MinuteEarth
Science and stories about our awesome planet! Created by Henry Reich, with Emily Elert, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and David Goldenberg. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder. "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." ― John Muir

153 videos
Rise Of The Mesopredator🎵 (ft. ScienceWithTom) Rise Of The Mesopredator🎵 (ft. ScienceWithTom)
1 week ago En
Try Dashlane for free: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Use promo code "minuteearth" for 10% off Dashlane Premium. To see song lyrics, click "CC" on the video or, for an annotated version, click here: https://genius.com/14774391 Thanks to humans, old school apex predators are struggling to hold onto their perch at the top of the food chain. And now a new class of adaptable mesopredators are remaking the ecosystems they take over. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food Web: The feeding relationships between animals that determine how energy and nutrients are spread throughout an ecosystem. Trophic Level: A hierarchical level in an ecosystem made up of organisms that share the same function in the food web. Apex predator: The animals at the top trophic level that feed on animals and organisms below them. Mesopredator: A member of a mid-ranking trophic level that preys on animals and organisms in lower trophic levels and occasionally gets eat by apex predators. Mesopredator Release: An ecological phenomenon in which mesopredators rapidly grow in population once apex predators are removed from an ecosystem. Trophic Cascade: A series of dramatic changes in an ecosystem often triggered by mesopredator release. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: ScienceWithTom goes deep on the science in this video with ecologist Alex McInturff: https://youtu.be/TJcgtqjj-yo _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Tom McFadden Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert, Tom McFadden With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). The Unique Ecology of Human Predators. Science. 349: 6250 (858-860). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6250/858 Prugh, L., Stoner, C., Epps, C., Bean, W., Ripple, W., Laliberte, A. and Brashares, J. (2009). The Rise of the Mesopredator. BioScience. 59:9 (779-791). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/bio.2009.59.9.9 Baum, J. and Worm, B. (2009). Cascading Top-down Effects of Changing Oceanic Predator Abundances (2009). Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 699-714. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19298616 McInturff, Alex. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at University of California, Berkeley.
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How Long Can We Live? How Long Can We Live?
3 weeks ago En Ru
Try Squarespace for free: https://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth The human lifespan might be limited, in part, because natural selection just stops working late in life. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors for helping to make this video possible. ___________________________________________ Video Keywords: Mortality plateau: the leveling out of the mortality rate that is observed at late ages in various species ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: David Goldenberg and Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Grey, A (Sept 2016, personal communication) Horiuchi S, Wilmoth JR (1998) Deceleration in the Age Pattern of Mortality at Older Ages. Demography 35: 4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2307/3004009 Mueller, LD, Rose MR (1996) Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. PNAS 26:15249-15253. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.26.15249 Rose MR, Rauser CL, Mueller LD, Benford G. (2006) A revolution for aging research. Biogerontology 7:269-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16612665 Rose, MR, Flatt, T, Graves, JL, Greer, L, Martinez, DE, Matos, MM, Mueller, LD, Shmookler Reis, RJ, and P. Shahrestani. 2012. What is aging? Frontiers in Genetics 3:134. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2012.00134/full Rose, M. (Sept 2016, personal communication)
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When Trees Go Nuts When Trees Go Nuts
1 month ago En Ru
Please support us through Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Or, click the "Sponsor" button to support us through YouTube itself. Thank you! Every once in a while, all the oaks or spruces or other plants in a region suddenly produce a tremendous bounty of seeds – up to 100 times more than usual. But why do they do it, and how do they all manage to sync up? ___________________________________________ To learn more about mast seeding, start your googling with these keywords: Mast Year: A year in which all the plants of a particular species in a region ramp up their seed production. Predator Satiation Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mast seeding is a strategy plants use for controlling the population of squirrels and other seed-eating animals. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fletcher, Quinn E., Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Jalene M. LaMontagne, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs, and Murray M. Humphries. 2010. “The Functional Response of a Hoarding Seed Predator to Mast Seeding.” Ecology 91 (9): 2673–83. Kelly, Dave, and Victoria L. Sork. 2002. “Mast Seeding in Perennial Plants: Why, How, Where?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33 (1). Annual Reviews: 427–47. Kelly, D. 1994. “The Evolutionary Ecology of Mast Seeding.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (12): 465–70. LaMontagne, J. 2018. Personal Communication.
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Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings) Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings)
1 month ago En Ru
Learn new skills from this video’s sponsor, Skillshare: http://skl.sh/minuteearth4 Humans from different cultures anthropomorphize different animals to represent the same human traits. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sunshower: A meteorological phenomenon in which the sunshines while rain is falling. Idiom: A group of words whose meaning is not readily understandable by defining the individual words. Anthropomorphism: The attribution of human characteristics to an animal or god or object. Linguistic Anthropology: A field of study into how language shapes communication around the world. ___________________________________________ If you’re an American, this New York Times dialect quiz can predict your hometown based on the particular words you use: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/dialect-quiz-map.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blust, R. (1999). The Fox’s Wedding. Anthropos. 94: 487-499. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40465016. Perkovic, A. and Rata, G. (2008). On The Romanian Equivalency Of Animal Idioms In English. Journal of Linguistic Studies. 1: 65-71. Retrieved from: http://docplayer.net/amp/64640306-Journal-of-linguistic-studies.html Tiechuan, M. (2015). Cause Analysis of Different Culture Image in English and Chinese Animal Idiom. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3: 10-19. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f582/3a67a9d085c57417d069ef4bda0df7dd4b4c.pdf Shi, T. (2015). A Comparison of Animal Words in English and Chinese Culture. Presented at the 5th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Medicine. Retrieved from: https://wenku.baidu.com/view/95eb244105087632311212ee.html
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Milk Is Just Filtered Blood Milk Is Just Filtered Blood
2 months ago En Ru
Join Honey for FREE at: https://www.joinhoney.com/MinuteEarth. Special thanks to Honey for sponsoring this episode. Female mammals make milk, a cocktail of filtered blood, to provide their babies with vital nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Mammal: Endothermic vertebrates that nurse their young. Lactation: The secretion of milk by the mammary glands. Mammary Gland: A cluster of alveoli and ducts that secretes milk. Mammary Alveoli: The tiny sacs that are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland. Oxytocin: A hormone released by the pituitary gland that - among other things - causes the milk ejection reflex during nursing. Holstein: A large black and white cow known for the large quantities of milk it yields. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Skibiel, A., Downing, L., Orr, T., and Hood, W. (2013).The Evolution Of The Nutrient Composition Of Mammalian Milks. Journal of Animal Ecology. 82 (6): 1254-1264. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895187 Sharp, J., Wanyonyi, S., Modepalli, V., Watt, A., Kuruppath, S., Hinds, L., Kumar, A., Abud, H., Lefevre, C., and Nicholas, K. (2017). The Tammar Wallaby: A Marsupial Model To Examine The Timed Delivery And Role Of Bioactives In Milk. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 244: 164-177. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27528357 Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I., and Lawlor, T. (2004). Genetic Correlations Among Production, Body Size, Udder,and Productive Life Traits Over Time in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(5):1457-1468. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15290995 Nicholas, K. (1988). Asynchronous Dual Lactation In A Marsupial, The Tammar Wallaby. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 529-536. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2456758
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Are Plastics Too Strong? Are Plastics Too Strong?
2 months ago En Ru
The same chemistry that makes plastic tough, light and flexible also makes it nearly impossible to get rid of, because it’s hard to break those resilient chemical bonds. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Polymer: A substance whose molecular structure consists of large numbers of similar units covalently bonded together Covalent bond: A strong type of bond in which adjacent atoms share electrons. Backbone chain: A long series of covalently bonded atoms that create the continuous chain of the molecule. Bioplastic: A type of plastic, usually biodegradable, made from biological substances. Scission: The breakage of a backbone chain at the bond level. Microbial biodegradation: The use of microbes to break molecules into smaller and less harmful forms. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Disposable plastic cup - Wikimedia user Lionel Allorge https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tasse_Plastique_Air_France_1.jpg Sandbox and Beach Toys - The Children's Museum of Indianapolis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Childrens_Museum_of_Indianapolis_-_Sandbox_and_Beach_Toys.jpg PET plastic - Montgomery County Division of Solid Waste Services https://flic.kr/p/cnfKKw LEGO Tank - Flickr user MaxFragg https://flic.kr/p/gDR7iV PVC Pipe - Pam Broviak https://flic.kr/p/4sy8kb IKEA Watering cans - Sonny Abesamis https://flic.kr/p/pcXrpj LEGO Figure - Marco Verch https://flic.kr/p/DseDts Wetsuit - Clemens Pfeiffer https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shorty-wetsuit-O%27Neill.jpg White PVC Pipes - Teresa Trimm https://www.flickr.com/photos/ttrimm/7355733948 STS-120 Shuttle Mission Imagery - NASA https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-120/html/sts120-s-028.html Providing clean water - UK Department for International Development https://flic.kr/p/a4UESo ___________________________________________ References: Albertsson, A. and Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Designed To Degrade. Science. 358 (6365). 872-873. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/872 De Hoe, G., Zumstein, M., Tiegs, B., Brutman, J., McNeill, K., Sander, M., Coates, G., and Hillmyer, M. (2018). Sustainable Polyester Elastomers from Lactones: Synthesis,Properties, and Enzymatic Hydrolyzability. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140: 963-973. Retrieved from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.7b10173 Tokiwa, Y., Calabia, B., Ugwu, C., and Aiba, S. (2009). Biodegradability of Plastics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10: 3722-3742. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/9/3722 Rydz, J., ,Sikorska, W., Kyulavska, M., and Christova, D. (2015). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16: 564-596. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/1/564 Hillmyer, M. (2017). The Promise of Plastics from Plants. Science. 358 (6365). 868-870. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/868 Hillmyer, M. (2017). Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.
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How Much Food Is There On Earth? How Much Food Is There On Earth?
