and justice. The Declaration of Independence even opens with the idea that "all men are created equal." But it turns out, the war wasn't being fought on behalf of "all men." The war was mainly about freedom for white colonists, and liberty, justice, and the pursuit of happiness didn't apply to the Black people living in the British colonies. During the war, Black people took up arms on both sides of the conflict, and today we're going to learn how and why they participated. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Sources and References -Sylvia R. Frey, Water From the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991). -Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, debtors, slaves, and the making
Phylogenetic Mysteries: Crash Course Zoology #12 Phylogenetic Mysteries: Crash Course Zoology #12
2 months ago En
In today’s episode of Crash Course Zoology we’re going to solve some phylogenetic mysteries! There are so many more questions we have yet to answer in Zoology so grab some fossils, fire up the DNA sequences, and bring your best hypothesis as we try to figure out where all the baby eels are, explain why spiders seem so lonely, and decide once and for all if horseshoe crabs are arachnids! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Michael M. Varughese, Ben Follows, Kyle & Katherine Callahan, Laurel A Stevens, Chris Routh, Evan Lawrence
What Are Rocks and How Do They Form? Crash Course Geography #18 What Are Rocks and How Do They Form? Crash Course Geography #18
2 months ago En
From towering mountains to pebbles along a river, the Earth is made of a huge variety of rocks. In today's episode, we're going to follow the rock cycle of a piece of granite in the Himalayan mountains, and as you'll see, every rock has a far-reaching story to tell often millions of years in the making. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Vincent, Emilee Murphy, Michael Wang, Jordan willis, Krystle Young, Michael Dowling, Alexis B, Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harrison, Mark & Susan Billian, Junrong Eric Zhu, Alan Bridgeman, Rachel Creager, Jennifer Smith, Matt Curls, Tim Kwis
Parasites: Crash Course Zoology #11 Parasites: Crash Course Zoology #11
3 months ago En
Nearly every environment on Earth — and that includes animals — is home to some kind of parasite. Today we’re going to talk about parasites not just because they’re an essential part of their ecosystems, but also because by studying them we can learn more about their hosts and even their shared evolution and ecology. So stick with us, this one is going to get a little weird! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Vincent, Emilee Murphy, Michael Wang, Jordan willis, Krystle Young, Michael Dowling, Alexis B, Rene Duedam, Burt Humb
Carboxylic Acids: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #30 Carboxylic Acids: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #30
3 months ago En
What do the smells of feet, armpits, vomit, and goats all have in common? (Besides being super gross…) Carboxylic acids! Despite being responsible for some of our least favorite odors, carboxylic acids are also super useful in organic chemistry. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll review carboxylic acid synthesis and nomenclature, react carboxylic acids to form salts, esters, and acid chlorides, and start our journey towards synthesizing one of the most important organic chemicals in medicine, penicillin! Episode Sources: Kennedy, J: Common names of carboxylic acids https://jameskennedymonash.wordpress.com/2014/11/26/common-names-of-carboxylic-acids/ Thomas, J: Mouldy Mary and the cantaloupe https://mcdreeamiemusings.com/blog/2019/8/11/1013vvme5498w77bglwoh5ck4exowx C H Arnaud, C&EN: Penicillin https://cen.acs.org/articles/83/i25/Penicillin.html Series Penicillin References: Nicolaou, K. C., & Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in total synthesis: targets, strategies, methods. John Wil
Phillis Wheatley: Crash Course Black American History #7 Phillis Wheatley: Crash Course Black American History #7
3 months ago En
Despite all the hardship of being a Black person in Colonial America, some Black people were able to defy the harsh conditions and create art. Today we're learning about a teenager who attained literacy and wrote poems that reached a large slice of the population and helped changed the ways that white Colonists thought about Black people. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse VIDEO SOURCES -Catherine Adams and Elizabeth H. Pleck, Love of Freedom: Black Women in Colonial and Revolutionary New England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). -Vincent Carretta, Phillis Wheatley: Biography of a Genius in Bondage (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011). -Woo
Animals Working Together: Crash Course Zoology #10 Animals Working Together: Crash Course Zoology #10
3 months ago En
Check-out Bizarre Beast to learn more about the Man O'War and other bizarre animals: https://www.youtube.com/bizarrebeasts Social behavior like caring for our young, fighting off rivals, joining a pack, or even fusing together into a huge super animal like the Power Rangers, adds a whole other layer of complexity to the lives of animals out there. And it even raises questions about being, culture, and what it means to be an individual. So today, we're going to dive into the amazing ways animals interact with other animals, live a day in the life of the Portuguese Man O'War, and learn how these complex social interactions can go way beyond anything humans are capable of! Bizarre Beasts' Man O'War video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2ph_FeB7d8 ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices:
