MinuteEarth
Science and stories about our awesome planet! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia, Sarah Berman, Jasper Palfree, Melissa Hayes and Julián Gómez. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder. MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC

239 videos
Dogs vs Cats: The Diversity Paradox Dogs vs Cats: The Diversity Paradox
1 week ago En
To make our work paw-sible, join us on Patreon at http://patreon.com/MinuteEarth! Different dogs look incredibly different - but that doesn't mean they are necessarily more diverse. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: phenotypic diversity - the range of different observable traits in a certain organism - for example, size, color, strength, and friendliness. genetic diversity - the variation in the genetic information within and among individuals of a population or species artificial selection (or selective breeding) - a process used by humans to develop new organisms with desirable characteristics SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Hedrick P. & Andersson L. (2011) Are dogs genetically special? Heredity 106: 712–713. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186234/ Lampi S. et al. (2020) Variation in breeding practices and geographic isolation drive subpopulation differentiation, contributing to the loss of genetic diversity within dog breed lineages. Canine Medicine and Genetics 7(1): 1-10. https://cgejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40575-020-00085-9 Lyons L. (2009) Recent advances in cat genetics. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Volume 4. https://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/recent-advances-in-cat-genetics Menotti-Raymond M. et al. (2008) Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds. Genomics 91(1): 1-11. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0888754307002078?via%3Dihub Ostrander E. & Wayne R. (2005) The canine genome. Genome Research 15(12):1706-16. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16339369/ Parker H. et al. (2004) Genetic structure of the purebred domestic dog. Science 304: 1160–4. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/304/5674/1160 Plassais J. et al. (2019) Whole genome sequencing of canids reveals genomic regions under selection and variants influencing morphology. Nature Communications 10. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09373-w
Four Reasons Our Brains Suck At Pandemics Four Reasons Our Brains Suck At Pandemics
2 weeks ago En
You can read Bill & Melinda Gates' 2021 letter at http://gatesnot.es/3opAPWK Certain cognitive biases cause humans to make unsafe decisions in a pandemic, making a terrible disease even worse. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Pandemic: A disease outbreak that spreads across the world. Exponential Growth: Growth that occurs when a value increases in proportion to its current value. Exponential Growth Prediction Bias: An error in prediction that occurs when people underestimate how quickly numbers rise in an exponential system. Optimism Bias: An error that occurs when people underestimate their personal likelihood of experiencing a negative event. Hyperbolic Time Discounting Bias: An error that occurs when people choose smaller rewards in the present over larger awards in the future. Reactance Psychology: An unpleasant motivational state that occurs when a freedom is threatened with elimination. Individualism: The principle of being independent and self-reliant. Collectivism: The principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it. Disinformation: Deliberately false information designed to deceive. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Ritwik Banerjee, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Priyama Majumdar (2021). Exponential-growth prediction bias and compliance with safety measures related to COVID-19. Social Science & Medicine, 268. Retrieved from:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953620306924?via%3Dihub. IHME COVID-19 Forecasting Team., Reiner, R.C., Barber, R.M. et al. (2020). Modeling COVID-19 scenarios for the United States. Nat Med 27, 94–105. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1132-9. Steindl, C., Jonas, E., Sittenthaler, S., Traut-Mattausch, E., & Greenberg, J. (2015). Understanding Psychological Reactance: New Developments and Findings. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 223(4), 205–214. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000222 Joris Lammers, Jan Crusius, and Anne Gast. (2020). Correcting misperceptions of exponential coronavirus growth increases support for social distancing.PNAS. 117:8. Retrieved from: https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/117/28/16264.full.pdf. Alan, M., Marco, M. (2020). How Your Brain Tricks You Into Taking Risks During the Pandemic. ProPublica. Retrieved from: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-your-brain-tricks-you-into-taking-risks-during-the-pandemic/. Bottemanne Hugo, Morlaàs Orphée, Fossati Philippe, Schmidt Liane. (2020). Does the Coronavirus Epidemic Take Advantage of Human Optimism Bias? Frontiers in Psychology. 11. Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02001/full Soofi, M., Najafi, F. & Karami-Matin, B. (2020). Using Insights from Behavioral Economics to Mitigate the Spread of COVID-19. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 18, 345–350. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40258-020-00595-4
How Wildfires Generate "Never-Ending" Storms How Wildfires Generate "Never-Ending" Storms
3 weeks ago En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 Under the right conditions, wildfires can form clouds and generate firestorms, which last far longer than normal thunderstorms. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Pyrocumulonimbus cloud - a type of cumulonimbus cloud that forms that forms above wildfires and even volcanic eruptions, which can create thunderstorms Virga - rain that evaporates before it hits the ground Updraft - upward moving air in a thunderstorm Downdraft - downward moving air in a thunderstorm SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Andreae, Meinrat O., et al. "Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon." science 303.5662 (2004): 1337-1342. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/303/5662/1337.abstract Dowdy, Andrew J., Michael D. Fromm, and Nicholas McCarthy. "Pyrocumulonimbus lightning and fire ignition on Black Saturday in southeast Australia." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122.14 (2017): 7342-7354. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2017JD026577 Dowdy, Andrew J., et al. "Future changes in extreme weather and pyroconvection risk factors for Australian wildfires." Scientific reports 9.1 (2019): 1-11. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-46362-x McKeever, A. (2020, September 24). Fire clouds and fire tornadoes: How wildfires spawn extreme weather. Retrieved January 30, 2021, from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/pyrocumulonimbus-clouds-fire-tornadoes-how-wildfires-spawn-extreme-weather/ Ndalila, Mercy N., et al. "Evolution of a pyrocumulonimbus event associated with an extreme wildfire in Tasmania, Australia." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 20.5 (2020): 1497-1511. https://nhess.copernicus.org/articles/20/1497/2020/ Peterson, David A., et al. "Wildfire-driven thunderstorms cause a volcano-like stratospheric injection of smoke." NPJ climate and atmospheric science 1.1 (2018): 1-8. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41612-018-0039-3
Why Most New Species Are Discovered By Amateurs Why Most New Species Are Discovered By Amateurs
1 month ago En
Check out Terra Mater’s new video about the Skywalker Gibbon - and subscribe - at https://youtube.com/terramaterofficial. Most new species are discovered by amateurs because nowadays non-professionals are actually better suited to the requirements of new species “discovery.” LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Taxonomy: The branch of science concerned with classifying organisms Taxonomic Impediment: The gaps in our taxonomic knowledge and the shortage of trained taxonomists and curators. Amateur Taxonomist: Someone who classifies organisms but is not paid to do so. Malacology: The study of mollusks, including snails and slugs. Type Specimen: The specimen used to officially describe a new species. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts | https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Fontaine, B., van Achterberg, K., Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A., Araujo, R., Asche, M., Aspöck, H., Aspöck, U., Audisio, P., Aukema, B., Bailly, N., Balsamo, M., Bank, R. A., Belfiore, C., Bogdanowicz, W., Boxshall, G., Burckhardt, D., Chylarecki, P., Deharveng, L., Dubois, A., Enghoff, H., … Bouchet, P. (2012). New species in the Old World: Europe as a frontier in biodiversity exploration, a test bed for 21st century taxonomy. PloS one, 7(5), e36881. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036881. Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S, Simpson AGB, Worm B. (2011). How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLOS Biology 9(8): e1001127. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127. Drew, L. (2011). Are We Losing the Science of Taxonomy? As need grows, numbers and training are failing to keep up., BioScience, 61:12 (942–946). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.12.4. Pearson, D., Hamilton, A., Erwin, T. (2011). Recovery Plan for the Endangered Taxonomy Profession. BioScience. 61:1 (58–63). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.1.11. Agnarsson I, Kuntner M. (2007). Taxonomy in a changing world: seeking solutions for a science in crisis. Syst Biol.56(3):531-9. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17562477/. Warren, R. (2019). The New Publish or Perish: Requirements for Jobs and Tenure. ASA Footnotes. $7:1. Retrieved from: https://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/attach/footnotes/footnotes_jan-feb-19.pdf Leber, J. (2019). Species Sleuths: Amateur Naturalists Spark a New Wave of Discovery. Yale Environment 360. Retrieved from: https://e360.yale.edu/features/field-sleuths-the-amateur-naturalists-who-are-discovering-new-species Nuwer, R. (2013). A Rallying Cry For Naming All Species On Earth. New York Times. Retrieved from: https://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/a-rallying-cry-for-naming-all-species-on-earth/ Fraussen, Koen. Personal Communication (2020). Bus Driver, Public Transport Company, Flanders, Belgium. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=author%3A%22Fraussen+Koen%22&btnG=&oq=frauss Mora, Camilo. Personal Communication (2020). Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Hawaii. http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/mora/index.html
Does It Pay To Cheat? Does It Pay To Cheat?
