MinuteEarth
Science and stories about our awesome planet! Created by Henry Reich, with Emily Elert, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and David Goldenberg. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder. "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." ― John Muir

187 videos
Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is
1 day ago En
Go to https://curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free! Experts can't agree on the definition of the term "concussion," which makes it difficult to diagnose, treat, and research this important brain injury. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes) Traumatic brain injury (TBI): a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury Subdural hematoma: a collection of blood between the layers of tissue that surround the brain Cerebral microbleeding: small chronic brain hemorrhages which are likely caused by structural abnormalities of the small vessels of the brain ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Everything we know about concussions is wrong – https://qz.com/1136683/everything-we-know-about-concussions-is-wrong/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Rasmussen, Carly, et al. "How Dangerous Are Youth Sports for the Brain: A Review of the Evidence." Berkeley J. Ent. & Sports L. 7 (2018): 67. - https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=bjesl Shen, Francis X. "Are youth sports concussion statutes working." Duq. L. Rev. 56 (2018): 7. - https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3172294 Sharp, David J., and Peter O. Jenkins. "Concussion is confusing us all." Practical neurology 15.3 (2015): 172-186. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453625/ Tator, Charles H. "Concussions and their consequences: current diagnosis, management and prevention." CMAJ 185.11 (2013): 975-979. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735746/ Whitelaw, A. S., and I. Young. "A case of perilymphatic fistula in blunt head injury." Emergency medicine journal 22.12 (2005): 921-921. - https://emj.bmj.com/content/22/12/921 Mason, Peggy. “Concussion Is a Counter-Productive Term: Let's Retire It.” The Brain Is Sooooo Cool!, 5 July 2015, https://thebrainissocool.com/2015/07/05/concussion-is-a-counter-productive-term-lets-retire-it/ Haller, Sven, et al. "Cerebral microbleeds: imaging and clinical significance." Radiology 287.1 (2018): 11-28. - https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2018170803 Goldenbaum, Ellen. “Is It Really a Concussion? Symptoms Overlap with Neck Injuries, Making Diagnosis a Tough Call.” UB News Center, 29 July 2014, http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2014/07/040.html
The Great Acceleration The Great Acceleration
1 week ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ We’re in the middle of a rapid, unprecedented, and world-changing increase in the intensity and scale of human activity on this planet. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: The Great Acceleration - the dramatic increase in human activity, largely since 1950, that is evident across a variety of socio-economic and biophysical measures, and that has made humans into a planetary scale force The Anthropocene - our current geological epoch (contested), beginning when humans first had significant impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems Hockey stick graph - typically refers to the Mann et al 1999 graph of Earth’s temperature, but can also refer to any trend that's roughly constant for a long duration and then has a drastic upwards shift ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Welcome to the Anthropocene film - https://vimeo.com/39048998 Animated map of last 200,000 years of human population - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUwmA3Q0_OE The history of emissions and the Great Acceleration - https://skepticalscience.com/EmmissionsAcceleration.html The Hockey Stick Controversy - https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/05/the-hockey-stick-the-most-controversial-chart-in-science-explained/275753/ An argument for 'why growth can’t be green’ - https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/12/why-growth-cant-be-green/# Can we stabilize Earth, or are we going to cross planetary thresholds? - www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1810141115 An attainable global vision for conservation and human well-being - https://www.nature.org/content/dam/tnc/nature/en/documents/TNC_AnAttainableGlobalVision_Frontiers.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Director and Illustrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hockey stick graph: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T_comp_61-90.pdf by Klaus Bittermann. Used with permission. Copper graph based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_copper#/media/File:Copper_-_world_production_trend.svg Life expectancy graph: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy CO2 graph: https://rateofchange.substack.com/p/the-rate-of-change-july-15-2019 Girl receiving oral polio vaccine: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/8190819087 No changes were made. ___________________________________________ References: Barnosky, A. D., et al. 2014. Introducing the scientific consensus on maintaining humanity’s life support systems in the 21st century: Information for policy makers. The Anthropocene Review, 1(1), 78-109. http://bit.ly/34rguHz IGPB. 2015. Great Acceleration. http://www.igbp.net/globalchange/greatacceleration.4.1b8ae20512db692f2a680001630.html Accessed Aug 2019. Hellmann, J. Aug 2019. Personal communication. Mann, M. E., et al. 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 759-762. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/1999GL900070. McNeill, J.R. Oct 2019. Personal communication. McNeill, J. R. 2001. Something new under the sun: An environmental history of the twentieth-century world (the global century series). WW Norton & Company. Roser, M. 2019. Life Expectancy. Our World In Data. https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy Accessed Sept 2019. Phillipon, D. Aug 2019. Personal communication. Polasky, S. Sept 2019. Personal communication. Steffen, W. et al. 2015. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: the great acceleration. The Anthropocene Review, 2(1), 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2053019614564785 Thompson et al. 2009. Our plastic age. 364. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0054
Smartphones: A New Model for Energy Efficiency? Smartphones: A New Model for Energy Efficiency?