3 months ago Ru En
Go to https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth to build your math & science skills! Food already in cupboards, supermarkets, & warehouses could feed humanity for 4 months, but potential food - berries, termites & krill - could extend that by another year. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food stock: the total amount of any particular food existing at any point in time Strategic reserve: food intentionally kept on reserve to be sold when supplies otherwise become low Stock to use ratio: the amount of stock of any given food at any point in time as a fraction of the total annual consumption of the commodity ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., et al. 2009. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. Volume 56, Issue 5, 727-740 FAO. World Food Situation http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/ FAO. World Cassava Situation and Recent Trends http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/X4007E04.htm Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D. 2012. Energy, taxonomic aggregation, and the geography of ant abundance. Ecography 35:65-72. National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ Penn State University Extension. Oil factsheet: oilseed presses. 7pp (undated). Ritchie, H., Roser, M. 2018. "Meat and Seafood Production & Consumption". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/meat-and-seafood-production-consumption' Sanderson, MG. 1996. Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide: A global database. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 543-557. Statista https://www.statista.com/statistics/251728/weekly-number-of-us-grocery-shopping-trips-per-household/ USDA ISSN: 1554-9089, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, February 8, 2018; https://www.usda.gov/oce/commodity/wasde/latest.pdf (latest monthly update) Wilson, RW. et al. 2009, Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle, Science 323, 359-362 https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/
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Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested? Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested?
4 months ago En
Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: youtube2018 Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. Once it’s out of your body, your genetic information is valuable to a variety of people, but you can keep it safe(ish) with a few simple steps. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Personal Genetic Analysis: Direct-to-consumer DNA testing, usually through mail-in saliva samples. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism: A variation at a single spot on the genome that is present in some part of the population. Genotyping chip: A microarray that allows genetic testing companies to test a DNA sample for hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Health Care Fraud: A crime that usually involves misrepresenting medical information in order to make money. Targeted Advertising: The practice of placing ads based on consumer demographics or behavior. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act: A 2008 American law that prohibits health insurers and employers from using genetic information when making coverage or hiring decisions. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Melissa Gymrek, Amy L. McGuire, David Golan, Eran Halperin, Yaniv Erlich (2013). Identifying Personal Genomes by Surname Inference. Science. 339:6117 (321-324). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6117/321.full Joh, E. (2011). DNA Theft: Recognizing the Crime of Nonconsensual Genetic Collection and Testing. Boston University Law Review. 91:2 (666-700) Retrieved from: https://www.bu.edu/law/journals-archive/bulr/documents/joh.pdf Tanner, A. (2017). Our Bodies, Our Data: How Companies Make Billions Selling Our Medical Records. Available at: https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780807033340 Koerner, B. (2015). Your Relative’s DNA Could Turn You Into A Suspect. Wired. Retrieved from: https://www.wired.com/2015/10/familial-dna-evidence-turns-innocent-people-into-crime-suspects/ Pollack, A. (2015). Building a Face, and a Case, on DNA. New Yourk Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/science/building-face-and-a-case-on-dna.html?_r=0 Cappos, Justin. (2017). Professor of Computer Science and Engineering, NYU. Personal Communication.
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We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy? We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy?
4 months ago En Ru
This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. No matter how wealthy a country is, there's a lot it can do to improve the health of its citizens. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Bill Gates Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Bill Gates & Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bolt, J., Timmer, M., & van Zanden, J. L. 2014. "GDP per capita since 1820”, in van Zanden, et al. (eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264214262-7-en Life expectancy over time estimated from: https://github.com/open-numbers/ddf--gapminder--life_expectancy Countries that developed insurance systems found in: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/theimpactofhealthinsurance_fulltext.pdf Thanks also to Dr. Shyam Deshpande and Dr. Tracy Seimears
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Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back
4 months ago En Ru
Please support us on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth or as a YouTube Sponsor! Thanks to everyone who already does! Shocking the brain has come and gone as a medical treatment, but it’s currently resurging, as it often provides the best form of relief for severe depression and advanced Parkinson’s disease. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Electroshock therapy: the original name for treating severe depression with a series of brief electrical shocks to the brain Electroconvulsive therapy: the current name for electroshock therapy Deep brain stimulation: a treatment for advanced Parkinson’s that uses pulsed electrical signals to targeted brain regions ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arlotti M, et al 2016. The adaptive deep brain stimulation challenge. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 28: 12-17 Benabid AL, S Chabardes, J Mitrofanis, P Polla. 2009. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 8:67-81 Leiknes KA, Jarosh-von Schweder L, Høie B. 2012. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide. Brain and Behavior 2(3):283-344 Pagnin D, et al. 2004. Efficacy of ECT in Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review. J ECT 20:13-20 Sienaert P, K Vansteeland, K Demyttenaere, J Peuskens. 2010. Randomized comparison of ultra-brief bifrontal and unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: cognitive side-effects. J Affective Disorders 122:60-67 UK ECT Review Group, 2003. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 361, 799–808.
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Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young
5 months ago En Ru
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 We mostly grow annual plants because they reliably produce energy-rich seeds, which we like to eat. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual: a plant that typically lives for a year or less Biennial: a plant that typically lives for two years Perennial: a plant that typically lives for multiple years ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: The Case Against Civilization: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/09/18/the-case-against-civilization _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Bruno van Wayenburg and Ever Salazar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bonser, S. P. (2013). High reproductive efficiency as an adaptive strategy in competitive environments. Functional Ecology, 27(4), 876-885. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12064/full Crews, T. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Crews, T. E., & DeHaan, L. R. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A response. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 500-515. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1008777 Friedman, J., & Rubin, M. J. (2015). All in good time: understanding annual and perennial strategies in plants. American journal of botany, 102(4), 497-499. http://www.amjbot.org/content/102/4/497.short Denison, R.F. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Milla, R. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Pimentel, D., et al. (2012). Annual vs. perennial grain production. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 161, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880912002058 Rees, M., & Long, M. J. (1992). Germination biology and the ecology of annual plants. The American Naturalist, 139(3), 484-508. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1403/1/reesm8_Rees_and_Long_1992_Am_Nat.pdf Reich, P. B. (2014). The world‐wide ‘fast–slow’plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. Journal of Ecology, 102(2), 275-301. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12211/full Smaje, C. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A critical review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 471-499. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1007200 Van Tassel, D. L., DeHaan, L. R., & Cox, T. S. (2010). Missing domesticated plant forms: can artificial selection fill the gap?. Evolutionary Applications, 3(5‐6), 434-452. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00132.x/full Vico, G. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Vico, G., et al. (2016). Trade‐offs between seed output and life span–a quantitative comparison of traits between annual and perennial congeneric species. New Phytologist, 209(1), 104-114. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.13574/full Westoby, M. Personal Communication, Nov 2017.
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A Disease's Guide to World Domination A Disease's Guide to World Domination
5 months ago En Ru
Get 3 weeks of free access to CuriosityStream by visiting http://curiositystream.com/minute and using the promo code "minute" There's something surprising that helps determine how damaging a disease is: distance. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Direct transmission: occurs when a pathogen is transmitted to a new host by physical or close contact Virulence: the degree of damage a pathogen causes its host _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) and Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blanquart, F., et al. (2016). A transmission-virulence evolutionary trade-off explains attenuation of HIV-1 in Uganda. Elife 5: 5. de Roode, J.C., Yates, A.J., & Altizer, S. (2008). Virulence-transmission trade-offs and population divergence in virulence in a naturally occurring butterfly parasite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105: 7489-7494 Ewald, P.W. (1983). Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Reviews Ecology & Systematics 14: 465-485 Ewald, P.W. (1991). Waterborne transmission and the evolution of virulence among gastrointestinal bacteria. Epidemiology & Infection 106: 83-119. Ewald, P.W. (1991). Transmission modes and the evolution of virulence: with special reference to cholera, influenza, and AIDS. Human Nature 2: 1-30. Galvani, A.P. (2003) Epidemiology meets evolutionary ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 132-139. Lipsitch, M. & Moxon, E.R. (1997). Virulence and transmissibility of pathogens: what is the relationship? Trends in Microbiology 5: 31-37.
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Why Do Birds Migrate Like This? Why Do Birds Migrate Like This?
6 months ago En Ru
Buy the book: "Where the Animals Go: Tracking Wildlife with Technology in 50 Maps and Graphics" at http://www.wheretheanimalsgo.com Copyright 2016 by James Cheshire and Oliver Uberti. First American Edition published by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. in 2017. First published in Great Britain in 2016 by Particular Books, an imprint of Penguin Books. Migrating birds care more about the ease of their trip than the distance they travel, and that leads to some truly roundabout routes. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Migration: The seasonal movement of a population of animals from one area to another. Prevailing winds: Winds in a particular area that blow in a particular direction. Thermal: An upward current of warm air. Lift: A force that counteracts the weight of an object and holds it in the air. Flyway: A route regularly used by lots of migrating birds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi García Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Horton, K., Van Doren, B., Stepanian, P.,Hochachka, W., Farnsworth, A., and Kelly, J. (2016). Nocturnally migrating songbirds drift when they can and compensate when they must. Scientific Reports 6, 1-8. Nature. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep21249 Kranstauber,B., Weinzierl, R., Wikelski, M., Safi, K. (2015). Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling. Ecology Letters. 18: 133. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12528/full Liechti, F. (2006). Birds: blowin’ by the wind.Journal of Ornithology. 47: 202–211. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10336-006-0061-9. Reddy, G., Celani, A., Sejnowski, T., and Vergassola, M. (2016). Learning to soar in turbulent environments. PNAS. 113(33):E4877-84. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482099 Shamoun-Baranes, J., Leshem, Y., Yom-Tov, Y., and Liech, O. (2003). Differential use of thermal convection by soaring birds over central Israel. The Condor. 105:208-218. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1370541. Leshem, Yossi. (2017) Professor of Life Science, Tel-Aviv University. Personal Communication.
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Are "Acts of God" Disappearing? Are "Acts of God" Disappearing?