2 months ago En
Thanks Thryve for sponsoring the video. Get 50% off your gut health test at https://trythryve.com/MinuteEarth For some birds, trying to cheat your neighbors into raising your babies is just as much work - and is no more successful - than doing it yourself. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Life history strategy: How organisms allocate energy usage to maximize offspring. Parental Investment: Any non-genetic contributions by parents to help their offspring survive. Brood Parasites: Organisms that rely on others to raise their young. Mafia Behavior: The practice of repeatedly visiting victims to make sure they are complying. Fecundity: The number of offspring produced by an individual over time. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Cameron Duke | Script Writer David Goldenberg | Editor and Narrator Henry Reich | Director Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Antonson, Nick. (2020). Personal Communication. School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Bibby, C. J. (1978). Some breeding statistics of Reed and Sedge Warblers. Bird Study, 25(4), 207–222. https://doi.org/10.1080/00063657809476599 Davies, N. B., & Brooke, M. D. L. (1989). An Experimental Study of Co-Evolution between the Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its Hosts. II. Host Egg Markings, Chick Discrimination and General Discussion. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58(1), 225–236. https://doi.org/10.2307/4996 Fecundity of the Brown-Headed Cowbird in Southern Ontario on JSTOR. (2020). Jstor.org. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4085739?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents Graveland, J. (1999). Effects of Reed Cutting on Density and Breeding Success of Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpacaeus and Sedge Warbler A. schoenobaenus. Journal of Avian Biology, 30(4), 469. https://doi.org/10.2307/3677019 Hoover, J. P., & Robinson, S. K. (2007). Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(11), 4479–4483. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0609710104 Kilner, R. M. (2003). How selfish is a cowbird nestling? Animal Behaviour, 66(3), 569–576. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2003.2204 Krüger, O. (2006). Cuckoos, cowbirds and hosts: adaptations, trade-offs and constraints. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362(1486), 1873–1886. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2006.1849 Long, R. (1975). Mortality of Reed Warblers in Jersey. Ringing & Migration, 1(1), 28–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/03078698.1975.9673695 Oddmund Kleven, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Røskaft, & Honza, M. (2004, August 26). Breeding success of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus parasitising four sympatric species of Acrocephalus... ResearchGate; Wiley. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230023528_Breeding_success_of_common_cuckoos_Cuculus_canorus_parasitising_four_sympatric_species_of_Acrocephalus_warblers The Ecology of Avian Brood Parasitism | Learn Science at Scitable. (2010). Nature.com. https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-ecology-of-avian-brood-parasitism-14724491/#:~:text=Avian%20brood%20parasitism%2C%20or%20the,the%20host%20(Davies%202000)
The Plant That’s Full Of Metal The Plant That’s Full Of Metal
2 months ago En
Special Christmas Deal! Use the link https://www.privateinternetaccess.com/MinuteEarth to support our channel and get 3 years + 2 months free for $79. Just $2.08 for a MONTH! The amount of metal some special plants are able to take up from the soil would be toxic enough to an average plant to kill it several times over. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Hyperaccumulator: a plant capable of growing in metalliferous soils and to accumulate extraordinarily high amounts of heavy metals, far in excess of the levels found in the majority of species, without suffering toxic effects Phytoremediation: the treatment of pollutants or waste (as in contaminated soil or groundwater) by the use of green plants that remove, degrade, or stabilize the undesirable substances (such as toxic metals) Phytomining: the planting (and subsequent harvesting) of vegetation that will selectively concentrate specific metals from the soil into their tissues Euhalophytes: highly salt-tolerant plants capable of diluting salt within their succulent leaves or stems Active transport: the process of transferring substances against a concentration gradient into, out of, and between cells, using energy If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Read about a farm that is harvesting nickel-hoarding plants profitably: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/26/science/metal-plants-farm.html Thank you to Dr. Hendrik Küpper for his expert consultation on the script! Learn more about his research into "metal-hoarding" plants here: https://plantmetals.eu/ SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Andresen, Elisa, Edgar Peiter, and Hendrik Küpper. "Trace metal metabolism in plants." Journal of Experimental Botany 69.5 (2018): 909-954. https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article/69/5/909/4855954 Bouman, Roderick, et al. "Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi: a new nickel hyperaccumulator from Sabah (Borneo Island) with potential for tropical agromining." Botanical studies 59.1 (2018): 9. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40529-018-0225-y Brooks, Robert R., et al. "Phytomining." Trends in plant science 3.9 (1998): 359-362. https://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/comments/S1360-1385(98)01283-7 Chrispeels, Maarten J., Nigel M. Crawford, and Julian I. Schroeder. "Proteins for transport of water and mineral nutrients across the membranes of plant cells." The Plant Cell 11.4 (1999): 661-675. http://www.plantcell.org/content/11/4/661 Favas, Paulo JC, et al. "Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with metals and metalloids at mining areas: potential of native flora." Environmental risk assessment of soil contamination 3 (2014): 485-516. https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/46355.pdf Morgan, J. B. & Connolly, E. L. (2013) Plant-Soil Interactions: Nutrient Uptake. Nature Education Knowledge 4(8):2 https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/plant-soil-interactions-nutrient-uptake-105289112/ Morrissey, Joe, and Mary Lou Guerinot. "Trace elements: too little or too much and how plants cope." F1000 biology reports 1 (2009). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920677/ Rascio, Nicoletta, and Flavia Navari-Izzo. "Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting?." Plant science 180.2 (2011): 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.08.016 Song, Jie, and Baoshan Wang. "Using euhalophytes to understand salt tolerance and to develop saline agriculture: Suaeda salsa as a promising model." Annals of Botany 115.3 (2015): 541-553. http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC4332605&blobtype=pdf Yuan, Fang, et al. "Beneficial Effects of Salt on Halophyte Growth: Morphology, Cells, and Genes." Open Life Sciences 14.1 (2019): 191-200. https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/biol/14/1/article-p191.xml
4 Great Science Stories | MinuteEarth Directors' Picks 4 Great Science Stories | MinuteEarth Directors' Picks
2 months ago En
Get 50% off your first month of any KiwiCo crate by going to http://www.kiwico.com/minuteearth50 The writers/directors at MinuteEarth got together to share some of their favorite MinuteEarth videos. 0:00 - Kate's Intro 0:54 - Why Poor Places are More Diverse | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWVATekt4ZA 4:11 - David's Intro 4:43 - Beer & Biodiversity | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Atg-5Nqszxw 7:12 - Julián's Intro 7:37 - How We Evolved To Browse The Web | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUJqot6fY-U 10:49 - Henry's Intro 11:11 - Why is it Hot Underground? | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mOSpRzW2i_4 13:39 - Outro SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts | https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176
The Best Pokémon (According to Science) The Best Pokémon (According to Science)
3 months ago En
Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula! There’s lots of debate as to which original starter Pokémon is the best fighter among squirtle, bulbasaur, charmander, and pikachu, but only one is the most biologically plausible. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Convergent evolution: the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Satirical scientific article about pikachu: https://www.scq.ubc.ca/upregulated-membrane-expression-of-a-conserved-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nav1-4a-and-electrical-organ-discharge-in-electric-mouse-p-pikachu/ SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Bels, V. L., J. Davenport, and S. Renous. "Drinking and water expulsion in the diamondback turtle Malaclemys terrapin." Journal of Zoology 236.3 (1995): 483-497. Gallant, Jason R., et al. "Genomic basis for the convergent evolution of electric organs." Science 344.6191 (2014): 1522-1525. Hultgren, K. M., et al. "Camouflage in decorator crabs: integrating ecological, behavioural and evolutionary approaches." Animal camouflage (2011): 214-229. Lewis, Danny. “This Is How Bombardier Beetles Fire Explosives From Their Butts.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 5 May 2015, www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/machine-gun-bug-180955150. Quirós, Gabriela. “Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide.” KQED, 9 May 2017, www.kqed.org/science/1602625/decorator-crabs-make-high-fashion-at-low-tide. Wanninger, Marion, Thomas Schwaha, and Egon Heiss. "Form and Function of the skin glands in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus." Zoological Letters 4.1 (2018): 15.
Dangerous Marshmallows?! Dangerous Marshmallows?!
3 months ago En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 Burning a marshmallow can release more energy than detonating an equal mass of TNT...so why isn't a marshmallow as dangerous? LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Chemical reaction: a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance Exothermic reaction: a reaction that releases energy Stoichiometry: a section of chemistry that involves using relationships between reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction to determine desired quantitative data Reaction rate or rate of reaction: the speed at which a chemical reaction takes place SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Brown, B.S. (1979) What does the kilojoule look like? Biochemical Education 7, 88-89. https://iubmb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1016/0307-4412(79)90070-0 Kinney GF, Graham KJ. (1985) Explosives shocks in air, Second edition, Springer-Verlag. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-86682-1 Munroe, C and Howell, S. (1920) Products of Detonation of TNT. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 195. https://www.jstor.org/stable/984499?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents Tinnesand, M. 'Sugar, An Unusual Explosive', Chemmatters, December 2010. https://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/archive/chemmatters-december-2010-sugar-an-unusual-explosive.pdf Sochet, I. (2010). Blast effects of external explosions. Eighth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, Yokohama, Japan. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00629253
The Science of Roadkill The Science of Roadkill
3 months ago En
Surprisingly, flattened fauna can teach us a lot about wildlife biology. Join us on Patreon at https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Watch the behind-the-scenes talkshow with MinuteEarth staff: https://www.patreon.com/posts/watch-october-q-43801553 LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Roadkill: The remains of animals killed by motor vehicles. Road ecology: The study of how roads impact the surrounding environment and its inhabitants. Invasive species: Non-native animals that outcompete local animals for resources. Fieldwork: The collection of data outside of a laboratory setting. Confounder: A variable (like animal reaction to oncoming cars) that influences the outcome when comparing a dependent variable (like number of animals) to the outcome (number of roadkill carcasses of said animal). SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Ever Salazar | Audio Editing Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Jacobson, S. L., L. L. Bliss-Ketchum, C. E. de Rivera, and W. P. Smith. (2016) A behavior-based framework for assessing barrier effects to wildlife from vehicle traffic volume. Ecosphere, 7(4). Retrieved from: https://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/jacobson/psw_2016_jacobson001.pdf. Capula, M., Rugiero, L., Capizzi, D., and Milana, G. (2014). Long-term, climate change-related shifts in monthly patterns of roadkilled Mediterranean snakes (Hierophis viridifavus). Herpetological Journal, 24: 97-102. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261986760_Long-term_climate_change-related_shifts_in_monthly_patterns_of_roadkilled_Mediterranean_snakes_Hierophis_viridifavus. Yeager, A. (2017). After Disaster Strikes, Often Science Benefits. Washington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/after-disaster-strikes-science-often-benefits/2017/09/15/4cd0c522-98a6-11e7-87fc-c3f7ee4035c9_story.html. Thomas, E. and Wilson, E. (2018). Guidance for surveying hedgehogs. Hedgehog Street. Retrieved from: https://www.hedgehogstreet.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Guidance-for-surveying-hedgehogs.pdf Schwartz, A., Shilling, F., and Perkins, S. (2020). The value of monitoring wildlife roadkill. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 66:18. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10344-019-1357-4 Shilling, F. Personal Communication (2020). Co-Director, Road Ecology Center at University of California, Davis. https://roadecology.ucdavis.edu/
Why Doesn't All Thunder Sound The Same? Why Doesn't All Thunder Sound The Same?