What is Soil (and Why is it Important)?: Crash Course Geography #17 What is Soil (and Why is it Important)?: Crash Course Geography #17
3 months ago En
Soil brings together all four spheres of physical geography, and understanding soil composition is kind of like baking! So in today's episode, we're going to show you how to create the perfect soil cake, examine its different soil horizons, and then take you on a trip along the 20th meridian from the Congo to northern Europe to show you how the composition of soil varies dramatically with the environment. Soils are the foundation of life on Earth, from the local ecosystems of plants and animals to the crops we grow and food we eat, so it is up to us to care for it as we decide how to manage our land and resources. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course fr
The Stono Rebellion: Crash Course Black American History #6 The Stono Rebellion: Crash Course Black American History #6
3 months ago En
Enslaved people resisted their condition in a range of different ways. Oftentimes those ways were small and personal. There were also times when that resistance took on larger, more dramatic forms, like with slave uprisings and rebellions. Today, we'll learn about the Stono Rebellion, which was an uprising led by enslaved people in South Carolina in 1784. We'll also talk about ways that enslaved people resisted in general and methods like enforced illiteracy used by those who sought to keep people in bondage. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is available now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for ever
Reproduction: Crash Course Zoology #9 Reproduction: Crash Course Zoology #9
3 months ago En
Today we're (finally) going to talk about animal babies! But more than just puppies and piglets we're going to be looking at their genes. Sexual reproduction is part of the very definition of what it means to be an animal and as you'll see life has found a variety of methods to pass down genetic information. We'll also discuss the differences between sex and gender, take a closer look at sex determination systems, examine how same-sex behavior happens all across the animal kingdom, and live a day-in-the-life of the serially hermaphroditic clownfish! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ *** Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contri
Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions - Hydrates, Acetals, & Imines: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #29 Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions - Hydrates, Acetals, & Imines: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #29
3 months ago En
We’ve already learned the basics of carbonyl chemistry and talked about how we can synthesize aldehydes and ketones, but there’s still so much more to learn, like the role carbonyl groups play in reactions involving sedatives! In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry we’re diving deeper into aldehydes and ketones by focusing on addition reactions of oxygen and nitrogen based nucleophiles. We’ll cover hydrates, acetals and hemiacetals, imines and enamines, and more! Episode Sources: io9. 2020. This Is The Drug In The Rolling Stones' Song "Mother's Little Helper". [online] Available at: https://io9.gizmodo.com/this-is-the-drug-in-the-rolling-stones-song-mothers-li-1693032181 Bionity.com. 2020. Mickey_Finn_(Drugs). [online] Available at: https://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Mickey_Finn_%28drugs%29.html#The_Chicago_bartender_Michael_.22Mickey.22_Finn Chm.bris.ac.uk. 2020. Ninhydrin - Molecule Of The Month - April 2018. [online] Available at: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/ninhydrin/ninhydrinh.htm E
The Germantown Petition Against Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #5 The Germantown Petition Against Slavery: Crash Course Black American History #5
3 months ago En
In 1688, in Pennsylvania, a group of four men created the Germantown Petition, which made the case that slavery was immoral, and that it was inconsistent with Christian beliefs in general, and Quaker beliefs specifically. While the petition wasn't ultimately adopted by the Quaker hierarchy, examining the document and its authors' goals gives us a better insight into slavery in the colonies and some of the earliest organized attempts at abolition. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed is out now! https://bookshop.org/a/3859/9780316492935 Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Vincent, Emilee Murphy, Michael Wang, Jordan willis,
Ancestral & Weird Senses: Crash Course Zoology #8 Ancestral & Weird Senses: Crash Course Zoology #8
3 months ago En