6 months ago En Ru
Considering humans' increased impact on the environment, we may want to reconsider whether there is still a place in our legal system for the Act of God defense. Thanks to all our viewers and supporters for an incredible year of videos! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Act of God: A natural disaster that is outside of human influence or control, such that no one will be held responsible for the resulting damages. Reasonable precautions: The ordinary or usual precautions that a person would take to prevent damage from a natural disaster. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about some of the damage done in the flood of 1903: https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/flood-of-1903/17221 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Melissa Hayes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Merritt Creamery Co. v. Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 122 S.W. 322, 139 Mo. App. 149 (Mo. App., 1909). Herring, S. C., A. Hoell, M. P. Hoerling, J. P. Kossin, C. J. Schreck III, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2016: Explaining Extreme Events of 2015 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (12), S1–S145, doi:10.1175/BAMS -ExplainingExtremeEvents2015.1. Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J. T., & Shepherd, T. G. (2015). Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change, 5(8), 725-730. doi:10.1038/nclimate2657. Stott, P. (2016). How climate change affects extreme weather events. Science, 352(6293), 1517-1518. doi:10.1126/science.aaf7271. Jill M. Fraley, Re-examining Acts of God, 27 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 669 (2010) Available at: h6p://digitalcommons.pace.edu/pelr/vol27/iss3/4. Loimer, H., & Guarnieri, M. (1996). Accidents and acts of God: a history of the terms. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 101-107. doi:10.2105/ajph.86.1.101
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Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains
6 months ago Ru En
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth If you live outside the US, click here: https://www.23andme.com/ When we domesticate an animal species, their brains shrink and they freak out less. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth And to our SPONSORS on YouTube. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Domesticated animal: a species of animal bred by humans over generations to become nonreactive and gain characteristics suitable for life as a farm animal or pet Tame animal: an individual animal raised in a way that it has become less dangerous and frightened of people Feral animal: an animal that escapes from captivity or domestication (& regains some similar & some different characteristics compared to its pre-domesticated state) "Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies a creature to either to resist forcibly or escape Limbic system: the brain’s “panic button” - a system of nerves and networks near the bottom of the cortex that controls basic emotions (e.g. fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (e.g. hunger, sex, dominance) Telencephalon: the most developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting chiefly of the cerebral hemispheres, and the brain region that shrinks most in domesticated animals Domestication: a sustained multigenerational, mutualistic relationship in which one species (e.g. humans) assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another species (e.g. cows) in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest (e.g. milk/meat/traction), and through which the domesticated organisms gain advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship (e.g. aurochs, which went extinct), thereby benefitting and often increasing the fitness of both species involved ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Brain Scoop video on brain size and intelligence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJW8jIDfP9E Russian Fox Domestication Experiment: https://goo.gl/5nWnXz What happens to domesticated animals & their brains when they escape back to the wild?: http://www.nature.com/news/when-chickens-go-wild-1.19195#/free%5C _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Keenan Parry & Ever Salazar (@unpuntocircular) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Agnvall, B. et al. 2017. Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.09.006 Eberhard, W. G., & Wcislo, W. T. 2011. Grade changes in brain-body allometry: morphological and behavioural correlates of brain size in miniature spiders, insects and other invertebrates. Advances in Insect Physiology, 40, 155. http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/2011_Eberhard_Wcislo_AdvIns_Physiol.pdf Kruska, D. C. 2005. On the evolutionary significance of encephalization in some eutherian mammals: effects of adaptive radiation, domestication, and feralization. Brain, behavior and evolution, 65(2), 73-108. https://goo.gl/J86NEd Kruska, D. C. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Marchetti, M. P., & Nevitt, G. A. 2003. Effects of hatchery rearing on brain structures of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental biology of Fishes, 66(1), 9-14. https://goo.gl/GL6LWG Marchetti, M. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Wright, D. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Zeder, M. A. 2012. Pathways to animal domestication. Biodiversity in agriculture: Domestication, evolution and sustainability, 227-259. https://goo.gl/2xWSB8 Zeder, M. A. 2015. Core questions in domestication research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), 3191-3198. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3191.full Zeder, M. A. Personal Communication, Oct 2017.
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Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic? Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic?
7 months ago En Ru
Get your first KiwiCo box free by going to http://www.kiwico.com/minuteearth Occasionally, internal or external factors change, allowing certain animals to become giant versions of themselves. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Spiracles: External respiratory openings on insects Carboniferous Period: The time period from 359-299 million years ago when the Earth’s oxygen levels increased rapidly. Square-Cube Law: A mathematical principle that describes the relationship between area and volume. Buoyancy: An upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. Phytoplankton: Microscopic plants eaten by krill and other zooplankton. Baleen: A filter-feeding system inside the mouth of some whales. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kaiser, A., et al. (2007). Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism. 13198-13203. PNAS. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1941816/ Sander, P. Christian, et al. (2011). Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:the evolution of gigantism. Biological Reviews. 86(1): 117–155. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045712/ Taylor, M and Weder, M. (2013). Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks. PeerJ 1:e36. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.5439.pdf. Verberk, W. and Bilton, D. (2011). Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism? PLOS One. 6(7): e22610. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022610 Slater, G., Goldbogen, J., Pyenson, N. (2017). Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284: 20170546. Retrieved from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1855/20170546.
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What Are Brain Waves? What Are Brain Waves?
7 months ago En Ru
This video was sponsored by "Robot-Proof", written by Northeastern University's President, Joseph E. Aoun. Learn more here: https://goo.gl/uF5Kx8 Thank you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Even the parts of our brains that don't control physical movement show a lot of rhythm, and that might be integral to how our brains work. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: neural oscillation: better known as a "brainwave," a neural oscillation is repetitive, often rhythmic activity in the central nervous system. neurons can sync up with the help of pacemaker cells or structure, or through entrainment. entrainment: the ability of tons and tons of neurons to quickly sync up is due to something called entrainment – here's a cool demo of essentially how that works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl2aYFv_978 central pattern generator: neural networks that produce rhythmic, patterned electrical outputs. CPGs are usually relatively simple neural circuits and are responsible for virtually all the rhythmic motions you see in nature, from jellyfish swimming to human breathing. while we often think of our brains as reaction machines – like, we touch something hot and quickly pull away – central pattern generators don't need any stimulus to work. you can pull them out of an animal and put them in a petri dish and the neurons will still fire with the same rhythms. feature binding: when you see your cat and you know right away it's your cat...well, somehow, your brain is putting together all kinds of information about the object's shape, size, color, motion, position in your field of vision, and lots of other contextual clues to make that happen. neuroscientists call this "feature binding," and neural oscillations may be key to pulling it off. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Snake Crawling - BigfootHD https://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-2582720-stock-footage-snake-crawling.html Greyhound running - Objectivity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq_Oj6qzeIU Hummingbird - Smarter Every Day https://youtu.be/1VA8v1btKdQ?t=73 ___________________________________________ References: Buzsaki, G. Personal Communication, October 2017. Buzsaki, G. (2006) Rhythms of the Brain. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gyorgy_Buzsaki/publication/223130267_Rhythms_of_The_Brain/links/00b4952bb0ae609ac9000000/Rhythms-of-The-Brain.pdf Cabron, J. Personal Communcation, October 2017. Engel, A.K. and Fries, P. and Singer, W. (2001) Dynamic predictions: Oscillations and synchrony in top–down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, pp 704-716. Retrieved from http://www.dankalia.com/science/neu127.pdf Getting, P.A. (1989) Emerging Principles Governing the Operation of Neural Networks. Annual Review of Neuroscience. Vol. 12:185-204 Llinas, R. Personal Communication, October 2017. Lisman, J. and Buzsaki, G. (2008) A Neural Coding Scheme Formed by the Combined Function of Gamma and Theta Oscillations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Volume 34:5, pp 974–980. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/34/5/974/1881304 Lisman, J. Personal Communication, October 2017. Marder, E and Calabrese, R.L. (1996) Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. Physiological Reviews, 76(3), pp 687-717. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1900/8ec50b0d0bcff24438c9a0eb57f9e33f7a85.pdf Marder, E. Personal Communication, October 2017. Singer, W. Personal Communication, October 2017.
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Why Bird Penises Are So Weird Why Bird Penises Are So Weird
8 months ago En
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! https://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Male birds have the largest genital diversity of any class of animals because their sex chromosomes make it easy to pass male-helping mutations down the line. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sex chromosome: A chromosome involved in determining the sex of an individual. Cloaca: A posterior orifice that serves as the only exit for the gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts. Mutation: An alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Sexually-selected Trait: A trait based on a mutation that confers a reproductive advantage. BMP4: A protein whose presence halts the growth of bird penises in the egg. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: An article from The Week about some of the strangest penises in the animal kingdom: http://theweek.com/articles/474417/12-weirdest-animal-penises-earth-updated _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brennan, P. and Prum, R. (2015). Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection,Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict. 1-21. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Retrieved from: http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/7/7/a017749.abstract Brennan, P. (2013). Genital Evolution: Cock-a-Doodle-Don’t. Current Biology. R523-R525. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213004430 Brennan, P., Birkhead, T., Zyskowski, K., van der Waagand, J., and Prum, R. (2008). Independent evolutionary reductions of the phallus in basal birds. Journal of Avian Biology, 39: 487-492. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04610.x/abstract. Briskie, J. and Montgomerie, R. (1997). Sexual selection and the intromittent organ of birds. Journal of Avian Biology. 28: 73-86. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3677097?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Herrera, A., Brennan, P., and Cohn, M. (2014). Development of Avian External Genitalia: Interspecific Differences and Sexual Differentiation of the Male and Female Phallus. Sexual Development. 9: 43-52. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25011524. Reinhold, K. (1998). Sex linkage among genes controlling sexually selected traits. Sexual Selection. 44:1-7. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s002650050508. Image Credits: Mandarin Ducks - Francis C. Franklin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pair_of_mandarin_ducks.jpg Gorillas - Based on photo by Wikimedia user No escape https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gorillafamily.JPG Lake Duck Penis - Kevin McCracken (Published in Nature 2001)
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Where Do Our Drugs Come From? Where Do Our Drugs Come From?
8 months ago Ru En
The incredible chemical weapon-making abilities of fungi, bacteria, and plants have created a diverse array of compounds that are useful to humans. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Bioprospecting: the systematic search for and development of new sources of chemical compounds, genes, micro-organisms, macro-organisms, and other valuable products from nature ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bills, G.F. and Gloer, J.B. (2016) Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi. Microbiology Spectrum 4(6): 6 Cragg, G.M. and Newman, D.J. (2005) Biodiversity: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Pure and Appled Chemistry 77: 7–24 Mazid, M., Khan, T.A. and Mohammad, F. (2011) Role of secondary metabolites in defense mechanisms of plants. Biology and Medicine 3(2): 232–249. Newman, D.J. and Cragg, G.M. (2016) Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs from 1981 to 2014. Journal of Natural Products 79: 629-661 O’Brien, J. and Wright, G.D. (2011) An ecological perspective of microbial secondary metabolism. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 22:552–558
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Why Do Female Hyenas Have Pseudo-Penises?! Why Do Female Hyenas Have Pseudo-Penises?!