4 months ago En
Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula! We've all experienced thunder, but what ARE all those claps, booms, and rumbles? LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Shock wave: a sharp change of pressure in a narrow region traveling through a medium, especially air, caused by explosion or by a body moving faster than sound SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OTHER CREDITS ***************** “thunder3.ogg” by Josh74000MC of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/Josh74000MC/sounds/475094/ “Drythunder1.wav” by juskiddink of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/juskiddink/sounds/101933/ “Thunder-rain-middle-distance.wav” by ragamuffin of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/ragamuffin/sounds/197738/ “Thunder.rumble.ogg” by xUMR of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/xUMR/sounds/486557/ “Rain, moderate, b.wav” by InspectorJ of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/InspectorJ/sounds/401276/ “Electric-gas-stove-ignite.wav” by squidocto of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/Squidocto/sounds/262582/ “Breaking the sound barrier” by thenudo of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/thenudo/sounds/134829/ “Whip crack b.wav” by cetsoundcrew of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/cetsoundcrew/sounds/397662/ “Party Pack, Balloons, Popping, 02-01.wav" by InspectorJ of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/InspectorJ/sounds/484268/ OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Blanco, F., La Rocca, P., Petta, C. and Riggi, F. (2009) Modelling Digital Thunder. European Journal of Physics 30: 139–45. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0143-0807/30/1/014 Depasse, P. (1994) Lightning acoustic signature. Journal of Geophysics Research 99: 25933–25940. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/94JD01986 Jagadeesh, G. (2008) Fascinating world of shock waves. Resonance 13: 752–767. https://www.ias.ac.in/public/Volumes/reso/013/08/0752-0767.pdf Matson, W.R. (2018) Sonic Thunder: a Discussion of Natural and Artificial Shock Waves. Morgan and Claypool Publishers. Sidath, A., Bodhika, J.A.P., Mahendra, F. (2016). Frequency Analysis of Thunder Features. Proceedings of International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309982045_Frequency_Analysis_of_Thunder_Features
Can Pregnancy Tests Help Beat COVID-19? Can Pregnancy Tests Help Beat COVID-19?
4 months ago En
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ The lab-on-a-stick that lets us know if we’re pregnant is a genius bit of technology that can be used to quickly determine everything from whether there are nuts in our chocolate to whether we have COVID. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Early Pregnancy Test: A simple lateral flow assay that tests for the presence of a particular hormone in urine. Lateral Flow Assay: Simple tests in which a liquid sample is run along the surface of a pad using capillary action and colored antibodies to show a visual positive or negative result. Capillary Action: The movement of water-based liquids within small tubes due to the forces of cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension. Antibody: A blood protein produced by the immune system in response to a particular antigen. Antigen: A foreign substance which produces an immune response within the body. False positive: A result produced that falsely indicates a particular antigen is present. False negative: A result produced that falsely indicates that a particular antigen is absent. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Koczula, K., and Gallotta, A. (2016) Lateral Flow Assays. Essays in Biochemistry, 60: 111-120. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4986465/. Seo, K., Holt, P., Stone, H. and Gast, R. (2003). Simple and rapid methods for detecting Salmonella enteritidis in raw eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 87: 139-144. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12927716/. Bishop, J., Hsieh, H., Gasperino, D., and Weigl, B. (2019). (1997). Sensitivity enhancement in lateral flow assays: a systems perspective. Lab On A Chip, 19: 2486-2499. Retrieved from: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/lc/c9lc00104b#!divAbstract. O’Farrell, B. (2008). Evolution in Lateral Flow–Based Immunoassay Systems. Nature Public Health Emergency Collection. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7119943/ Collins, F. (2020). Charting a Rapid Course Toward Better COVID-19 Tests and Treatments. NIH Director’s Blog. Retrieved from: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/08/06/charting-a-rapid-course-toward-better-covid-19-tests-and-treatments/ Shen, A. Personal Communication (2020). Director, Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. https://groups.oist.jp/mbnu
Why Hardwoods Are The Softest Woods Why Hardwoods Are The Softest Woods
4 months ago En
Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula! Not all hardwood trees have hard wood and softwoods soft wood, because these terms denote their taxonomic ancestry, not the wood's actual hardness. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Angiosperm: a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel. Gymnosperm: a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Ever Salazar | Audio Editing Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Ansell, M. P. "Wood microstructure–A cellular composite." Wood Composites. Woodhead Publishing, 2015. 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-454-3.00001-9 Bjurhager, Ingela. Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Diss. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:409533/FULLTEXT02.pdf Botes, Christo, Steven D. Johnson, and Richard M. Cowling. "The birds and the bees: using selective exclusion to identify effective pollinators of African tree aloes." International Journal of Plant Sciences 170.2 (2009): 151-156. Butterfield B.G. (1993) The structure of wood: an overview. In: Primary Wood Processing. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8110-3_1 Chilson-Parks, Laura. "Wood in the Middle Ages." Perspectives (2015). https://risdmuseum.org/art-design/projects-publications/articles/wood-middle-ages Cywa, K. Trees and shrubs used in medieval Poland for making everyday objects. Veget Hist Archaeobot 27, 111–136 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-017-0644-9 Laboratory, Forest Products. Wood Handbook: Wood As an Engineering Material. United States, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013. Meier, Eric. “Hardwood Anatomy.” The Wood Database, https://www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/hardwood-anatomy/. Minea, Vasile. Industrial Heat Pump-Assisted Wood Drying. United States, CRC Press, 2018. Plomion, Christophe, Grégoire Leprovost, and Alexia Stokes. "Wood formation in trees." Plant physiology 127.4 (2001): 1513-1523. Ramage, Michael H., et al. "The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017): 333-359. Simm, Jonathan, and Crossman, Matt. Manual on the Use of Timber in Coastal and River Engineering. United Kingdom, Thomas Telford, 2004. Wei-Dan Ding , Ahmed Koubaa , et al. (2008) Relationship between wood porosity, wood density and methyl methacrylate impregnation rate, Wood Material Science & Engineering, 3:1-2, 62-70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480270802607947 Wiedenhoeft, Alex. "Structure and function of wood." Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material: chapter 3. Centennial ed. General technical report FPL; GTR-190. Madison, WI: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010: p. 3.1-3.18. 190 (2010): 3-1. https://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr190/chapter_03.pdf WOOD Magazine Staff. “What Is the World's Hardest Wood?” WOOD Magazine, WOOD Magazine, 17 Jan. 2019, https://www.woodmagazine.com/wood-supplies/wood-species/what-is-the-worlds-hardest-wood.
15 YouTubers Play The Telephone Game 15 YouTubers Play The Telephone Game
5 months ago En
Use the discount code “MINUTEEARTH” to get 10% off your game of Telestrations at https://theop.games/minuteearth Here’s what happened when more than a dozen of our favorite channels got together to blindly make a video with one another. 0:00 - Intro 1:14 - Kate & Ever | MinuteEarth 1:49 - Henry | MinuteEarth | MinutePhysics https://youtube.com/MinutePhysics 2:30 - Sarah | MinuteEarth 3:11 - Arcadi | MinuteEarth | Gastrofísica https://youtube.com/tippetopphysics 3:56 - Grant | 3Blue1Brown https://youtube.com/3blue1brown 4:42 - Dianna | Physics Girl https://youtube.com/PhysicsGirl 5:22 - Osmosis https://youtube.com/Osmosis 6:03 - Tom Scott https://youtube.com/TomScottGo 6:40 - Scishow https://youtube.com/SciShow 7:17 - Mithuna | Looking Glass Universe https://youtube.com/LookingGlassUniverse 7:47 - Stephen | Welch Labs https://youtube.com/WelchLabsVideo 8:17 - Vanessa | BrainCraft https://youtube.com/BrainCraftVideo 8:48 - Patch | TierZoo https://youtube.com/TierZoo 9:21 - Jabril | Jabrils https://youtube.com/Jabrils 10:03 - Danielle | Animalogic https://youtube.com/Animalogic 10:45 - Joe | It's Okay to be Smart https://youtube.com/itsokaytobesmart 11:17 - About Telestrations 11:52 - Our Favorite Reactions 14:49 - Outro SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman and Ever Salazar | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176
How To Hear Halfway Around The World How To Hear Halfway Around The World
5 months ago En
Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org Sounds in the ocean can travel more than 10,000 miles - that's halfway around the world! Here's how. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Refraction: the bending of a sound wave based on changes in the wave's speed SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Heaney, K.D., Kuperman, W.A., and McDonald, B. E. (1960). Perth-Bermuda sound propagation: Adiabatic mode interpretation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90, 2586–2594, 1991. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.402062 Munk, W.H, Spindel, R.C., Baggeroer, A., Birdsall, T. G. (1994). The Heard Island Feasibility Test, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96, 2330–2342. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.410105 Payne, R. S., and Webb, D. (1971). Orientation by means of long range acoustic signaling in baleen whales. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 188:110–141. https://www.thecre.com/sefReports/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Payne-R.-Webb-D.-1971.-Orientation.pdf Shockley, R. C., Northrop, J., Hansen, P. G. Hartdegen, C. (1982) SOFAR propagation paths from Australia to Bermuda: Comparision of signal speed algorithms and experiments, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71, 51–60. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.387250
Why You’re More Likely To Die In Winter Why You’re More Likely To Die In Winter
5 months ago En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 There’s a huge seasonal difference in death rates that is propelled by a variety of factors including pathogen behavior and anatomical response to temperature changes. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Crude Death Rate: The number of people in a population of a 1,000 who die every year. The 2020 rate for the entire world is roughly 8. If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: CGP Grey takes you through the first half of Death's day: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMNGEY8OZqo SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: David Goldenberg | Script Writer Julián Gustavo Gómez | Narrator Irene Crisologo | Illustrator Ever Salazar | Animator and Director Nathaniel Schroeder | Music Feedback on drafts by: Julián Gustavo Gómez, Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar and Kate Yoshida MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Robbie M Parks, James E Bennett, Kyle J Foreman, Ralf Toumi, Majid Ezzati (2018). National and regional seasonal dynamics of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA from 1980 to 2016. eLife 2018;7:e35500. Retrieved from: https://elifesciences.org/articles/35500. Roland Rau, Christina Bohk-Ewald, Magdalena M. Muszyńska, James W. Vaupel (2017). Seasonality of Causes of Death. Chapter in: Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-64820-0_9. Dimitrios Seretakis; Pagona Lagiou, MD; Loren Lipworth, DSc; et al (1997). Changing Seasonality of Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease. JAMA, 278(12):1012-1014. Retrieved from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/418241. W. R. Keatinge (2002) Winter mortality and its causes, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 61:4, 292-299. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3402/ijch.v61i4.17477 Average Daily Number of Deaths,* by Month — United States, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6826a5.htm.
Why Does This Shrimp Cost More Than A Car? Why Does This Shrimp Cost More Than A Car?