2 weeks ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The way smartphones made many devices nonessential is a model for a new way to think about improving energy efficiency. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Dematerialization - using less (or no) material to deliver the same service Energy conservation - using less energy by adjusting behavior (turning down your heat) Energy efficiency - using less energy by using technology that requires less energy to perform the same function (insulating your house to keep warm while using less energy) Energy intensity - energy consumption per unit of GDP (reduced by increasing energy efficiency) Energy services - the useful functions you're able to perform by using energy (what we refer to as ‘function’) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Phones are great for the environment https://www.wired.com/story/iphone-environment-consumption/ Nope, phones are bad for the environment https://theconversation.com/how-smartphones-are-heating-up-the-planet-92793 Amory Lovins on ‘integrative design’ (watch the video abstract) - https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aad965/meta The US would use 85% more energy if it weren’t for efficiency efforts since the 1970s https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/energy-environment/308170-cheap-clean-and-easily-accessible-an-energy-resource US energy intensity has halved since 1970 https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=10191 This chart shows just how much energy the US is wasting https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/05/visualizing-u-s-energy-consumption-in-one-chart _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Belkhir, L., & Elmeligi, A. 2018. Assessing ICT global emissions footprint: Trends to 2040 & recommendations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 448-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.239 Bento, N. 2016. Calling for change? Innovation, diffusion, and the energy impacts of global mobile telephony. Energy Research & Social Science, 21, 84-100. https://repositorio.iscte-iul.pt/bitstream/10071/12732/5/Accepted_manuscript_Jun16.pdf Cullen, J. M., Allwood, J. M., & Borgstein, E. H. 2011. Reducing energy demand: what are the practical limits?. Environmental science & technology, 45(4), 1711-1718. dx.doi.org/10.1021/es102641n Fell, M. J. 2017. Energy services: A conceptual review. Energy research & social science, 27, 129-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2017.02.010 Grubler, A., et al. 2018. A low energy demand scenario for meeting the 1.5 C target and sustainable development goals without negative emission technologies. Nature Energy, 3(6), 515. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0172-6 Lovins, A. B. 2018. How big is the energy efficiency resource?. Environmental Research Letters, 13(9), 090401. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aad965/meta Popovich, N. March 8, 2019. America’s Light Bulb Revolution. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/03/08/climate/light-bulb-efficiency.html Suckling, J., & Lee, J. 2015. Redefining scope: the true environmental impact of smartphones?. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20(8), 1181-1196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-015-0909-4 Visitor’s Guide. August 2007. Rocky Mountain Institute. https://d231jw5ce53gcq.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Locations_LovinsHome_Visitors_Guide_2007.pdf
The Best Dragon (According to Science) The Best Dragon (According to Science)
1 month ago En
Check out Extra Credits' video: The Origin of Dragons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rL8qSfXIo4M We ranked dragons based on how biologically and evolutionarily plausible they are. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Tetrapods: four-limbed (with a few exceptions, such as snakes which have vestigial limbs) animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: What Happened to Smaug's Other Legs? 'Hobbit' FX Expert Explains http://www.mtv.com/news/1719502/smaug-hobbit-fx-explained/ How to fly your dragon, Journal of Physics Special topics https://journals.le.ac.uk/ojs1/index.php/pst/article/view/870/802 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Tennekes, H. (2009). The simple science of flight: from insects to jumbo jets. MIT press. Azuma, A., Azuma, S., Watanabe, I., & Furuta, T. (1985). Flight mechanics of a dragonfly. Journal of experimental biology, 116(1), 79-107. Habib, M. (2013). Constraining the air giants: limits on size in flying animals as an example of constraint-based biomechanical theories of form. Biological Theory, 8(3), 245-252.
How Much Air Can A Tree Hold? #TeamTrees How Much Air Can A Tree Hold? #TeamTrees
1 month ago En
🌲🌲🌲 Go to https://teamtrees.org 🌲🌲🌲 Let's plant some trees! #TeamTrees Trees can take an astounding amount of carbon out of the air, which is good, because we need to do that times a trillion. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: carbon: element that makes up half of tree wood by weight ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexreich) and Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Le Quéré, C et al. Global Carbon Budget 2018. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194, 2018 JF Bastin, JF et al.The global tree restoration potential. Science 365 (6448), 76-79 Pillsbury NH; ML Kirkley. 1984. Equations for total, wood, and saw-log volume for thirteen California hardwoods. Res. Note PNW-RN-414. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p B. W. Griscom et al. 2017. Natural Climate Solutions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 11645–11650. Roe S et al. 2019. Contributon of the land sector to a 1.5C world. Nature Climate Change (in press)
Why Are Adults Bad At New Languages? Why Are Adults Bad At New Languages?