8 months ago Ru En
Female hyenas don't have penises, but it sure looks like they do - and we still aren't quite sure why. To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Pseudopenis: a structure that resembles a penis but is developmentally (and functionally) different Masculinization: the process by which female genitalia is made to appear more like male genitalia ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE Hyena having a baby at the Buffalo Zoo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rd7TvoPtWM _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Video Credits: Spotted Hyenas Mating - Olivia Spagnuolo Image Credits: Female Spotted Hyena - Kate Yoshida Spotted Hyena Pseudopenis - Kay Holekamp Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) - Flickr user Jean https://www.flickr.com/photos/7326810@N08/3091611374 Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) - Bernard DUPONT https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/6472940707/ Proteles cristatus - Dominik Käuferle https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Proteles_cristatus1.jpg Squirrel monkey - Wikimedia user Megapixie https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Squirrel_monkey-_fuji.jpg Ring tailed lemur - Wikimedia user Sannse https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ring_tailed_lemur_and_twins.jpg Fossa - Ran Kirlian https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptoprocta_Ferox.JPG Binturong - Tassilo Rau https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Binturong_in_Overloon.jpg ___________________________________________ References: Cunha GR, Risbridger G, Wang H, Place NJ, Grumbach M, Cunha TJ, Weldele M, Conley AJ, Barcellos D, Agarwal S, Bhargava A, Drea C, Hammond GL, Siiteri P, Coscia EM, McPhaul MJ, Baskin LS, Glickman SE. (2014) Development of the external genitalia: perspectives from the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Differentiation. 87(1-2):4-22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030146811300087X?via%3Dihub Frank LG (1997) Evolution of genital masculinization: why do female hyenas have such a large 'penis'? Trends Ecol. Evol. 12:58-62. http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/abstract/S0169-5347(96)10063-X Frank LG and Glickman SE (1994) Giving birth through a penile clitoris: parturition and dystocia in the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta). J. Zool. 234:659–665. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb04871.x/abstract Frank LG, Weldele ML, and Glickman SE (1995) Masculinization costs in hyaenas. Nature 377:584–585. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v377/n6550/abs/377584b0.html?foxtrotcallback=true Glickman SE, Cunha GR, Drea CM, Conley AJ and Place NJ (2006) Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena. rends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 17 (9): 349–356. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043276006001767 Holekamp, KE, personal communication. August and September 2017. Muller MN and Wrangham R (2002) Sexual Mimicry in Hyenas. The Quarterly Review of Biology 77 (1):3-16. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/339199?journalCode=qrb
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Why Farming Is Broken (And Always Has Been) Why Farming Is Broken (And Always Has Been)
8 months ago En Ru
Thanks to the Land Institute for sponsoring this video! To learn more about their work, visit https://landinstitute.org/ To feed everyone in the future, we may need to disrupt 10,000 years of farming practices and turn agriculture into a closed system. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual plant: living for a year or less, perpetuating itself by seed Perennial plant: living for several years Polyculture: the simultaneous cultivation or exploitation of several crops or kinds of animals Natural systems agriculture: cropping systems based on processes found in nature Agroforestry: land use management that combines the cultivation of trees/shrubs with crops/pasture to create more productive and sustainable land-use systems Alley cropping: planting agricultural crops between rows of trees or shrubs ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Alley cropping: https://nac.unl.edu/documents/agroforestrynotes/an12ac01.pdf Agroforestry: http://www.fao.org/forestry/agroforestry/89997/en/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Baker, B. 2017. Can Modern Agriculture Be Sustainable? Perennial polyculture holds promise. BioScience, 67(4), 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix018 Crews, T. E. 2016. Closing the Gap between Grasslands and Grain Agriculture. Kan. JL & Pub. Pol'y, 26, 274. https://goo.gl/d7BGsb Dawson, C. J., & Hilton, J. 2011. Fertiliser availability in a resource-limited world: Production and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus. Food Policy, 36, S14-S22. https://goo.gl/8dMuP1 Famiglietti, J. S. 2014. The global groundwater crisis. Nature Climate Change, 4(11), 945-948. http://aquadoc.typepad.com/files/jfam_global_gw_crisis.pdf Kantar, M. B. et al. 2016. Perennial grain and oilseed crops. Annual review of plant biology, 67, 703-729. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-arplant-043015-112311 Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13268-13272. http://goo.gl/Si9E6g
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Why Is Your Grandma So Short? Why Is Your Grandma So Short?
9 months ago Ru En
Learn more about the Goalkeepers report from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation here: http://gates.ly/2fb6CNH Nutrition during the first few years of life has a huge impact on adult height, and since nutrition has been getting better over time, humanity - including your family - is getting taller. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Osteoporosis: Condition in which bones lose density and break down. Stunting: Impaired growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition. Malabsorption: Condition in which the intestine can’t absorb enough nutrients and fluids. Food insecurity: Lacking reliable access to sufficient and nutritious food. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: More info on the Global Goals for Sustainable Development: http://www.globalgoals.org/#the-goals _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: World Health Organization (2014). WHA Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Stunting Policy Brief. 1-10. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/globaltargets_stunting_policybrief.pdf Caulfield, L., Richard, S., Rivera, J., Musgrove, P. and Black, R. (2006). Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 551-570. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11761/ NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). A Century of Trends in Adult Human Height. eLife. Retrieved from: https://elifesciences.org/articles/13410 Kang, H., Kreuels, B., Adjei, O., Krumkamp, R., May, J., and Small, D. (2013). The Causal Effect Of Malaria On Stunting: A Mendelian Randomization And Matching Approach. International Journal of Epidemiology. 42:1390–1398. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925429 Sorkin, J., Muller, G., and Andres, R. (1999) Longitudinal Change in Height of Men and Women: Implications for Interpretation of the Body Mass Index. American Journal of Epidemiology. 150: 969-977. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547143
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Why Do India And China Have So Many People? Why Do India And China Have So Many People?
9 months ago Ru En
Please subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth India and China have so many people today because they’re good for farming and big, but they’ve always been that way, so they’ve actually had a huge proportion of Earth’s people for thousands of years. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A very detailed map of world population density: https://populationexplorer.com/ Info about world population growth: https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth/ _________________________________________ Visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Eraly, A., Khan, Y., Michell, G. & Saran, M. 2008. India. DK Publishing, New York. Gidwani, V.K., April 2017, personal communication. Goldewijk, K.K., Beusen, A., & Janssen, P. 2010. Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene, 20(4), 565-573. https://goo.gl/BuwJLQ Goldewijk, K.K., Arthur Beusen, Jonathan Doelman, and Elke Stehfest. "New anthropogenic land use estimates for the Holocene; HYDE 3.2.” Unpublished manuscript. https://goo.gl/z73PNr Goldewijk, K.K., April 2017, personal communication. Maddison, A. 2006. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. OECD. https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~aldous/157/Papers/world_economy.pdf Roberts, E., March 2017, personal communication. Ruggles, S., March 2017, personal communication. Stearns, P. N. (Ed.). 2001. The encyclopedia of world history: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, chronologically arranged. Houghton Mifflin. Chicago. Thanks also to Deepak Ray, Jamie Gerber, Emily Cassidy, and Ryan Loomis.
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Why Is Syrup Sticky? Why Is Syrup Sticky?
10 months ago Ru En
Give Blinkist a try! https://www.blinkist.com/MinuteEarth What exactly makes sugary syrups so sticky, when neither water nor sugar is very sticky on its own? Support MinuteEarth on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Ever Salazar Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brown, T.L, LeMay, H.E., Bursten, B.E. (2006). Chapter 11: Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids. In Chemistry, The Central Science 10th edition. Retrieved from: http://alpha.chem.umb.edu/chemistry/ch115/Mridula/CHEM%20116/documents/chapter_11au.pdf Elert, M., Personal Communication, July 2017. Husband, T. (2014). The Sweet Science of Candymaking. Retrieved from: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/past-issues/archive-2014-2015/candymaking.html Longinotti, M.P. & Corti, H.R. (2008) Viscosity of concentrated sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions including the supercooled regime. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 37: 1503-1516. Molinero, V., Cagin, T., Goddard, W.A. (2003) Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions. Chemical Physics Letters, 377:469–474. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8b49/ce63d9430af305c87c1dadfa0ec9bc646461.pdf Wang, L.P., Personal Communication, February 2017. Xia, J., & Case, D. A. (2012). Sucrose in Aqueous Solution Revisited: 1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Direct and Indirect Dipolar Coupling Analysis. Biopolymers, 97(5), 276–288. http://doi.org/10.1002/bip.22017 ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Sugar - Melissa Wiese https://www.flickr.com/photos/42dreams/2452033439/ Sugar beet field - Gilles San Martin https://www.flickr.com/photos/sanmartin/4799481326/ Sugar Cubes - David Pacey https://www.flickr.com/photos/63723146@N08/7164573186/
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Our Definition For “Moon” Is Broken (Collab. w/ MinutePhysics) Our Definition For “Moon” Is Broken (Collab. w/ MinutePhysics)
10 months ago Ru En
Watch Henry’s MinutePhysics video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NucdlR9EGbA MinuteEarth & MinutePhysics are on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth & http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics It’s becoming harder and harder to categorize moons as moons. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Moon: a natural satellite of a satellite of a star. Satellite: A celestial body orbiting a larger celestial body. Orbit: The path followed by one object revolving around another object under the influence of gravity. Barycenter: The center of mass that two or more bodies orbit around. Binary System: A system in which two similarly sized object orbit the same barycenter. Hydrostatic equilibrium: Roundness that occurs when gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient force. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: That’s no moon … it’s a space station! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGp_5gOww0E. And here's a tidy illustrated difference between geocentrism and heliocentrism: http://www.malinc.se/math/trigonometry/geocentrismen.php And MinuteLabs interactive chaotic planet orbit simulation: http://labs.minutelabs.io/Chaotic-Planets/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Norton, J. (2008) Could a moon have moons? Popular Science. Retrieved from: http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2008-04/could-moon-have-moons H. A. Weaver, S. A. Stern, M. J. Mutchler, A. J. Steffl, M. W. Buie, W. J. Merline, J. R. Spencer, E. F. Young, L. A. Young (2006). The Discovery of Two New Satellites of Pluto. Nature. 439: 943-945. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7079/abs/nature04547.html?foxtrotcallback=true Tiscareno, M., Burns, J., Sremcevi, M., Beurle, K., Hedman, M. Copper, N., Milano, A., Evans, M., Porco, C., Spitale, J., and WEiss, J. (2010) Physical Characteristics And Non-Keplerian Orbital Motion Of “Propeller” Moons Embedded In Saturn’s Rings. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 718: 92-96. Retrieved from: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/718/2/L92 Spahn, F., and Schmidt, J. (2006) Saturn’s Bared Mini-Moons. Nature, 440: 30-31. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7084/full/440614a.html
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UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! (Response to MinutePhysics) UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! (Response to MinutePhysics)
10 months ago En Ru
Get your FREE 2-month Skillshare trial: http://skl.sh/minuteearth2 The "Mountain or Valley?" illusion makes our brains turn valleys inside out. But inside-out valleys are a real thing, both on Earth and on Mars. Thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this video, and to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Watch: The "Mountain Or Valley?" Illusion by MinutePhysics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7C318DGB38 ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Inverted relief: a topographic feature, such as an old riverbed, that has reversed its elevation relative to other features. Duricrust: a hard mineral crust formed at or near the surface of soil in semiarid regions by the evaporation of groundwater. Geomorphology: the study of the physical features of the surface of the earth and their relation to its geological structures. Exhumed paleochannel: a remnant of an inactive river or stream channel that has been either filled or buried by younger sediment, and then subsequently uncovered by erosion. Erosion: the action of surface processes, including wind and water, that move dirt and rock from their original location to some other place. Capillary action: the tendency of a liquid in a capillary tube or absorbent material to rise or fall as a result of surface tension. Mineral precipitation: when dissolved compounds in a solution bond together to form a solid (a simple example is how dissolved sodium and chloride ions come together to form salt as water evaporates) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) & Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Yardangs and Ridges of the Edge of Aeolis Planum - NASA JPL University of Arizona https://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/PSP_006683_1740 Raised Footprints - Alan Light https://www.flickr.com/photos/alan_light/5904493388/ _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ The inverted relief at the end of the video is at Green River, Utah https://www.google.com/maps/@38.8744077,-110.2558884,867m/data=!3m1!1e3 ___________________________________________ References: Clarke, J., July 2016, personal communication. Clarke, J. D., & Stoker, C. R. (2011). Concretions in exhumed and inverted channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars. International Journal of Astrobiology, 10(03), 161-175. doi:10.1017/s1473550411000048 Harris, D.R. (1980). Exhumed paleochannels in the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain formation near Green river. Utah: Brigham Young Univ. Geol. Stud. 27, 51–66. Malin, M. C. (2003). Evidence for Persistent Flow and Aqueous Sedimentation on Early Mars. Science, 302(5652), 1931-1934. doi:10.1126/science.1090544 Miller, R. P. (1937). Drainage Lines in Bas-Relief. The Journal of Geology, 45(4), 432-438. doi:10.1086/624550 Pain, C.P & Ollier, C.D. (1996). Regolith stratigraphy: principles and problems. Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 16(3), 197-202. Pain, C., Clarke, J., & Thomas, M. (2007). Inversion of relief on Mars. Icarus, 190(2), 478-491. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.03.017 Pain, C., July 2016, personal communication.