6 months ago En Ru
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Some aquarium hobbyists will pay $10,000 or more for a single shrimp because of the rarity of their colors or patterns. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Chromatophores: pigment-containing cells in the deeper layers of the skin of animals like shrimp Restricted availability theory: a commodity is available or perceived to be available only for certain individuals Reactance theory: unavailability of a commodity is perceived as a threat to an individual’s freedom to posses that commodity, making it more desirable. Scarcity heuristic: a mental shortcut that places value on items based on how easy it is to miss out on them. If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Check out this Taiwanese news broadcast about fancy shrimp breeding: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxjUEhryDEA SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music Feedback on drafts by: David Goldenberg, Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar and Kate Yoshida MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info Henry Reich | Executive Producer David Goldenberg | Production Manager Melissa Hayes | Business & Legal Counsel Kate Yoshida | Chief Editor Ever Salazar | Creative Director Julián Gustavo Gómez | Community Manager OTHER CREDITS ***************** White Painted (Kai Bai) Shrimp photo by Demin Wong Blue Bolt Shrimp photo by Jeffrey Kelley OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Bauer, R. T. "Color patterns of the shrimps Heptacarpus pictus and H. paludicola (Caridea: Hippolytidae)." Marine Biology 64.2 (1981): 141-152. John, Maria, et al. "The preference for scarcity: A developmental and comparative perspective." Psychology & Marketing 35.8 (2018): 603-615. Lukhaup, Chris. “Freshwater Shrimps: The next Generation.” Practical Fishkeeping, 14 May 2019, www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/features/freshwater-shrimps-the-next-generation/. Lynn, Michael. "The psychology of unavailability: Explaining scarcity and cost effects on value." Basic and Applied Social Psychology 13.1 (1992): 3-7. Verhallen, Theo MM, and Henry SJ Robben. "Unavailability and the evaluation of goods." KYKLOS-BERNE- 48 (1995): 369-369.
Why Sewers Around the World Keep Overflowing Why Sewers Around the World Keep Overflowing
6 months ago En
Find out more about our sewers from the In Deep podcast at https://www.indeep.org. The old combined sewer systems of many major cities are no match for modern storms and impermeable surfaces. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Combined Sewer System: Sewers designed to collect domestic sewage and storm runoff in the same wastewater pipe. Wastewater Treatment Plant: A facility that filters and cleans wastewater before sending it into nearby waterways. Combined Sewer Overflow: When the wastewater in a combined sewer system exceeds a certain limit, it bypasses the wastewater treatment plant and goes directly into nearby waterways. Extreme Rainfall: Storms that cause the wettest days of the year in a particular geographic area. Invasive Species: Any kind of organism that gets introduced to a new environment and causes harm. Deep Tunnel Project: A $3 billion civil engineering megaproject designed to reduce flooding in the metropolitan Chicago area. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Narrator, and Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Kate Yoshida, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Tibbets, J. (2005). Combined Sewer Systems: Down, Dirty, and Out of Date. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113(7): A464–A467. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1257666/. Olds HT, Corsi SR, Dila DK, Halmo KM, Bootsma MJ, McLellan SL. (2018). High levels of sewage contamination released from urban areas after storm events: A quantitative survey with sewage specific bacterial indicators. PLoS Med. 15(7): e1002614. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002614. Walsh, J., D. Wuebbles, K. Hayhoe, J. Kossin, K. Kunkel, G. Stephens, P. Thorne, R. Vose, M. Wehner, J. Willis, D. Anderson, S. Doney, R. Feely, P. Hennon, V. Kharin, T. Knutson, F. Landerer, T. Lenton, J. Kennedy, and R. Somerville. (2014) Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 19-67. Retrieved from: https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/our-changing-climate/heavy-downpours-increasing Melosi, Martin. (2000). The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. Johns Hopkins University Press. Grabar, Henry. (2019). Tunnel Vision. Slate. Retrieved from: https://slate.com/business/2019/01/chicagos-deep-tunnel-is-it-the-solution-to-urban-flooding-or-a-cautionary-tale.html
How To Go Extinct How To Go Extinct
7 months ago En
Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/Nkq830qWCSh Our new evolution simulator reveals that extinction often happens when conditions change quickly. Check it out here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/evolution-simulator/ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Extinction: The moment when the last individual of a particular species dies. Interspecific Competition: When individuals of different species compete for the same resources or habitats. Thylacine: The so-called Tasmanian Tiger, it is one of the largest predatory marsupials; the last known individual was captured in 1933. Invasive Species: Any kind of organism that gets introduced to a new environment and causes harm. Holocene Extinction: The so-called sixth mass extinction, mostly involving larger animals, that started at the end of the last Ice Age, mostly due to human activity. Extinction rates during this time are 100-1000 times higher than usual. Anagenesis: The gradual evolution of a species over time. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: David Goldenberg Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman and Jasper Palfree Video Director: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida and Jasper Palfree With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Audio Effect: Scratch Speed by Freesound.org user Racoonanimator ___________________________________________ References: Cahill, A., Aiello-Lammens, M., M. Caitlin Fisher-Reid, Xia Hua, Caitlin J. Karanewsky, Hae Yeong Ryu, Gena C. Sbeglia, Fabrizio Spagnolo, John B. Waldron, Omar Warsi and John J. Wiens (2013). How does climate change cause extinction? Proceedings of the Royal Society. 280 (1750). Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2012.1890. Marcel Cardillo, Georgina M. Mace, Kate E. Jones, Jon Bielby, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Wes Sechrest, C. David L. Orme, Andy Purvis (2005). Multiple Causes of High Extinction Risk in Large Mammal Species. Science. 309(5738). Retrieved from: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5738/1239.abstract. Craig Loehle, Willis Eschenbach (2011). Historical bird and terrestrial mammal extinction rates and causes. Diversity and Distributions, 18(1), 84-91. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00856.x Johnson, CN, Wroe, S. (2003). Causes of Extinction of Vertebrates during the Holocene of Mainland Australia: Arrival of the Dingo, or Human Impact?. The Holocene. 13 (6): 941–948. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1191/0959683603hl682fa Seth M. Rudman, Dolph Schluter. (2016).Ecological Impacts of Reverse Speciation in Threespine Stickleback. Current Biology, 26(4), 490-495. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216000403.
Why People Hate Hyenas Why People Hate Hyenas
7 months ago En
Get your NEW MinuteEarth merch! Sticker packs and T-shirts on sale at https://dftba.com/minuteearth. Throughout history and around the world, most people dislike hyenas. But why? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Director, Narrator, and Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hyena photo by Michael Shehan Obeysekera https://www.flickr.com/photos/mshehan/6846999112 Another hyena photo by Eric Kilby https://www.flickr.com/photos/ekilby/50051179628 ___________________________________________ References: Batt, S. (2009). Human attitudes towards animals in relation to species similarity to humans: a multivariate approach. Bioscience Horizons 2: 180-190. https://academic.oup.com/biohorizons/article/2/2/180/254452 Glickman, S.E. (1995). The spotted hyena from Aristotle to the Lion King: reputation is everything. Social Research 62(3): 501+. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40971108 Gottlieb, A. (1989). Hyenas and heteroglossia: myth and ritual among the Beng of Côte d'Ivoire. American Ethnologist 16(3): 487. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1525/ae.1989.16.3.02a00050 Jacobs, M.H. Why do we like or dislike animals? (2009). Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14 (1): 1-11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40791025_Why_Do_We_Like_or_Dislike_Animals Prokop, P., and Randler, C. (2018). “Biological predispositions and individual differences in human attitudes toward animals,” in Ethnozoology: Animals in our Lives, eds R. R. N. Alves and A. P. D. de Albuquerque (Cambridge, MA: Academic Press), 447–466. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128099131000235 Woods, B. (2000). Beauty and the beast: Preferences for animals in Australia. Journal of Tourism Studies 11 (2): 25–35. https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/24139/1/24139_Woods_2000.pdf
Extreme Weather | MinuteEarth Explains Extreme Weather | MinuteEarth Explains
7 months ago En
Thanks to Keeps for sponsoring this video. Go to https://keeps.com/minuteearth to learn more and to get 50% off your first order of hair loss treatment! In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we take a look at some of the most extreme weather on Earth and its consequences. 0:00 - Intro 0:11 - The Hottest Place on Earth | https://youtu.be/gKYrXHZwtPw 2:23 - How To Avoid The Next Atlantis | https://youtu.be/GeDIPrOSWbU 4:45 - Are "Acts of God" Disappearing? | https://youtu.be/uiiPDio-dzo 7:36 - This Is Your Brain On Extreme Weather | https://youtu.be/cJCczZd7HVk 10:03 - Outro
Will Gas Stations Survive? Will Gas Stations Survive?
8 months ago En
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2z08OS6 Although it’s not likely to happen soon, someday gas stations may be replaced by (or turn into) another type of fueling station, because no fuel or mode of transportation is forever. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Gas station - a roadside establishment that sells gasoline, and diesel (AKA petrol station, service station, garage, filling station) Convenience store - a store selling a limited range of household goods and groceries, often functioning simultaneously as a gas station Stable - a building for keeping horses Livery stable - a building where horse owners can/could pay a fee to have their horses fed and kept ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Veritasium: World’s First Car! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DL_mJeb6O04 Bertha Benz: The Journey That Changed Everything (short film by Mercedes Benz) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsGrFYD5Nfs Timeline of US gas station history - https://www.convenience.org/Topics/Fuels/The-History-of-Fuels-Retailing _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. “First Gas Pump and Service Station.” https://aoghs.org/transportation/first-gas-pump-and-service-stations Accessed January 2020. Beckman, T. N. 2011. A brief history of the gasoline service station. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing. Chicago. http://bit.ly/39WaadQ Caldeira, K. Personal communication February 2020. Coren, M.J. 18 May 2019. "Researchers have no idea when electric cars are going to take over." https://qz.com/1620614/electric-car-forecasts-are-all-over-the-map/ Henderson, W., & Benjamin, S. 1994. Gas Stations: Landmarks of the American Roadside. Motorbooks International. Osceola. IEA. 2019. "Global EV Outlook 2019." Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2019 Jakle, J. A., & Sculle, K. A. 1994. The gas station in America. JHU Press. Kah, M. December 2019. Electric vehicle penetration and its impact on global oil demand: a survey of 2019 forecast trends. https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/sites/default/files/file-uploads/EV-SurveyReport-CGEP_Report_121019_0.pdf / http://bit.ly/2TRKZUa Kane, M. 2 Feb 2020. "Global EV Sales For 2019 Now In: Tesla Model 3 Totally Dominated." https://insideevs.com/news/396177/global-ev-sales-december-2019/ McKerracher, C. et al. 2019. Electric Vehicle Outlook 2019. https://about.bnef.com/electric-vehicle-outlook/#toc-viewreport Muller, D. 23 Nov 2017. "World’s First Car!" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DL_mJeb6O04 Sachs, W. 1992. For love of the automobile: Looking back into the history of our desires. Univ of California Press. https://go.aws/33lbPHe US DOE. "U.S. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales by Model.” https://afdc.energy.gov/data/10567
Unintended Consequences | MinuteEarth Explains Unintended Consequences | MinuteEarth Explains
8 months ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we learn that for pretty much every action we humans take, there’s an unintended consequence we didn’t see coming. 0:00 - Intro (woof!) 0:15 - The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fbhLBBcm2Fg 3:10 - How Fighting Wildfires Makes Them Worse https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NX1xnWPSjKg 6:35 - How Humans Made Malaria So Deadly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=64pvlCtH-Oo Watch this adorable preview for the end of the world https://grist.org/food/watch-this-adorable-preview-for-the-end-of-the-world/ 8:39 - What Nuclear Bombs Taught Us About Whales https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x_QJ3KxkjtE 11:06 - Outro (woof!)