Today, we're going to talk about one of the earliest animal senses, one that every life form we've ever found seems to have -- chemosensation -- or our sense of taste and smell. We'll discuss how animals use these senses to explore their environment and communicate, and how that pair of nostrils of yours is an example of convergent evolution. Also, before we wrap up our discussion of animal senses we're going to talk about a couple so specialized that seem straight from the pages of comic books -- the ability to sense electric and magnetic fields! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contribution
Population & Food: Crash Course Geography #16 Population & Food: Crash Course Geography #16
3 months ago En
Today we’re going to talk about the link between population and food energy. As the world's population keeps growing, finding ways to provide enough food and water for everyone while supporting a sustainable environment can be tricky! We'll take a closer look at food chains and how energy is transferred between different trophic levels, follow the trends in human consumption as incomes rise, and talk about the two types of overpopulation as they're related to the planet's carrying capacity. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Vincent, Emilee Murphy, Michael Wang, Jordan willis, Krystle Young, Michael Dowling, Alexis B, Rene D
Slave Codes: Crash Course Black American History #4 Slave Codes: Crash Course Black American History #4
3 months ago En
Slave codes were a method of protecting the investment of white enslavers in the Colonies by restricting the lives of enslaved people in almost every imaginable way. The codes restricted enslaved people’s ability to move around, or engage in commerce that could make them financially independent - they restricted the very opportunities that would allow them to live with even relative freedom. Today, we'll learn about how Colonies put laws in place to restrict the movement and freedoms of both enslaved people and free Black people alike. Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Check out Clint's book: https://bookshop.org/books/how-the-word-is-passed-a-reckoning-with-the-history-of-slavery-across-america/9780316492935 Thanks to the following patrons for thei
How Animals Hear: Crash Course Zoology #7 How Animals Hear: Crash Course Zoology #7
3 months ago En
Today we're going to talk about what an ear even is, how ears have evolved, how they work, and some of the cool ways animals have tweaked their ears to work for their lifestyle. So perk up whatever you use for hearing because we're going to be sending vibrations your way for the next 10ish minutes! ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? Learn more about Rae here! https://www.raewynngrant.com​​ Watch our videos and review your learning with the Crash Course App! Download here for Apple Devices: https://apple.co/3d4eyZo Download here for Android Devices: https://bit.ly/2SrDulJ Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Alexis B, Rene Duedam, Burt Humburg, Aziz, Nick, DAVID MORTON HUDSON, Perry Joyce, Scott Harrison, Mark & Susan Billian, Junrong Eric Zhu, Alan Bridgeman, Jennifer Smith, Matt Curls, Tim Kwist, J
Organometallic Reagents and Carbanions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #28 Organometallic Reagents and Carbanions: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #28
4 months ago En
Have you ever wondered why the gas station has “unleaded fuel” but there isn’t a “leaded” option? The answer has to do with a chemical called tetraethyl lead, which is an organometallic compound, or an organic compound with a carbon-metal bond. In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’ll learn all about organometallic compounds, including what they are and what kind of reactions we see them in. But beware! This class of compounds may be super useful, but also has a dark side. Episode Sources: Lowe, D., 2009. Things I Won't Work With: Straight Dimethyl Zinc. [online] In the Pipeline. Available at: https://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2009/10/23/things_i_wont_work_with_straight_dimethyl_zinc [Accessed 4 November 2020]. Gilman, H., Jones, R.G. and Woods, L.A., 1952. The preparation of methylcopper and some observations on the decomposition of organocopper compounds. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 17(12), pp.1630-1634, DOI: 10.1021/jo50012a009 Series Sources: Brown, W. H., Iverson, B.
Elizabeth Key: Crash Course Black American History #3 Elizabeth Key: Crash Course Black American History #3
4 months ago En
The legal system can seem like a complicated tangle of arcane rules and loopholes, and it can sometimes seem like it is designed to confuse. But it is possible, with the right application, for the legal system to rectify injustices. Today we're going to tell you about one instance of this, the story of Elizabeth Key, who in 1665 won her freedom in a court in Virginia. Clint's book, How the Word is Passed: https://bookshop.org/books/how-the-word-is-passed-a-reckoning-with-the-history-of-slavery-across-america/9780316492935 VIDEO SOURCES Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1998). TAUNYA LOVELL BANKS, Dangerous Woman: Elizabeth Key’s Freedom Suit - Subjecthood and Racialized Identity in Seventeenth Century Colonial Virginia (2008), https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=672121 (last visited Aug 20, 2020). Leslie Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1629-1863 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
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