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TRANSPARENT Solar Panels?! TRANSPARENT Solar Panels?!
11 months ago Ru En
Infinitesimally small quantum dots can turn a window into a see-through solar panel! Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Solar window: a window that functions like an ordinary window but also generates power like a solar panel Nanoparticle (also called nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal): a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. These tiny objects often have characteristics that differ from larger versions of the same material. Quantum dots (QD): tiny nanoparticles of some kind of semiconducting material, only several nanometers in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. The QDs embedded in solar windows can absorb radiation largely in short wavelengths and re-emit in longer wavelengths; useful for capturing solar energy and successfully transferring it to the solar cells on the edges of the pane. Total internal reflection: a phenomenon in which a wave hits a medium boundary at such an angle that it doesn't pass through to the other side ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: Peter Reich & Emily Elert Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Thumbnail: R. Lunt, MSU. _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Bradshaw, L. R., Knowles, K. E., McDowall, S. & Gamelin, D. R. Nanocrystals for luminescent solar concentrators. Nano Lett. 15, 1315–1323 (2015). Meinardi, F., Ehrenberg, S., Dhamo, L., Carulli, F., Mauri, M., Bruni, F., Simonutti, R., Kortshagen, U. and Brovelli, S., 2017. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots. Nature Photonics, 11(3), pp.177-185. Meinardi, F. et al. Highly efficient large-area colourless luminescent solar concentrators using heavy-metal-free colloidal quantum dots. Nat. Nanotech.10, 878–885 (2015). Yang, C, R. R. Lunt. Limits of Visibly Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators. Adv. Opt. Mat., 5, 8, 1600851, 2017. Zhao Y., G. Meek, B. Levine, and R. R. Lunt, “Near-Infrared Harvesting Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators”. Adv. Opt. Mat., 2, 606, 2014.
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Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena
11 months ago Ru En
Thanks to spotted hyenas’ unusual social structure, males experience a tough life of solitude, harassment, and deprivation. Support us on Patreon to see more videos like this: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth/posts Thank you to our current supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Watch our Q&A from 7/21/17: https://www.patreon.com/posts/friday-q-with-13099025 ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Sex role reversed species: a species in which males and females exhibit roles other than what might be expected based on other aspects of their biology and mating systems ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Video Credits: Hyenas feeding - Kate Yoshida Image Credits: Scarface - Kate Yoshida _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A blog by researchers currently studying spotted hyenas in Kenya's Masai Mara: http://msuhyenas.blogspot.com/ ___________________________________________ References: Chepko-Sade, B. D. & Z. T. Halpin. 1987. Mammalian dispersal patterns: the effects of social stucture on population genetics. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois. Holekamp, K.E. & Smale, L. (2000) Feisty females and meek males: reproductive strategies in the spotted hyena. In Reproduction in Context. K. Wallen and J. Schneider (Eds). MIT Press. Cambridge. MA. Pp. 257-285. Kruuk H. 1972. The spotted hyena: a study of predation and social behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Smale, L., Nunes, S., and Holekamp, K.E. (1997) Sexually dimorphic dispersal in mammals: patterns, causes and consequences. Advances in the Study of Behavior 26: 181-250. Strauss, E., February 2017, personal communication. Turner, J., June 2017, personal communication. Van Horn, R.C., McElhinny, T.L. & Holekamp, K. E. (2003) Age estimation and dispersal in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Journal of Mammalogy 84: 1019-1030. Watts, H. E. & Holekamp, K. E. (2007) Hyena societies. Current Biology 17: R657-R660.
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Invasion Of The Earthworms! Invasion Of The Earthworms!
11 months ago En
Worms cause major changes to ecosystems, but those changes aren’t always new. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Invasive species: A non-native species that causes harm to the ecosystem. Biome: A large, naturally occurring community of flora and fauna. Duff layer: The moderately to highly decomposed organic material between the leaf litter and the soil. Seedling: A young plant less than one meter high. Sapling: A young tree that’s bigger than a seedling. Graminoids: Herbaceous plants and grasses. Coevolution: The process that occurs when two closely associated species influence each other’s evolutionary paths. Savanna: A grassy plain with scattered tree coverage. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ References: Dylan Craven, Madhav P. Thakur, Erin K. Cameron, Lee E. Frelich, Robin Beauséjour, Robert B. Blair, Bernd Blossey, James Burtis, Amy Choi, Andrea Dávalos, Timothy J. Fahey, Nicholas A. Fisichelli, Kevin Gibson, I. Tanya Handa, Kristine Hopfensperger, Scott R. Loss, Victoria Nuzzo, John C. Maerz, Tara Sackett, Bryant C. Scharenbroch, Sandy M. Smith, Mark Vellend, Lauren G. Umek, Nico Eisenhauer (2016). The unseen invaders: introduced earthworms as drivers of change in plant communities in North American forests (a meta-analysis). Global Change Biology. 1-10. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13446/full Sonja Migge-Kleian, Mary Ann McLean, John C. Maerz, and Liam Heneghan (2006). The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms. Biological Invasions. 8:6 (1275-1285). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-006-9021-9 Alexander M.Roth, Timothy J.S.Whitfeld, Alexandra G. Lodge, Nico Eisenhauer, Lee E. Frelich· and Peter B. Reich (2015). Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica). Oecologia. 178: 219:230. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25481818 Hendrit, Paul (Editor). 2007. Biological Invasions Belowground: Earthworms as Invasive Species. Wackett, Adrian. (2017). Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.
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Why So Many Meteorites Come From The Same Place Why So Many Meteorites Come From The Same Place
11 months ago En
Because of space physics, one faraway asteroid is likely the progenitor of almost a third of all the meteorites on Earth. Thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this video: http://skl.sh/MinuteEarth Jorge and Daniel's awesome new book, "We Have No Idea": https://www.amazon.com/We-Have-No-Idea-Universe/dp/0735211515 Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Asteroid: A rocky body smaller than a planet that is orbiting the sun. Meteoroid: A smaller rocky body moving in the solar system. Meteor: A meteoroid that has entered the Earth’s atmosphere. Meteorite: A meteor that hits the Earth. Orbital resonance: A force that occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, because of the length of their relative orbits. Kirkwood Gap: A dip in the distribution of main belt asteroids that correspond to the locations of orbital resonances with Jupiter. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Jorge Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A terrifying but fascinating look at the destructive power of potential meteorites: http://www.purdue.edu/impactearth/ ___________________________________________ References: Burbine, T., McCoy, T., Meibom, A., Royer, C., Gladman, B., and Keil, K. (2002). Meteoritic Parent Bodies: Their Number and Identification. Asteroids III. 653-667. Retrieved from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002aste.book..653B Farinella, P., Gonczi, R., Froeschle, Ch., and Froeschle, C. (1993). The Injection of Asteroid Fragments into Resonances. Icarus. 101: 174-187. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001910358371016X Fieber-Beyer, S., Gaffey, M., Bottke, W., and Hardersen, P. (2015). Potentially hazardous Asteroid 2007 LE: Compositional link to the black chondrite Rose City and Asteroid (6) Hebe. Icarus. 250: 430-437. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514007088 Gaffey, M. and Gilbert, S. (1998). Asteroid 6 Hebe: The probable parent body of the H-type ordinary chondrites and the IIE iron meteorites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science. 33: 1281-1295. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1945-5100.1998.tb01312.x/abstract Vokrouhlicky, D., and Farinella, P. (2000). Efficient delivery of meteorites to the Earth from a wide range of asteroid parent bodies. Nature. 407: 606-608. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v407/n6804/full/407606a0.html Moons, M. and Morbidelli, A. (1995). Secular Resonances in Mean Motion Commensurabilities: The 4/1, 3/1, 5/2, and 7/3 Cases. Icarus. 114: 33-50. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001910358571041X Burbine, Thomas. (2017). Assistant Professor of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts. Personal Communication.