*If We Aren't Too Late *If We Aren't Too Late
8 months ago En
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/3dSVdur We’ll each have at least $100,000 more in our piggy banks, on average, if we stop climate change than if we don’t. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: climate change damages, greenhouse gas emissions, climate mitigation ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Burke M, WM Davis, NS Diffenaugh. 2018. Large potential reduction in economic damages under UN mitigation targets Nature 557: 549-553. Hsiang S, R Kopp, A Jina, J Rising, M Delgado, S Mohan, DJ Rasmussen, R Muir-Wood, P Wilson, M Oppenheimer, K Larsen, T Houser. 2017. Estimating economic damage from climate change in the United States. Science 356, 1362-1369 International Monetary Fund. 2017. The Effects of Weather Shocks on Economic Activity: How Can Low-income Countries Cope? World Economic Outlook Chapter 3, 117-183. Kahn, ME, K Mohaddes, RNC Ng, M Hashem Pesaran, M Raissi, J-C Yang. 2019. Long-Term Macroeconomic Effects of Climate Change: A Cross-Country Analysis, CESifo Working Paper, No. 7738, Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo), Munich. Some economists argue that people in the future will be so much richer than people today that we should just let them pay to fix climate change. There’s no guarantee, however, that future people will be richer (especially if we let climate change happen), and other economists argue that even if future people are richer, it’s not ok to leave them with a ruined planet. So, we’ve emphasized why it would be beneficial to slow climate change now.
YouTube Is Misleading You. Help Us Make It Better. YouTube Is Misleading You. Help Us Make It Better.
8 months ago En
Join us on Patreon at http://patreon.com/MinuteEarth As we see a rise in misinformation on YouTube, educational channels like MinuteEarth need your support today more than ever. Thanks also to our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Misinformation: false information that is spread, regardless of intent to mislead Disinformation: deliberately misleading or biased information; manipulated narrative or facts ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Emperor penguin photo by Cristopher Michel https://flic.kr/p/pKneEA Macaroni penguin photo by Liam Quinn https://flic.kr/p/9YG3s2 COX-2 graphics by Cytochrome c https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cyclooxygenase-2.png ___________________________________________ References: Anderson, Janna, and Lee Rainie. "The future of truth and misinformation online." Pew Research Center 19 (2017). “Why Is YouTube Broadcasting Climate Misinformation to Millions?” Avaaz, 16 Jan. 2020, http://secure.avaaz.org/campaign/en/youtube_climate_misinformation/. Del Vicario, Michela, et al. "The spreading of misinformation online." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.3 (2016): 554-559.Iammarino, Nicholas K., and Thomas W. O’Rourke. "The challenge of alternative facts and the rise of misinformation in the digital age: Responsibilities and opportunities for health promotion and education." American journal of health education 49.4 (2018): 201-205. Lewis, Paul. "Fiction is outperforming reality”: How YouTube’s algorithm distorts truth." The Guardian 2 (2018): 2018. Meserole, Chris. "How misinformation spreads on social media—And what to do about it." The Brookings Institution (May 9, 2018), https://www.brookings. edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2018/05/09/how-misinformation-spreads-on-social-media-and-what-to-do-about-it (2018). O'Connor, Cailin. How Misinformation Spreads-and Why We Trust It. Scientific American, Sept. 2019, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-misinformation-spreads-and-why-we-trust-it/. Roberts, David. YouTube Has a Big Climate Misinformation Problem It Can't Solve. Vox, 26 Jan. 2020, http://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2020/1/26/21068473/youtube-climate-change-misinformation-epistemic-crisis. Syed-Abdul, Shabbir, et al. "Misleading health-related information promoted through video-based social media: anorexia on YouTube." Journal of medical Internet research 15.2 (2013): e30.Williamson, Phil. "Take the time and effort to correct misinformation." Nature 540.7632 (2016): 171-171. Wood, Mike. “How Does Misinformation Spread Online?” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 6 Dec. 2018, http://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/web-mistrust/201812/how-does-misinformation-spread-online. Educational creators featured in this video: Jordan Harrod – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1H1NWNTG2Xi3pt85ykVSHA SciShow – https://www.youtube.com/user/scishow Tom Scott – https://www.youtube.com/user/enyay ASAP Science – https://www.youtube.com/user/AsapSCIENCE ViHart – https://www.youtube.com/user/Vihart DrawCuriosity – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOs_jEnQF2ePJzjJTgRtunA TierZoo – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHsRtomD4twRf5WVHHk-cMw Wannabe Linguist – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCkl3U62tqz-4SDxbqjn4G7A Kurzgesagt – https://www.youtube.com/user/Kurzgesagt Sabrina Cruz – https://www.youtube.com/user/NerdyAndQuirky msbeautyphile – https://www.youtube.com/user/msbeautyphile CGP Grey – https://www.youtube.com/user/CGPGrey Hot Mess – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw Jabrils – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQALLeQPoZdZC4JNUboVEUg CrashCourse – https://www.youtube.com/user/crashcourse Tippe Top Physics – https://www.youtube.com/user/tippetopphysics
MinuteEarth Explains: Animal Winners and Losers MinuteEarth Explains: Animal Winners and Losers
8 months ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we keep score on the winners and losers of the animal kingdom. 0:00 - Intro 0:10 - Why Only Some Monkeys Have Awesome Tails https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isorFmeW-f4 1:57 - Rise Of The Mesopredator🎵 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsJj9q5UKlE&t 6:01 - Which Bear Is Best? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DHvgq7xRcj0 8:20 - Invasion of the Yellow Crazy Ants! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmztPktOfzs 11:55 - Outro
The Best Worst Energy Source The Best Worst Energy Source
8 months ago En
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2X0Nxzv Although coal is such an amazing energy source that we've kept using it despite the harm it causes, today we may be better poised to stop using it than at any previous time in history. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: See How the World’s Most Polluted Air Compares With Your City’s - https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/02/climate/air-pollution-compare-ar-ul.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Co-Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Caldeira, K. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Coady, D. et al. 2015. How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies? https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2016/12/31/How-Large-Are-Global-Energy-Subsidies-42940 Farrow, A., Miller, K.A. & Myllyvirta, L. February 2020. Toxic air: The price of fossil fuels. Seoul: Greenpeace Southeast Asia. 44 pp. https://storage.googleapis.com/planet4-southeastasia-stateless/2020/02/21b480fa-toxic-air-report-110220.pdf Freese, B. 2016. Coal: A Human History. Basic Books Freese, B. Personal communication, Feb 2020 IEA. 2019. Coal 2019. Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/coal-2019 IEA. 2019. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019. Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/global-energy-co2-status-report-2019 Jaffe, E. 17 September 2015. The Enormous Social Cost of Cheap Coal. https://www.citylab.com/environment/2015/09/the-enormous-social-cost-of-cheap-coal/405730/ Ramani, R.V. & Evans, M.A. "Coal Mining." https://www.britannica.com/technology/coal-mining Accessed Dec 2019 Pompeu, N.B. 14 Feb 2019. Air Pollution and the Health Cost of Coal. https://www.iisd.org/gsi/subsidy-watch-blog/air-pollution-and-health-cost-coal Union of Concerned Scientists. 15 July 2006. A Short History of Energy. https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/short-history-energy US EIA. "Coal explained: Coal and the environment." https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/coal/coal-and-the-environment.php Accessed Dec 2019 Wikipedia. “Coal.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal Accessed Dec 2019 Wikipedia. “History of coal mining.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coal_mining Accessed Dec 2019 World Coal Association. "Where is coal found?” https://www.worldcoal.org/coal/where-coal-found Accessed Feb 2020 https://ourworldindata.org/uploads/2020/02/Safest-source-of-energy-2048x1942.png https://www.lazard.com/media/451086/lazards-levelized-cost-of-energy-version-130-vf.pdf https://www.irena.org/costs/Power-Generation-Costs/Hydropower
MinuteEarth Explains: Human Evolution MinuteEarth Explains: Human Evolution
9 months ago En
Give Blinkist a try! https://www.blinkist.com/minuteearth In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we answer the question "why are you the way that you are?" And check out the Tree of Life Explorer! https://labs.minutelabs.io/Tree-of-Life-Explorer/ 0:00 - Intro 0:10 - Which Fish Did We Evolve From? https://youtu.be/W2ojuZ_s4z8 1:31 - Are We Really 99% Chimp? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbY122CSC5w 4:26 - Why Are Snakes So Creepy? https://youtu.be/AeOrYPvUsTE 6:12 - How Long Can We Live? https://youtu.be/gxLSTOE5TaM 8:58 - Outro
Is There A Better Way To Power Airplanes? Is There A Better Way To Power Airplanes?
9 months ago En
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2WDTJ1L It’s hard to replace jet fuel because the alternatives aren’t energetic enough, are too dangerous, or aren’t yet being made at scale. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Jet fuel - a liquid petroleum fuel with high specific energy and energy density, used in airplane jet engines, made of kerosene with a few additives Specific Energy - how much energy something contains per unit mass Energy Density - how much energy something contains per unit volume Synthetic jet fuel - a jet fuel replacement, typically aiming to have lower life cycle environmental impacts than jet fuel (AKA: sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), alternative jet fuel, renewable aviation fuel, renewable jet fuel, biojet fuel, sustainable alternative fuel) Kerosene - a petroleum product that is the main component of jet fuel (and old fashioned lanterns) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: What you get from a barrel of oil - https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/oil-and-petroleum-products/ Real Engineering: Are Electric Planes Possible? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNvzZfsC13o&feature=youtu.be _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: ATAG. Nov 2017. Beginner’s Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuel, Edition 3. https://bit.ly/2AcJLLW Accessed Jan 2020. ATAG. “Producing sustainable aviation fuel” https://bit.ly/3gncnmh Accessed Jan 2020 Burton, Freya. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Caldeira, K. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Cey, E., et al. 2019. Energy Education. “Oil formation.” https://bit.ly/3ej8r3Y Accessed Jan 2020 Chuck, C. (Ed.). 2016. Biofuels for aviation: feedstocks, technology and implementation. Academic Press Goldmann, A., et al. 2018. A study on electrofuels in aviation. Energies, 11(2), 392. https://bit.ly/2AfRUis Hileman, J. I., & Stratton, R. W. 2014. Alternative jet fuel feasibility. Transport Policy, 34, 52-62. https://bit.ly/2X8832H IATA. May 2019. “Sustainable Aviation Fuels Fact sheet.” https://bit.ly/2ZO2BDX Accessed Jan 2020 IATA. December 2019. "Fuel Fact Sheet." https://bit.ly/3dcJ0Ry Accessed March 2020 Le Feuvre, P. 18 March 2019. Are aviation biofuels ready for take off? https://bit.ly/2XA5R2T Lehtveer, M., Brynolf, S., & Grahn, M. 2019. What Future for Electrofuels in Transport? Analysis of Cost Competitiveness in Global Climate Mitigation. Environmental science & technology, 53(3), 1690-1697. https://bit.ly/3d96QgX McKinsey. Energy Resources. https://bit.ly/2M7pYzW Accessed December 2019. Monroe Aerospace. 29 April 2019. Why Airplanes Use Kerosene Rather Than Plain Gasoline for Fuel. https://bit.ly/3d8FpnD Searle, S. 15 Nov 2018. Decarbonizing aviation through low-carbon fuels will be beyond difficult. https://bit.ly/2zAN1kc Shaw, R.J. 12 June 2014. "How does a jet engine work?" https://go.nasa.gov/2XOwG3F Accessed Jan 2020 Sindreu, J. 10 Jan 2020. The Promise of Sustainable Aviation Fuel Isn’t for Today. https://on.wsj.com/3gthykv Wikipedia. "Nuclear Powered Aircraft” https://bit.ly/2ZGECGw Accessed Jan 2020. Thanks also to Steve Thorne and Erik Pieh. References for calculations https://bit.ly/3c9Lvmc https://bit.ly/2yC04kS https://bit.ly/2X5OAPV https://bit.ly/2zDqoLT https://bit.ly/3gw1L4n https://bit.ly/2TLZQPo https://bit.ly/2TGOV9B https://bit.ly/2TLG86r https://bit.ly/2ZHdZkN https://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=jet+fuel https://www.toyota.com/corolla/features/capacities/1882/1863/1856 https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/how-much-does-gasoline-weigh.html https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Transatlantic_Fuel_Efficiency_Ranking_20180912.pdf https://www.transtats.bts.gov/Distance.asp?pn=0 https://physics.info/energy-chemical/ https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage https://neutrium.net/properties/specific-energy-and-energy-density-of-fuels/
💩💩💩 💩💩💩
9 months ago En
Check out our official TikTok account: https://www.tiktok.com/@minuteearth In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we dive into one of our favorite topics, well at least our #2: poop. 0:00 - Intro 0:22 - Do Fetuses Poop? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qc-244lKjjM 2:23 - Would You Drink Water Made From Sewage? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YocDQ9OqeuA 5:01 - Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ubt2fl11v5E 8:20 - Poop Transplants! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dim7YXYlRm0 11:23 - Outro, TikTok and Blooper
Why You Can't Build A Clone Army... (Yet) Why You Can't Build A Clone Army... (Yet)
9 months ago En
Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs. Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development. Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits. Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development. Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2382 Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-9521(02)00141-6 Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1038/12696 Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.07.017 Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.020867 Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.thj.6200435 Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09798 Morgan, H. D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., & Reik, W. (2005). Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Human Molecular Genetics, 14(suppl_1), R47–R58. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddi114 Reik, W. (2001). Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammalian Development. Science, 293(5532), 1089–1093. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1063443 Srivastava, D., & DeWitt, N. (2016). In Vivo Cellular Reprogramming: The Next Generation. Cell, 166(6), 1386–1396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.055 Wakayama, S., Kohda, T., Obokata, H., et al. (2013). Successful Serial Recloning in the Mouse over Multiple Generations. Cell Stem Cell, 12(3), 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.01.005 Wakayama, T., Shinkai, Y., Tamashiro, K. L. K., et al. (2000). Cloning of mice to six generations. Nature, 407(6802), 318–319. https://doi.org/10.1038/35030301 Yamanaka, S. (2012). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future. Cell Stem Cell, 10(6), 678–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.005
Why Wolves Don't Chirp Why Wolves Don't Chirp
9 months ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Sounds that animals make can be really different, and it turns out that there's a reason why some species communicate with certain sounds. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: frequency - how often a wave occurs in a certain unit of time Hertz - a unit of frequency (Hz), the number of waves that occus in a second pitch - a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale echolocation - the location of objects by reflected sound refraction - the change in direction of a wave diffraction - the bending of waves around obstacles and the spreading out of waves beyond openings ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arch, V. A. and P. M. Narins. 2008. “Silent” signals: selective forces acting on ultrasonic communication systems in terrestrial vertebrates. Animal Behaviour 76: 1423–1428. https://www.mn.uio.no/cees/english/research/news/events/research/journal-clubs/eef/2008/silent-signals.html Bedard Jr. and T. M. Georges. 2000. Atmospheric Infrasound, Physics Today, 53(3): 32-37. https://psl.noaa.gov/programs/infrasound/atmospheric_infrasound.pdf Ladich F. and H. Winkler. 2017. Acoustic communication in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates,” Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2306–2317. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/220/13/2306.full.pdf Michelsen, A. and O.N. Larsen. 1983. Strategies for acoustic communication in complex environments. In: Neuroethology and Behavioural Physiology (ed Huber, F. and Markl, H.) pp. 321-331 Berlin: Springer-Verlag. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-69271-0_23 Narins, P.M., A.S. Stoeger, and C. O'Connell-Rodwell. 2016. Infrasonic and seismic communication in the vertebrates with special emphasis on the Afrotheria: An update and future directions. In Vertebrate Sound Production and Acoustic Communication (ed. R. A. Suthers, W. T. Fitch, R. R. Fay and A. N. Popper), pp. 191-227. Cham: Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-27721-9_7
MinuteEarth Explains: Space MinuteEarth Explains: Space
9 months ago En
Signup for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs. In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we travel beyond Earth and explore some of our favorite mysteries about space. These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:00 Intro 0:29 Why So Many Meteorites Come From The Same Place https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kygTzIXmqfM 2:52 Tidal Locking | Why Do We Only See One Side of the Moon? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6jUpX7J7ySo 5:10 How Do Greenhouse Gases Actually Work? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sTvqIijqvTg 8:09 The Faint Young Sun Paradox! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbnaes8X4iQ 10:48 Outro
Why Do We STILL Use Lead Pipes?! Why Do We STILL Use Lead Pipes?!
9 months ago En
Visit https://www.apmreports.org/water to read "Buried Lead". This video was made in partnership with The Water Main. We've known for millennia that lead pipes could make us sick, so why are we still drinking from them? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Hard water: water with a high mineral content Soft water: water with a low mineral content ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hernberg, S. (2000) Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 38(3): 256-249. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/1097-0274%28200009%2938%3A3%3C244%3A%3AAID-AJIM3%3E3.0.CO%3B2-F Hodge, AT. (1981) Vitruvius, lead pipes and lead poisoning. American Journal of Archaeology 85(4): 486–491. https://www.jstor.org/stable/504874 Milton, AL. (1988) Lead and lead poisoning from Antiquity to Modern Times. Ohio Journal of Science 88: 78-84. https://kb.osu.edu/handle/1811/23252 Rabin, R. (2008) The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes: a Modest Campaign. Public Health 98 (9): 1584–92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2509614/ Troesken W. and Beeson, P. (2003) On the Significance of Lead Water Mains in American Cities: Some Historical Evidence.” In Health and Labor Force Participation over the Life Course, ed. Costa Dora L., 127–51. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and NBER. https://www.nber.org/chapters/c9632.pdf
This Atom Can Predict The Future This Atom Can Predict The Future
10 months ago En
Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org Many of the bewildering correlations in our world - like that between Beryllium-7 and the Asian monsoon - are a result of huge and unseen forces that tie them together. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monsoon: A seasonal increase in precipitation driven by atmospheric conditions. Hadley Cell: A global scale atmospheric cell driven by air rising near the equator and falling as it flows towards the polls. Ferrel Cell: A secondary atmospheric circulation that collides with the Hadley cell and pushes air back down towards the Earth’s surface. Intertropical Convergence Zone: The narrow zone between the northern and southern Hadley cells where warm air comes together and rises. Tropopause: The boundary area roughly 15 kilometers above the Earth’s surface between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Radionuclide: Isotopes of atoms that release radiation as they break down. Beryllium-7: A relatively stable radionuclide of the element Beryllium that naturally forms in the tropopause during spallation. Spallation: The process in which a heavier atom loses nuclear particles after being bombarded by cosmic rays. Cosmic Rays: High energy atomic particles that move at near light speed through space. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Terzi, L., Kalinowski, M., Schoeppner, M., and Wotawa, G. (2019). How to predict seasonal weather and monsoons with radionuclide monitoring. Nature. 9: 2729. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39664-7. Köhn‐Reich, L., Bürger, G. (2019). Dynamical prediction of Indian monsoon: Past and present skill. International Journal of Climatology. 38:3574-3581. Retrieved from: https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joc.6039. Delaygue, G., Bekki, S., and Bard, E. (2015) Modelling the stratospheric budget of beryllium isotopes. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 67:1 Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/tellusb.v67.28582. Palukkat, H. (2016) The odds of foretelling rains: Why monsoon prediction is hard, and why it could soon improve. Economic Times. Retrieved from: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/the-odds-of-foretelling-rains-why-monsoon-prediction-is-hard-and-why-it-could-soon-improve/articleshow/52876823.cms. Kalinowski, M. (2020). Personal Communication. Provisional Technical Secretariat, Preparatory Commission for the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.