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What Nuclear Bombs Taught Us About Whales What Nuclear Bombs Taught Us About Whales
2 years ago Ru En
A monitoring system developed to listen for secret nuclear tests mostly hears other events happening all around Earth. Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Visit our NEW WEBSITE: https://www.minuteearth.com/ ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Infrasound: sound waves too low in frequency for humans to hear. The CTBTO stations detect frequencies of 0.02 to 4Hz Hydroacoustic: having to do with underwater sounds. The CTBTO stations detect frequencies of 1-100 Hz Seismic: oscillation waves in the earth, often caused by earthquakes or other tectonic activity. The CTBTO stations detect frequencies of 0.02-16 Hz ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Animals can detect infrasound: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2004/12/surviving_the_tsunami.html A Time-Lapse Map of Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLCF7vPanrY Sound travels 1000s of miles in the ocean’s SOFAR channel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOFAR_channel ___________________________________________ Sounds in the video that were recorded by CTBTO stations: 0:32 Kasatoshi volcano eruption in August 2008, detected 2100km away at infrasound station on mainland Alaska. Sped up 500x https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasatochi_Island 0:35 Explosion of Antares rocket in October 2014, detected 1100km away at Bermuda infrasound station. Sped up 150x https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cygnus_CRS_Orb-3 and video: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antares_Fails_to_Reach_Orbit_with_Cygnus_CRS-3_after_Rocket_Explodes.webm 0:37 Ship engine detected June 1 2017 by hydroacoustic station. Sped up 16x 0:40 Waves hitting an iceberg and causing it to vibrate like a cymbal in July 2010. Detected by hydroacoustic station off of Western Australia. Sped up 16x 1:01 Whale call Feb 18 2017, detected by hydroacoustic station. Sped up 16x 1:08 Chelyabinsk meteor airburst February 15 2013, detected by infrasound station 650km away in Kazakhstan. Sped up 135x 1:39 Earthquake Jan 2 2017, detected by infrasound station. Sped up 16x 2:00 Sound with unknown cause, detected by hydroacoustic station. March 25 2017. Sped up 16x References Brown, P. G., et al. 2013. A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors. Nature, 503(7475), 238-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12741 Gavrilov, A. May 2017, Personal communication Graham, G. May 2017, Personal communication Harabalus, G. May 2017, personal communication LeBras, R. May 2017, personal communication Mialle P., May 2017, personal communication Miksis-Old, J. May 2017, personal communication Nielsen, P., May 2017, personal communication Le Pichon, A., et al. 2013. The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(14), 3732-3737. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/grl.50619/full
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Why Does Wine Make Your Mouth Feel Dry? Why Does Wine Make Your Mouth Feel Dry?
2 years ago En
Check out our new website! https://www.minuteearth.com/ Thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring this video. http://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ Astringent plant chemicals called tannins bind proteins on mucous membrane and skin, generating a prickly, puckery mouthfeel from foods and letting us “tan” skins into leather. ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling here: Tannin: a yellow or brownish chemical present in some plant tissues, used in leather production and ink manufacture, and a contributor to the sensation of astringency Astringency: the sensation caused by the contraction of body tissues due to tannins, often called “mouthfeel” Polyphenol: a chemical compound containing more than one phenolic hydroxyl group, of which tannins are a major group Phenolic: a chemical compound with a hydroxyl group (oxygen & hydrogen) linked directly to a benzene ring ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our new website! https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Bajec, M. R., & Pickering, G. J. 2008. Astringency: mechanisms and perception. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 48(9), 858-875. https://goo.gl/XLR0JY Barbehenn, R. V., & Constabel, C. P. 2011. Tannins in plant–herbivore interactions. Phytochemistry, 72(13), 1551-1565. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942211000690 Covington, A. D. 1997. Modern tanning chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 26(2), 111-126. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/1997/cs/cs9972600111 Covington, A. D. 2009. Tanning chemistry: the science of leather. Royal Society of Chemistry. Covington, A., Mar 2017, personal communication. Gawel, R. 1998. Red wine astringency: a review. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 4(2), 74-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1998.tb00137.x/full Lesschaeve, I. & A.C. Noble. 2005. Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences. The American journal of clinical nutrition 81, no. 1: 330S-335S. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/1/330S.full McGee, H. 2004. On food and cooking: the science and lore of the kitchen. Simon and Schuster. Siebert, K., Mar 2017, personal communication.
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This Is Not A Bee This Is Not A Bee
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to Dollar Shave Club for sponsoring this video. Get your first month of the Executive Razor with Dr. Carver’s Shave Butter for only $5 at http://www.dollarshaveclub.com/minuteearth It can be hard to distinguish bees from all the other insects out there that look like bees. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling here: Mullerian mimicry: a type of mimicry in which two or more animals with defenses develop similar appearances as a shared protective device Batesian mimicry: a type of mimicry in which an animal with no defenses is protected by its resemblance to an animal capable of defense ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A collection of "bees" that aren't bees: http://notabee.tumblr.com/ The Psychology of Mimicry: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4RJRNi-t_E ___________________________________________ References: Brower J.V.Z. & Brower L.P., (1965). Experimental studies of mimicry. 8. Further investigations of honeybees (Apis mellifera) and their dronefly mimics (Eristalis spp.). American Naturalist 99:173–187. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2459113.pdf Dyer, F., Jan 2017, personal communication. Franks, D. W. and Noble, J., (2002). The origins of mimicry rings. Standish, R. K., Bedau, M. A. and Abbass, H. A.(eds.) In Artificial Life VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Artificial Life. MIT Press., pp. 186-191. http://alife8.alife.org/proceedings/sub2852.pdf Pasteur, G., (1982). A classificatory review of mimicry systems. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics, 13: 169–199. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.es.13.110182.001125?journalCode=ecolsys.1 Rettenmeyer, C.W., (1970). Insect Mimicry. Annual Review of Entomology 15: 43-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.15.010170.000355. Wilson, J., Jan 2017, personal communication. ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Honey bee (Apis mellifera) - Charles James Sharp https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Honey_bee_(Apis_mellifera).jpg Sugar bag bee - Graham Wise https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tetragonula_carbonaria_(14521993792).jpg Agapostemon virescens - Susan Ellis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agapostemon_virescens.jpg Amegilla cingulata bee - Chiswick Chap https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amegilla_cingulata_on_long_tube_of_Acanthus_ilicifolius_flower.jpg Drone fly (Eristalis tenax) - Francis C. Franklin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eristalis_tenax_and_flowers.jpg Eumeninae Wasp - Joaquim Alves Gaspar https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wasp_August_2007-3.jpg Sesia apiformis - Gyorgy Csoka https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sesia_apiformis_adult1.jpg Lunate Blister Beetle - Bernard DUPONT https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/12748380493/ Plain Lacewing (Cethosia hypsea) caterpillar - Bernard Dupont https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/22723162703 Nymph of Green Milkweed Locust (Phymateus viridipes) - Bernard DUPONT https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nymph_of_Green_Milkweed_Locust_(Phymateus_viridipes)_(13983971884).jpg Eristalis tenax - Wilder Kaiser https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eristalis_tenax_01Aug2009.jpg Yellow Jacket Wasp - Wikimedia user Bombman356 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yellow_jacket_wasp.jpg
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Why Apple Pie Isn't American Why Apple Pie Isn't American
2 years ago Ru En
Buy the map & T-shirts at our store: http://dftba.com/MinuteEarth Join our Reddit AskScience discussion at https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/6d3a4b/discussion_minuteearths_newest_video_on_the/ Our diets are more global than we realize, because our common food crops and animals were domesticated far away in diverse locations. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling here: Food: a nutritious substance we eat or drink to maintain life and growth Domestication: a multi-generational process in which one group of organisms manages the reproduction and care of, and changes, another type of organism, typically to secure a more predictable supply of resources (e.g. humans with food crops and animals) Centers of origin: the locations where humans domesticated a lot of crops and animals for food, often where lots of wild relatives lived Centers of diversity: a more recent concept recognizing that high concentrations of food plant and animal varieties and related wild species aren’t always located where the plants and animals were initially domesticated ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Explore the geographic origins of our food crops with these interactive charts: http://blog.ciat.cgiar.org/origin-of-crops/ How much do countries benefit from one another’s crop diversity?: https://goo.gl/4mB5Mt ___________________________________________ References: Khoury, C.K. et al. 2016. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide. Proc. R. Soc. B 283(1832): 20160792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0792 Khoury, C.K. et al. 2014. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313490111 McGee, H. 2004. On food and cooking: the science and lore of the kitchen. Simon and Schuster.
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Welcome To MinuteEarth Welcome To MinuteEarth
2 years ago En
Please subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd MinuteEarth: Science and stories about our awesome planet! Watch the videos featured in the trailer: Where did all our oceans, glaciers, and rivers come from? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LpgBvEPozk Why are rivers often shaped so sinuously? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a3r-cG8Wic&t=28s Are we humans hard-wired to fear snakes? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeOrYPvUsTE Are we saving the wrong species?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VEMtc1w4z6c How much of who we end up as is determined before we're even born? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ex5y6OVVHe0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AvB0q3mg4sQ While we're still in the womb, how many...basic human functions do we do? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qc-244lKjjM The Biggest Organism on Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWAA-SrrFUQ Bedbugs. Seriously!? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYVGRmZaSHk Why Do Animals Eat Their Babies? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xVgAULDwNE Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Henry Reich, Emily Elert and David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
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Why Most Rain Never Reaches The Ground Why Most Rain Never Reaches The Ground
2 years ago Ru En
Less than half of the rain that falls from a cloud makes it all the way to the ground – because a lot evaporates while falling or after landing in treetops. Thanks to Georgia Southern University for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth You can see more of John Van Stan's research here: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Van_Stan2 ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Virga: an observable shaft of precipitation falling from a cloud that evaporates before reaching the ground Rainfall interception: The fraction of rainfall that falls on leaves, branches and trunks of trees and evaporates before dripping to the ground. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Good, S.P., Noone, D. and Bowen, G., 2015. Hydrologic connectivity constrains partitioning of global terrestrial water fluxes. Science, 349(6244), pp.175-177. Langhans, W., Yeo, K. and Romps, D.M., 2015. Lagrangian investigation of the precipitation efficiency of convective clouds. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(3), pp.1045-1062. Miralles, D.G., Gash, J.H., Holmes, T.R., de Jeu, R.A. and Dolman, A.J., 2010. Global canopy interception from satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115(D16). Oki, T. and Kanae, S., 2006. Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. science, 313(5790), pp.1068-1072. Sadeghi, S.M.M., Attarod, P., Van Stan, J.T. and Pypker, T.G., 2016. The importance of considering rainfall partitioning in afforestation initiatives in semiarid climates: A comparison of common planted tree species in Tehran, Iran. Science of the Total Environment, 568, pp.845-855. Van Stan, J.T., Levia Jr, D.F. and Jenkins, R.B., 2015. Forest canopy interception loss across temporal scales: Implications for urban greening initiatives. The Professional Geographer, 67(1), pp.41-51.
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Why Don't Sled Dogs Ever Get Tired? Why Don't Sled Dogs Ever Get Tired?
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring this video! https://squarespace.com/minuteearth Sled dogs are the best endurance athletes in the world thanks to a weird quirk in their metabolism. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Glycolysis: The process by which glycogen is broken down into energy. Anaerobic metabolism: The creation of energy through the combustion of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. Aerobic metabolism: The creation of energy through the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. ATP: The principal molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells. Baseline Vital Signs: A subject’s temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure, pain, and pulse oximetry. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Skunk Bear on the Human Vs. Horse Marathon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vS2YVN0OAdc ___________________________________________ References: McDougall, C. (2011). Born To Run. McKenzie, M., Holbrook, T., Williamson, T., Royer, C., Valberg, S. ,Hinchcliff, K., Jose-Cunilleras, J., Nelson, S., Willard, M., and Davis, M. (2005). Recovery of Muscle Glycogen Concentrations in Sled Dogs during Prolonged Exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 37(8). 1307-1312. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16118576 Poole, D. and Erickson, H. (2011). Highly Athletic Terrestrial Mammals: Horses and Dogs. Comprehensive Physiology. 6:57. 1-37. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23737162 Gerth, N., Redman, P., Speakman, J., Jackson, S., and Stark, J.M. (2010). Energy metabolism of Inuit sled dogs. Journal of Comparative Physiology. 180: 577-589. Retrieved from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012661 Miller, B., Drake, J., Peelor, F.,, Biela, L., Geor, R., Hinchcliff, K., Davis, M., Hamilton, K. (2015). Participation in a 1000-mile race increases the oxidation of carbohydrate in Alaskan sled dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology. 118(12):1502-1509. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25150223 McKenzie, Ericka. (2017). Professor of large animal internal medicine at the Oregon State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Personal Communication.
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Why Don’t Sheep Shrink In The Rain? Why Don’t Sheep Shrink In The Rain?
2 years ago En
We appreciate your support on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Getting wet isn’t REALLY what makes wool shrink; it merely exacerbates the friction between the wool fibers, which is stronger in one direction than another, so when agitated in the washer or dryer, they migrate in relation to each other in a process called “felting.” ___________________________________________ To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Fiber: a threadlike structure forming part of the muscular, nervous, connective, or other tissue in the human or animal body Felting: the process by which wool or another textile can be agitated, often along with moisture or heat, to cause the fibers to migrate amongst themselves and mat together into a dense smooth surface Ratchet: a device consisting of a bar or wheel with a set of angled teeth that allow motion in one direction only Wool: soft curly or wavy hair forming the coat of a sheep or similar animal, especially when cut off the animal & prepared for use in making cloth or yarn Mammal: a warm-blooded, bony, & hairy/furry animal, the females of which give birth to live young and nurse them with milk ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang (@QCVisual) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Is it Better to Walk or Run in the Rain? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MqYE2UuN24 ___________________________________________ References: Gupta, N. P., Agarwal, R., & Pant, S. (2009). Factors affecting felting of wool: An overview. Colourage, 56(1). Johnson, N. A., & Russell, I. (Eds.). (2008). Advances in wool technology. Elsevier. https://goo.gl/vZ9eCn Makinson, K. R. (1972). The Role of the Scales of Wool Fibers in Felting and in Shrinkproofing. Wool Sci. Rev, (42), 2-16. Makinson, K. R. (1979). Shrinkproofing of wool (Vol. 8). M. Dekker. Chicago. Menkart, J., & Speakman, J. B. (1945). Scaliness of Wool Fibres. Nature, 156, 143-143. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v156/n3953/abs/156143a0.html van der Vegt, A. K. (1955). A study on the mechanism of wool felting. Excelsior.
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Why Some Molecules Have Evil Twins Why Some Molecules Have Evil Twins
2 years ago En
A tiny change in a molecule’s geometry completely changes its effects on the human body. How We Made This Video (Ever & David Talk About Drugs): https://youtu.be/tefxgYP0BVM March for Science website: https://www.marchforscience.com Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with: Enantiomers: Molecules that are mirror images of each other. Chirality: A geometric property that makes a molecule non-superimposable on its mirror image. Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant. Levmetamfetamine: The new name for the left-handed version of methamphetamine, which acts as a vasoconstrictor. Carvone: A terpenoid found in many essential oils. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Narrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Breaking Bad: http://www.amc.com/shows/breaking-bad ___________________________________________ Image credits: Mint - Darya Pino https://www.flickr.com/photos/summertomato/3570433046 Black Licorice - US FDA (Public Domain) https://www.flickr.com/photos/fdaphotos/6280412705 Facepalm statue - Alex E. Proimos https://www.flickr.com/photos/proimos/4199675334/ _________________________________________ References: Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL., et al. “The Making or Breaking of Covalent Bonds Involves Large Energy Changes”. Molecular Cell Biology. Section 2:1 (22). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21595/#_A261_ Wallach, J. “A Comprehensive Guide to the Clandestine Chemistry of 'Breaking Bad'” Vice. (2013). Retrieved from: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/a-comprehensive-guide-to-the-clandestine-chemistry-of-breaking-bad. Thanks to the following experts for their input and feedback: Jason Wallach, Vice writer and chemist Donna Nelson, University of Oklahoma chemistry professor and technical advisor to ‘Breaking Bad’ Adam Braunschweig, CUNY chemistry professor (http://www.braunschweiggroup.org/) Justin Dragna, University of Texas chemistry professor
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How Cats Became our Feline Overlords (ft. It's Okay To Be Smart) How Cats Became our Feline Overlords (ft. It's Okay To Be Smart)
2 years ago Ru En
Check out how cats became our favorite little murder machines. Buy the CAT CAT T-shirt here: https://store.dftba.com/products/cat-cat-shirt To learn how dogs and humans got together, watch the companion video over at It's OK To Be Smart: https://youtu.be/tggdERc8E6Y - be sure to subscribe while you're there! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Puma: The big cat with the largest home range. Felix silvestris: The wildcat that is the direct ancestor to all modern house cats. Bastet: Egyptian cat goddess. Pseudaelurus: A prehistoric cat that is the common ancestor to all modern felines. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Sarah Keartes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCvisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Joe Hanson (@DrJoeHanson) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Hu, Yaowu, et al. ""Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.1 (2014): 116-120." Montague, Michael J., et al. ""Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.48 (2014): 17230-17235. O’Brien, Stephen J., and Warren E. Johnson. The evolution of cats. Scientific American 297.1 (2007): 68-75. "The Lion in the Living Room"" - Abigail Tucker http://amzn.to/2ppLNxz (Public library: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/956395842) Vigne, Jean-Denis, et al. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). PloS one 11.1 (2016): e0147295. Human-cat burial image provided courtesy of Pr . Jean Guilaine excavations
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What Makes A Dinosaur? What Makes A Dinosaur?
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Buy the DIMETRODON T-SHIRT: https://store.dftba.com/products/dimetrodon-shirt Due to a revolution in our understanding of the tree of life, birds are dinosaurs, while dimetrodons are not. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Systema Naturae: A 1735 book by Carl Linnaeus that outlined his hierarchical classification of animals. Plagiuri: an early,now disused, biological subclassification of fish used by Linnaeus that also included dolphins and whales. Anthropomorpha: a defunct taxon established by Linnaeus for genera Homo (humans), Simia (monkeys and apes in general) and Bradypus (sloths). Cladogram: A branching diagram showing the evolutionary relationship between species. Dimetrodon: An extinct carnivorous synapsid related to early mammals. Plesiosaur: An extinct marine reptile with a long neck related to modern snakes. Species featured in this video: Brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Flathead Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: - After her great video on Dimetrodon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tdVPiyVDsQ, The Brain Scoop’s Emily Graslie started a blog devoted to the dinosaur confusion in modern toys: http://isnotadinosaur.tumblr.com/. - A new Nature paper suggesting our evolutionary history of dinosaurs might be very wrong http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v543/n7646/full/nature21700.html ___________________________________________ References: Angielczyk, K. (2009). Dimetrodon is not a Dinosaur: Using Tree Thinking to Understand the Ancient Relatives of Mammals and their Evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach 2:257–271. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12052-009-0117-4 Romero, A. (2012). When Whales Became Mammals: The Scientific Journey of Cetaceans From Fish to Mammals in the History of Science. New Approaches to the Study of Marine Mammals. Chapter 1. Retrieved from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-approaches-to-the-study-of-marine-mammals Switek, B. (2010). Why a Pterosaur is Not a Dinosaur. Smithsonian. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-a-pterosaur-is-not-a-dinosaur-87082921/
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MinuteEarth Needs Your Support MinuteEarth Needs Your Support
2 years ago En
Please support us on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth THANK YOU for helping us stick around! ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
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Why Is A Group Of Crows Called A “Murder”? Why Is A Group Of Crows Called A “Murder”?
2 years ago En
Buy our clowder of cats T-shirt! https://store.dftba.com/products/cat-cat-shirt AND SUPPORT US ON PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Collective nouns are a great way to have fun with language and nature. Thank you! ___________________________________________ Collective Noun: A noun that denotes a group of individuals. Terms of Venery: Collective nouns specific to certain groups of animals. Clowder: A term for a group of cats that means roughly, huddle, and comes from the same root as clot. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCvisual) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Mental Floss’s collection of collective nouns: http://mentalfloss.com/article/33580/50-collective-nouns-bolster-your-vocabulary ___________________________________________ References: Berners, D. J. (1494). The Boke of Saint Albans. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=-awLAAAAIAAJ Lipton, J. (1993). An Exaltation of Larks. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.com/Exaltation-Larks-Ultimate-James-Lipton/dp/0140170960 Lund, N. (2015). No, It’s Not Actually a Murder of Crows. Audubon (December). Retrieved from: http://www.audubon.org/news/no-its-not-actually-murder-crows
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Ambergris: Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales Ambergris: Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales
2 years ago En
How whale poop becomes perfume. Thanks to Crunchyroll for sponsoring this video! http://www.crunchyroll.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Sperm Whale: (Physeter macrocephalus) The largest toothed-whale, found in oceans all around the world, and likely the only whale besides the Pygmy Sperm Whale to produce ambergris. Cephalopod: An active predatory mollusk like an octopus or a squid. Cetacean: A marine mammal like a porpoise, dolphin or whale. Colon: The part of the large intestine that goes from the cecum to the rectum. Rectum: The last part of the intestine that ends in the anus. Eau de toilette: A dilute form of perfume ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: When a whale falls, it's story has just begun: https://vimeo.com/29987934 ___________________________________________ References: Clarke, R. (2006). The Origin of Ambergris. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 5:1 (7-21). Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5597/lajam00087 Dannenfeldt, K. (1982). Ambergris: The Search for Its Origin. Isis 73:3 (382-397). Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/231442 Kemp, K. (2016). Personal communication based on his book, “Floating Gold: A Natural (and Unnatural) History of Ambergris.” Link: https://www.amazon.com/Floating-Gold-Natural-Unnatural-Ambergris/dp/0226430367
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Why Are Snakes So Creepy? Why Are Snakes So Creepy?