MinuteEarth Explains: Water MinuteEarth Explains: Water
10 months ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we take a look at one of Earth’s most critical - and unique - features. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:25 - Where Did Earth's Water Come From? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LpgBvEPozk 3:05 - Why Are There Clouds? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC2x_RRnk8E 5:46 - Why Do Rivers Curve? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a3r-cG8Wic 8:31 - UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yy5UpVoQDJw
The Extinction Happening Inside You The Extinction Happening Inside You
10 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Our modern lifestyle and diet are leading to the extinction of parts of our microbiome, but we can use what we've learned from dealing with nearly-extinct macrobiota, like bald eagles, to understand the consequences and find solutions. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Extinction: the termination of a kind of organism or group of kinds, usually a species Endangered: a species that is very likely to become extinct in the near future Microbiome: a community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and protists) that inhabit a particular environment and especially the collection of microorganisms living in or on the human body Hunter-gatherer: a member of a culture in which food is obtained by hunting, fishing, and foraging rather than by agriculture or animal husbandry Prevotella: a genus of bacteria most commonly found in the microbiome of people who eat a plant-rich diet DDT: an aromatic organochlorine sometimes used as insecticide banned in the U.S. that tends to accumulate and persist in ecosystems and has toxic effects on many vertebrates C. diff: (short for Clostridium difficile) a toxin-producing bacterium which can infect the bowel, causing illness with diarrhea and fever, especially in people who have been treated with antibiotics Antibiotics: an antibacterial substance (such as penicillin, cephalosporin, and ciprofloxacin) that is used to treat or prevent infections by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria in or on the body Probiotics: a microorganism that when consumed (as in a food or a dietary supplement) maintains or restores beneficial bacteria to the digestive tract ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Filippo, Carlotta, et al. "Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.33 (2010): 14691-14696. Gomez, Andres, et al. "Gut microbiome of coexisting BaAka pygmies and bantu reflects gradients of traditional subsistence patterns." Cell reports 14.9 (2016): 2142-2153. Hand, Timothy W., et al. "Linking the microbiota, chronic disease, and the immune system." Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 27.12 (2016): 831-843. Harmon, K. "Bugs inside: what happens when the microbes that keep us healthy disappear." Sci Amer (2009). Harrison, Christy. “Disappearance of the Human Microbiota: How We May Be Losing Our Oldest Allies.” ASM.org, American Society for Microbiology, 8 Nov. 2019, www.asm.org/Articles/2019/November/Disappearance-of-the-Gut-Microbiota-How-We-May-Be. Henson, Shandelle M., et al. "Predator–prey dynamics of bald eagles and glaucous‐winged gulls at Protection Island, Washington, USA." Ecology and evolution 9.7 (2019): 3850-3867. Jacobson, Rebecca. "Can We Save Our Body’s Ecosystem from Extinction?." PBS Newshour (2014). https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/theres-extinction-happening-stomach. Rees, Tobias, and Nils Gilman. Opinion | The Silent Microbiome Crisis. The Washington Post, 26 Feb. 2018, www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/02/26/microbes/. Sonnenburg, Erica D., and Justin L. Sonnenburg. "Starving our microbial self: the deleterious consequences of a diet deficient in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates." Cell metabolism 20.5 (2014): 779-786. Tito, Raul Y., et al. "Insights from characterizing extinct human gut microbiomes." PloS one 7.12 (2012). Trotter, Bill. Seabirds Declining as Eagles in Maine Recover. Bangor Daily News, 6 Aug. 2011, bangordailynews.com/2011/08/05/environment/seabirds-declining-as-eagles-in-maine-recover/. US Fish and Wildlife Service. "Bald eagle recovery plan (southwestern population)." US Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1982). Velasquez-Manoff, Moises. "How the Western Diet Has Derailed Our Evolution." Nautilus (2015).
MinuteEarth Explains: Stuff That...Isn’t MinuteEarth Explains: Stuff That...Isn’t
10 months ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we find out that lots of what we thought we knew about the world around us isn’t quite right. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:11 - This Is Not A Bee https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDMBykrogXs 2:23 - This is Not A Pine Tree https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-m7EuRAdBgk 5:00 - What Makes A Dinosaur? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HIbG-dUFnf4 6:46 - Our Definition For “Moon” Is Broken https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAI1N96t8Vk
MinuteEarth Explains: Cats vs Dogs MinuteEarth Explains: Cats vs Dogs
10 months ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we learn more about the planet’s two favorite pets. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:19 - Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9Dj-xf3iVo 2:02 - How Cats Became our Feline Overlords (ft. It's Okay To Be Smart) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWB0-tGwb_E 4:57 - How Different Are Different Types of Dogs? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7puPXZVsFQ 6:56 - How Your Dog Can Protect You Before You're Born https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ex5y6OVVHe0
MinuteEarth Explains: Battle of the Sexes MinuteEarth Explains: Battle of the Sexes
10 months ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we take a look at how deep the divide between males and females actually goes. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:04 - Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c 3:24 - Males vs. Females: Sexual Conflict https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMCtE2-YsLc 6:18 - Why Bird Penises Are So Weird https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZJ_3_cTGoI 8:49 - Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE 11:27 - Why Do Female Hyenas Have Pseudo-Penises?! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Egtbs-go4Q
MinuteEarth Explains: Food MinuteEarth Explains: Food
11 months ago En
In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we examine the weird world of what we like to eat. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:14 - Why Do We Eat Spoiled Foods? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yswzITbAbA 3:26 - The Story of Frozen Food https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWZwncX_4hk 5:35 - Why Don't Americans Eat Reindeer? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owNMCTmbG9w Why Do Animals Eat Their Babies? 7:36 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xVgAULDwNE Photo Credits:
How to Work From Home as a Team How to Work From Home as a Team
11 months ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ We've worked as a team - remotely - for seven years, and we're sharing some of our favorite tips for making it work. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: We surveyed our team members and put together our favorite specific tools and tips for working from home: Video Conference Tips: -During meetings, mute yourself when you’re not speaking, especially if you’re not using headphones. The noise in the room you’re in or the feedback caused by your speakers audio can make the communication less effective. -Learn how to mute other people in meetings (and don’t take offense when you do get muted). -Figure out tech workarounds for when your wifi inevitably goes on the fritz (call people in, turn off video to reduce wifi strain, etc). File Management Tips: -Establish a naming convention with your team, so that all your shared files are consistent, searchable and organized. All of our projects have two-word codenames and numbers that make it easy to identify them regardless of the final title of the video. When making recordings or video files, we use incremental numbering (e.g. “Audio 1”, “Audio 2”, etc). NEVER use the word “final” or “last” for naming a file! -If everybody is working with a file syncing app like Dropbox, make sure to set appropriate editing rights to your files. You want at least a shared folder that anyone on your team can edit and add stuff to, but some files need to be managed by fewer people to avoid unwanted deletions. For example, we have a folder in which everyone can add/modify/delete files, but only one person is in charge of deleting and cleaning up after everything important has been archived. -If there’s a particular task that is repetitive and can be done by different people, make sure to write down the steps in detail so that nothing is missed or forgotten. Tools For Giving Feedback -Screenshots: In OSX, use command-shift-4 to take a screenshot. On Windows 10, you can use the Windows Ink Workspace right in the task bar, which lets you crop and annotate your screenshot. -CloudApp(www.getcloudapp.com): Captures and shares screenshots (and more) via shareable links -Jing (www.techsmith.com/jing-tool.html): Lets you create screenshots and auto-generates a shareable link for each one. -Epic Pen (epic-pen.com): Great free tool for PCs for drawing on your screen (esp when sharing that screen with someone else) Other Work From Home Tips: -Add things like “time to eat lunch” on your calendar if you need it, or you may end up eating lunch at 3pm. -Keep track of your time! If you don’t keep track of the amount of time you spend working, you might overwork yourself (bad) and still feel like you’re not doing enough (worse). Toggl (www.toggl.com) is a great tool for that. -Consider coworking with a group of (nonwork) friends over Skype or Discord. It can help you get into “work mode” and make you feel a little less lonely while working.
MinuteEarth Explains: Size MinuteEarth Explains: Size
11 months ago En
In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we tackle the science of size. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:22 - The Biggest Organism on Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWAA-SrrFUQ 3:02 - Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-B_ZZjD2ZeU 5:52 - The One That Got Away (Size Matters) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9YOVuEQugE 8:21 - Rain's Dirty Little Secret https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87v_9Bud7vw
How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19) How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19)
11 months ago En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 We’ve changed - and standardized - the way diseases get named because the old way was often stigmatizing and confusing. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Coronaviruses (CoV): a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as COVID-19. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): an infectious disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019 and named a pandemic in 2020. 2009 H1N1 Flu: a pandemic disease that emerged in 2009 caused by the H1N1)pdm09 virus, which was different from any other influenza strain circulating at the time. World Health Organization (WHO): an organization that directs and coordinates international health within the United Nations system. 1918 Flu: often referred to as the “Spanish flu,” the 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic in recent history and caused by an H1N1 virus. There are competing theories for its place of origin, but public health experts agree it did not actually originate in Spain. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first named “gay-related immunodeficiency disease (GRID),” despite the fact anyone, regardless of sexuality, is susceptible. Stigma: a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person. Pandemic: the worldwide spread of a new disease. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn more about social stigma associated with COVID-19: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/covid19-stigma-guide.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Ballantyne, C. "Will Egypt’s plans to kill pigs protect it from swine—sorry, H1N1 flu." Sci Am News Blog https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/will-egypts-plans-to-kill-pigs-prot-2009-05-01/ (2009). World Health Organization. "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic." http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html (2009). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The 2009 H1N1 pandemic: summary highlights, April 2009-April 2010." Official Online Article Published by the Centers for Disease Control 4 https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm (2010). Selyukh, A. "Pork industry still reeling from swine flu.” ABC News https://abcnews.go.com/Business/pork-industry-reeling-swine-flu/story?id=8840004 (2009). World Health Organization. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it" https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (2020). World Health Organization. "World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases" https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/163636/WHO_HSE_FOS_15.1_eng.pdf?sequence=1 (2015).
Why Don't More Animals Eat Wood? Why Don't More Animals Eat Wood?