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Snakes occupy a special place in the human brain because they’re so weird. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Ophidiophobia: The abnormal fear of snakes Lateral Undulation: Waves of lateral bending through the body that propel the snake forward. Trichromatic Vision: Three color receptors in the eye that allow the animal to see a wider spectrum of colors. Electroencephalogram: A non-invasive method of measuring electrical activity in the brain. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Emily Elert, Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Vsauce2 on Dragons and Snakes and Humans: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6grLJyqIM8E ___________________________________________ References: Isbell, L. (2004). Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains. Journal of Human Evolution 51 (1-35). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16545427 LoBue, V., and DeLoache, J. (2008). Detecting the Snake in the Grass: Attention to Fear-Relevant Stimuli by Adults and Young Children. Psychological Science 19:3 (284-289). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18315802 Van Lea, W., Isbelle, L., Matsumotoa, J., Nguyen, J., Horia, E., Maiorc, R., Tomazc, R., Trana, A., Onoa, T., and Nishijoa, H. (2013) Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes. PNAS 110:47 (19000-19005). Retrieved from: http://www.pnas.org/content/110/47/19000 Kawai, N., and He, H. (2016). Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions. PLoS ONE 11:10. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164342.
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Why Did T Rex Have Such Tiny Arms? Why Did T Rex Have Such Tiny Arms?
2 years ago Ru En
It's easy to assume that every trait - including stubby arms on a terrifying predator - must be beneficial, but the forces of evolution don't really work like that. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Evolutionary Mechanisms: Forces that change the frequency of genes in populations. Natural Selection: The process whereby traits that make animals more likely to survive and reproduce take hold in a population. Vestigiality: The process by which a genetically-determined structure loses some or all of its functionality. Genetic Drift: A change in the frequency of an allele due to random sampling. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: The BrainScoop on Sue the T. Rex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHhI4eqYGdk ___________________________________________ References: Switek, B. (2013). Paleontology: The Truth about the T. Rex 502 (424-426). Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/news/palaeontology-the-truth-about-t-rex-1.13988 E. Snively, A. P. Russell, G. L. Powell, J. M. Theodor & M.J.Ryan (2014). The role of the neck in the feeding behaviour of the Tyrannosauridae: inference based on kinematics and muscle function of extant avians. Journal of Zoology 292 (290-303). Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzo.12109/abstract Middleton, K., and Gatesy, S. (2000) Theropod forelimb design and evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128 (149-187). Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2000.tb00160.x/abstract Lynch, M., Ackerman, M., Gout, J., Long, H., Sung, W., Thomas, W., and Foster, P. (2016). Genetic drift, selection and the evolution of the mutation rate. Nature Reviews: Genetics 17 (704-715). Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v17/n11/full/nrg.2016.104.html
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How Physics Saved Two Million Premature Babies How Physics Saved Two Million Premature Babies
2 years ago Ru En
This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2lhhtmJ. Doctors beat back a disease that was killing tens of thousands of babies a year with a machine based on a simple principle of physics. Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Preterm Birth: The leading cause of death of children under five years old, prematurity occurs for a variety of different reasons. Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A syndrome in premature babies caused by insufficient production of pulmonary surfactant. Alveoli: Tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow for rapid gas exchange Pulmonary Surfactant: A mixture of lipids and proteins that decreases surface tension in the alveoli. Law of Laplace: A law of physics stating that the pressure within a sphere is inversely proportional to its radius. CPAP: A ventilator that provides Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) to keep the airways open. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: 10 Awesome Balloon Tricks by Mr. Hacker: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXqmvFy9cXE ___________________________________________ References: Gregg, R. Bernstein, J. (1961). Pulmonary Hyaline Membranes and the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children 102 (871-889). Retrieved from: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/500014 Gregory, G., Kitterman, J., Phibbs, R., Tooley, W., and Hamilton, W. (1971). Treatment of the Idiopathic Respiratory-Distress Syndrome with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. New England Journal of Medicine 284 (1333-1340). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4930602 Kamath, B., MacGuire, E., McClure, E., Goldenberg, R., and Jobe, A. (2011) Neonatal Mortality From Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Lessons for Low-Resource Countries. Pediatrics 127 (1139-1146). Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/6/1139 Mai, C., Yaster, M., Firth, P. (2013). The development of continuous positive airway pressure:an interview with Dr. George Gregory. Pediatric Anaesthesia 23 (3-8). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23170829
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Why Is Poop Brown And Pee Yellow? Why Is Poop Brown And Pee Yellow?
2 years ago Ru En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 The pigments in our food all get destroyed on their way through our digestive system...so where do the colors of our poop and pee come from? Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: - Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen - Hemoglobin also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. - Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates. - Urobilinogen is a colourless by-product of bilirubin reduction. It is formed in the intestines by bacterial action on bilirubin. About half of the urobilinogen formed is reabsorbed and taken up via the portal vein to the liver, enters circulation and is excreted by the kidney. - Urobilin or urochrome is the chemical primarily responsible for the yellow color of urine. - Stercobilin is the chemical responsible for the brown color of human feces" __________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Will Tauxe Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________
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Should We Grow Human Organs In Pigs? Should We Grow Human Organs In Pigs?
2 years ago Ru En
An amazing new technology will let scientists grow new kidneys for patients using their own stem cells inside of pigs. To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Organ transplantation - surgically transferring an organ from one person into another. Xenotransplantation - transplanting organs between members of different species. Transplant rejection - when the organ recipient’s immune system destroys transplanted tissue. Pluripotent stem cells - embryonic cells that can give rise to all the different types of cells that make up the body. CRISPR - a genome editing tool that allows scientists to modify genes in living cells. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: Rachel Becker (@Ra_Becks) & David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Ross, P. (2016). Personal Communication Tushla, L. (2015). When a Transplant Fails. National Kidney Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kidney.org/transplantation/transaction/TC/summer09/TCsm09_TransplantFails Reardon, S. (2015) New life for pig-to-human transplants 527 (152-154). Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/news/new-life-for-pig-to-human-transplants-1.18768 Nagashima, H., Matsunari, H. (2016). Growing human organs in pigs - A dream or reality? Theriogenology 86 (422-426). Retrieved from http://www.theriojournal.com/article/S0093-691X(16)30095-4/pdf
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Why Don't Americans Eat Reindeer? Why Don't Americans Eat Reindeer?
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video! Reindeer meat could’ve entered North American cuisine and culture, but our turn of the century efforts to develop a reindeer industry were stymied by nature, the beef lobby, and the Great Depression. Reddit AskScience Link: http://bit.ly/RedditReindeer Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ Help translate this video: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_video?v=owNMCTmbG9w&ref=share FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Reindeer - the smaller, (semi-)domesticated version/subspecies of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Caribou - the wild, north American subspecies of Rangifer tarandus (Rangifer tarandus granti and others). Wild reindeer - the wild, European/Asian subspecies of Rangifer tarandus. Herding - bringing animals together into a group, maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place Rain-on-snow event - exactly what it sounds like! Rain that falls on snow, freezes into a thick layer of impenetrable ice over pastures, and causes mass starvation of reindeer (or caribou) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Rangifer tarandus - Alexandre Buisse https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20070818-0001-strolling_reindeer.jpg _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Alaska Fish & Game Dept website for “Santa's Reindeer” species - http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=santasreindeer.main A virtual guide to reindeer and the people who herd them - http://reindeerherding.org/ The Great Canadian Reindeer Project - http://www.canadashistory.ca/Magazine/Online-Extension/Articles/The-Great-Canadian-Reindeer-Project How one storm killed 61,000 Russian reindeer in 2013: http://www.popsci.com/sea-ice-loss-is-imperiling-reindeer-herders-way-life ___________________________________________ References: Special thanks to Professor Greg Finstad of the University of Alaska Fairbanks for lending his advice, expertise, and patience to the making of this video! Christie, A., & Finstad, G. L. (2009). Reindeer in the “Great Land”: Alaska's Red Meat Industry. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 10(4), 354-373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10496500903245651 Daniel, C. R., Cross, A. J., Koebnick, C., & Sinha, R. (2011). Trends in meat consumption in the USA. Public health nutrition, 14(04), 575-583. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045642/pdf/nihms-253312.pdf Dubner, S. J. (2010, December 9). Beef or Chicken? A Look at U.S. Meat Trends in the Last Century [Blog post]. Retrieved December 1, 2016, from http://freakonomics.com/2010/12/09/beef-or-chicken-a-look-at-u-s-meat-trends-in-the-last-century/ Finstad, G. L. (2016). Personal Communication. Finstad, G. L., Bader, H. R., & Prichard, A. K. (2002). Conflicts between reindeer herding and an expanding caribou herd in Alaska. Rangifer, 22(4), 33-37. https://www.ub.uit.no/baser/septentrio/index.php/rangifer/article/viewFile/1668/1559 Finstad, G. L., Kielland, K. K., & Schneider, W. S. (2006). Reindeer herding in transition: historical and modern day challenges for Alaskan reindeer herders. Nomadic Peoples, 10(2), 31-49. http://reindeer.salrm.uaf.edu/resources/journal_articles/Nomadic_Peoples10(2)31-49.PDF Stern, R. O., Arobio, E. L., Naylor, L. L., & Thomas, W. C. (1980). Eskimos, reindeer, and land. https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/bitstream/handle/11122/1205/Bulletin59.pdf?sequence=1 Willis, R. (2006). A New Game in the North: Alaska Native Reindeer Herding, 1890–1940. Western Historical Quarterly, 37(3), 277-301. http://oit-fhs-pws1.oit.duke.edu/Fellowships/Willis.pdf
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