11 months ago En
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ Wood is abundant and full of energy, but outside of some insects, almost no animals eat it because the stuff it's made of is hard to break down. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Xylophagy: the eating of wood Lignin: a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and help make wood rigid. Cellulose: a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers, which is the main constituent of plant cell walls. Lignin oxidation: a depolymerization method to break bonds in lignin molecules such as ether or carbon–carbon bonds by applying an oxidant such as oxygen. Depolymerization: the process of breaking down a polymer, such as lignin, into simpler monomers Trichonympha agilis: a specialized protist that lives in the hindguts of many termite species that breaks down the cellulose in the wood they eat and may contribute to the lignin oxidation process. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about the fungi that first unlocked the secrets of breaking down lignin: https://www.energy.gov/science/articles/behind-scenes-how-fungi-make-nutrients-available-world _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "Rampant host switching shaped the termite gut microbiome." Current biology 28.4 (2018): 649-654. Martin, Michael M. "Cellulose digestion in insects." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 75.3 (1983): 313-324.Mathews, Stephanie L., et al. "Public questions spur the discovery of new bacterial species associated with lignin bioconversion of industrial waste." Royal Society open science 6.3 (2019): 180748. Chaney, William Reynolds. Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs?. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 2003. de Gonzalo, Gonzalo, et al. "Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation." Journal of Biotechnology 236 (2016): 110-119. Hosokawa, Takahiro, et al. "Strict host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria." PLoS biology 4.10 (2006). Novaes, Evandro, et al. "Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees." Plant Physiology 154.2 (2010): 555-561. Vega, Fernando E., and Richard W. Hofstetter, eds. Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Academic Press, 2014. McNab, Brian Keith. The physiological ecology of vertebrates: a view from energetics. Cornell University Press, 2002. Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "The evolutionary history of termites as inferred from 66 mitochondrial genomes." Molecular Biology and Evolution 32.2 (2014): 406-421. Morgenstern, I., Klopman, S., & Hibbett, D. S. (2008). Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 66(3), 243–257. Suman, S. K., Dhawaria, M., Tripathi, D., Raturi, V., Adhikari, D. K., & Kanaujia, P. K. (2016). Investigation of lignin biodegradation by Trabulsiella sp. isolated from termite gut. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 112, 12–17. Janusz, G., Pawlik, A., Sulej, J., Świderska-Burek, U., Jarosz-Wilkołazka, A., & Paszczyński, A. (2017). Lignin degradation: microorganisms, enzymes involved, genomes analysis and evolution. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 41(6), 941–962. Ayuso-Fernández, Iván, Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas, and Angel T. Martínez. "Evolutionary convergence in lignin-degrading enzymes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115.25 (2018): 6428-6433. Ruiz-Dueñas, F. J., & Martínez, Á. T. (2009). Microbial degradation of lignin: how a bulky recalcitrant polymer is efficiently recycled in nature and how we can take advantage of this. Microbial Biotechnology, 2(2), 164–177. Hibbing, Michael E., et al. "Bacterial competition: surviving and thriving in the microbial jungle." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.1 (2010): 15-25.
Where Does One Ocean End And Another Begin? Where Does One Ocean End And Another Begin?
2 years ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Earth's ocean water is continuous. How can we divide it into sections that are more useful? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: IHO: International Hydrographic Organization ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: We had fun playing with (and transitioning between) different map projections in this video, and we came across this great - and mesmerizing! - website: https://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/3711652 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Antonello, A. (2018). The Southern Ocean. In Armitage D. (Ed.), Oceanic Histories (296-318). Cambridge University Press. Candido, M. (2011). South Atlantic. In Burnard, T. (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History, Oxford University Press. Caspers, H. (1965). Van Mieghem, J. and Van Oye, P (Eds), Biogeography and Ecology in Antarctica. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers. Lewis, M.W. (1999). “Dividing the Ocean Sea.” Geographical Review 89 (2), 188-214. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1931-0846.1999.tb00213.x International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (1953): Limits of Oceans and Seas, International Hydrographic Organization., Bremerhaven. https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/29772/ International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (2002): Limits of Oceans and Seas , International Hydrographic Organization (DRAFT), Monaco.
How This River Made Chimps Violent How This River Made Chimps Violent
2 years ago En
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan plus 1 additional month free. When a group of apes got split apart, slight differences in their new environments led to big differences in future generations. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chimpanzee: A great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Bonobo: A slightly smaller great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Speciation: A lineage-splitting event in which a population of the same species becomes two different species. Allopatric speciation: Speciation that occurs when populations of the same species get isolated geographically. Hominini: The taxonomical classification that includes humans, chimps, and bonobos. Pan: The taxonomical classification that includes chimps and bonobos. Chimpobo: A name we just made up to identify the common ancestor of the chimpanzee and bonobo. Congo river: The deepest river in the world and the second largest (behind the Amazon) in discharge volume. G-G Rubbing: A form of genital to genital contact bonobos sometimes use to form social bonds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder VHS Rewind effect based on footage by http://www.anfx.co ___________________________________________ References: Caswell, J., Mallick, S., Richter, D., Neubauer, J., Schirmer, C., Gnerre, S., Reich, D. (2008). Analysis of Chimpanzee History Based on Genome Sequence Alignments. PLoS Genetics. 4(4): e1000057. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Prufer, K. et al (2012). The Bonobo Genome Compared with the Chimpanzee and Human Genomes. Nature. 486: 527–531. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11128. Hey, J. (2010). The Divergence of Chimpanzee Species and Subspecies as Revealed in Multipopulation Isolation-with-Migration Analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27(4): 921-933. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877540/. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Stanford, C. (2019). Personal Communication. Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, University of Southern California.
The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World
2 years ago En
Get your first audiobook and two Audible Originals for free when you try Audible for 30 days visit https://www.audible.com/minuteearth or text “minuteearth” to 500-500! Bamboo is the world’s fastest growing plant thanks to the cell elongation process it shares with all grasses and its unique cell wall layering adaptation, allowing it to shoot up to 100 ft (30m) in just 8 weeks. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Rhizome: a continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and roots at intervals Vacuole: an organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid, whose main purpose in plants is to maintain pressure against the cell wall Microfibrils: fiber-like strands consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose that make up the cell wall structure Auxin: a plant hormone which causes the elongation of cells in shoots and is involved in regulating plant growth ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Fastest growing plant record - https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/fastest-growing-plant Grass: An Introduction - https://lizzieharper.co.uk/2018/06/grass-an-introduction/ Bamboo Shoot Timelapse - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77Pgqf0rTbY _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Narrator, Script Writer, and Co-Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator and Co-Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Velasquez, Silvia Melina, et al. "Auxin and cellular elongation." Plant Physiology 170.3 (2016): 1206-1215. Nonami, Hiroshi. "Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials." Journal of Plant Research 111.3 (1998): 373-382. Wei, Qiang, et al. "Cellular and molecular characterizations of a slow-growth variant provide insights into the fast growth of bamboo." Tree physiology 38.4 (2018): 641-654. Li, Long, et al. "The association of hormone signalling genes, transcription and changes in shoot anatomy during moso bamboo growth." Plant biotechnology journal 16.1 (2018): 72-85. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, Gunnar Kleist, and Richard J. Murphy. "Developmental changes in cell wall structure of phloem fibres of the bamboo Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of Botany 94.4 (2004): 497-505. Gamuyao, Rico, et al. "Hormone distribution and transcriptome profiles in bamboo shoots provide insights on bamboo stem emergence and growth." Plant and Cell Physiology 58.4 (2017): 702-716. Wysocki, William P., et al. "Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 50. Cosgrove, Daniel J. "Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening." F1000Research 5 (2016). Lodish, Harvey, et al. "Molecular cell biology 4th edition." National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bookshelf (2000). Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine. "Cellular responses to auxin: division versus expansion." Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2.5 (2010): a001446. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, and Richard J. Murphy. "Ultrastructure of fibre and parenchyma cell walls during early stages of culm development in Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of botany 95.4 (2005): 619-629. Lybeer, Bieke, et al. "Lignification and cell wall thickening in nodes of Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens and Phyllostachys nigra." Annals of botany 97.4 (2006): 529-539. Tsuyama, Taku, et al. "Lignification in developing culms of bamboo Sinobambusa tootsik." Journal of Wood Science 63.6 (2017): 551-559. Gibert, Anaïs, et al. "On the link between functional traits and growth rate: meta‐analysis shows effects change with plant size, as predicted." Journal of Ecology 104.5 (2016): 1488-1503.
How To Turn Poop Into Power How To Turn Poop Into Power
2 years ago En
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan and an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. We could generate a lot of usable energy from human and animal poop through greater adoption of a process for using microbes to break down poop into methane gas. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anaerobic digestion: a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen Methanogens: a methane-producing bacterium, especially an archaean which reduces carbon dioxide to methane Wastewater treatment: a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused Biogas: the mixture of gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter, primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide, which can be used as a renewable energy source ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andriani, Dian, et al. "A review of recycling of human excreta to energy through biogas generation: Indonesia case." Energy Procedia 68 (2015): 219-225. Karki, Amrit B. "Biogas as renewable energy from organic waste." Journal (2009). Hatchett, Allison N. "Bovines and Global Warming: How the Cows are Heating Things Up and What Can Be Done to Cool Them Down." Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 29 (2004): 767. Onojo, O. J., et al. "Estimation of the electric power potential of human waste using students hostel soak-away pits." American Journal of Engineering Research, 02 (9) (2013): 198-203. “RCA Issue Brief #7.” Animal Manure Management, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Dec. 1997, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211#table1. “Electricity Generation from Biogas.” Energypedia, https://energypedia.info/wiki/Electricity_Generation_from_Biogas.
You Have More Bones Than You Think You Have More Bones Than You Think
2 years ago En
Go to https://www.curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free! Because the ossification process can differ so much from human to human, we have a wide range of potential bone numbers. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cartilage: The flexible connective tissue that is turned to bone by osteoblasts. Osteoblasts: Cells that control calcium and mineral deposition to turn cartilage into bone. Sesamoids: Bones embedded in tendons or muscles. Fabella: A large sesamoid bone occasionally found behind the knee joint. Coccyx: The small set of semi-fused triangular bones at the end of the vertebral column. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Director and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Goldberg I, Nathan H. (1987). Anatomy and pathology of the sesamoid bones. The hand compared to the foot. International Orthopaedics. 11(2):141-7. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610408. Vineet K. Sarin Gregory M. Erickson Nicholas J. Giori A. Gabrielle Bergman Dennis R. Carter (2003). Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. The Anatomical Record.5: 174-180. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0185%2819991015%29257%3A5%3C174%3A%3AAID-AR6%3E3.0.CO%3B2-O. Tao Sun, Lingxiang Wang, Haitao Zhao,Wenjuan Wu,and Wenhai Hu (2016). Prevalence, morphological variation and ossification of sesamoid bones of the forefoot: a retrospective radiographic study of 8,716 Chinese subjects. 2(3): 91–96. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410651/. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. (1983). Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 65(8): 1116-1124. Retrieved from: https://www.coccyx.org/medabs/posta.htm. Meals, Roy. (2019). Personal Communication. http://www.AboutBone.com
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