1 month ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Learning a new language as an adult is harder than doing so as a child because adults usually aren’t as invested and often use the wrong strategies. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Second-Language Acquisition: The process of a language that’s not the speaker’s native language. Bilingualism: The ability to speak and understand two languages. Monitor Model: A group of hypotheses that propose that linguistic competence is only advanced when language is subconsciously acquired. Sociolinguistics: The study of language in relation to all sorts of social factors. Linguistic Investment: A motivation to learn a language based on the understanding that the speaker will acquire a wider range of symbolic and material resources, which will in turn increase the value of their cultural capital and social power. Hyperpolyglot: A person who can speak and understand more than six languages. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Editor and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hartshorne, J., Tenenbaum, J., and Pinker, S. (2018). A critical period for second language acquisition: Evidence from 2/3 million English speakers. Cognition. 177: 263-277. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027718300994 Bigelow, M., and Tarone, E. (2004). The Role of Literacy Level in Second Language Acquisition: Doesn't Who We Study Determine What We Know? TESOL Quarterly. 38(4): 689-700. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3588285?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Darvin, R. and Norton, B. (2015). Identity and a Model of Investment in Applied Linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 35: 36-56. Retrieved from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics/article/identity-and-a-model-of-investment-in-applied-linguistics/91EE4C7572272B233A16286768E0E5B8. Pierce, B. (2015). Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning. TESOL Quarterly. 29(1): 9-31. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3587803?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents. Derakshan, A. (2015). The Interference of First Language and Second Language Acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 5(10):2112-211. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283524046_The_Interference_of_First_Language_and_Second_Language_Acquisition. Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472. Bigelow, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Department of Curriculum and Instruction. University of Minnesota. Paesani, K. (2019). Personal Communication. The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. University of Minnesota.
How The Modern World Tricks Our Bodies Into Hurting Themselves How The Modern World Tricks Our Bodies Into Hurting Themselves
2 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The same enzyme that used to save us is now killing us because the body reactions it catalyzes now cause more harm than good. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cyclooxygenase: An enzyme responsible for the production of thromboxane and prostaglandins. Thromboxane: A lipid that acts as a platelet aggregator. Platelets: Special non-nucleic blood cells that clump together to cause blood clots. Prostaglandins: A lipid that causes vasodilation and inflammation. Aspirin: A form of acetylsalicylic acid that acts as an NSAID. NSAIDs: Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs that inhibit COX, and thus inflammation and clotting. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer and Narrator: David Goldenberg Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman Video Directors: David Goldenberg and Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich and Julián Gómez Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fitzpatrick, F. (2004). Cyclooxygenase Enzymes: Regulation and Function.Current Pharmaceutical Design. 10:577-588. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965321. Dubois, R., Abramson, S., Crofford, L., Gupta, R., Simon, L., Van De Putte, L., Lipsky, P. (1998). Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. The FASEB Journal 212(12):1063-73. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9737710. Havird, J., Kocot, K., Brannock, P., Cannon, J., Waits, D., Weese, D., Santos, S., Halanych, K. (2015). Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity. 80(3-4):193-208. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25758350. Ricciotti, E. and FitzGerald, G. (2011).Prostaglandins and Inflammation. ATVB In Focs. 31(5): 986–1000. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081099/. Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472. Van't Hof, J., Duval, S., Misialek, J., Oldenburg, N., Jones, C., Eder, M., Luepker, R. (2019). Aspirin Use for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in an African American Population: Prevalence and Associations with Health Behavior Beliefs. Journal of Community Health. 44(3):561-568. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30895416. Leupker, R. (2019). Personal Communication. Minnesota Heart Health Program. University of Minnesota. Chipman, J. (2019). Personal Communication. Department of Surgery. University of Minnesota.
Why Exercise Is Hard Why Exercise Is Hard
3 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Because exercise isn't essential for short-term survival, we don't exercise enough, so we need to reincorporate purposeful physical activity into our lives. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Physical activity - any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level Exercise - a form of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and performed (primarily) with the goal of improving health or fitness Recommended levels of physical activity (USA) - 150 minutes moderate-intensity or 75 minutes vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination, and muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days / week Evolutionary medicine - a field that uses evolutionary theory & data to better understand (the origins of) health & disease Mismatch conditions - health conditions that are more prevalent or severe today than in the past because the body is inadequately or insufficiently adapted to modern environmental conditions (likely including: cavities, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Forget Exercise. For Better Health, We Need Better Cities - https://qz.com/quartzy/1615436/the-solution-to-make-america-physically-active/ Magazine article about why exercise is hard - https://harvardmagazine.com/2016/09/born-to-rest On an individual level, psychology is involved, too: https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/maybe-youd-exercise-more-if-it-didnt-feel-so-crappy/ Americans aren’t getting the message about exercising more & sitting less - https://time.com/5635730/exercise-sitting-data/ What healthy living and fixing climate change have in common - https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2019/05/planetary-health-and-12-years-to-act/ The wonder drug that's free - https://bit.ly/2lHAjsI How to live to be 100+ (TED Talk) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ff40YiMmVkU _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Booth, F. W., et al. 2017. Role of inactivity in chronic diseases: evolutionary insight and pathophysiological mechanisms. Physiological reviews, 97(4), 1351-1402. https://bit.ly/2kEl4Ay Ding, D., et al. 2016. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases. The Lancet, 388(10051), 1311-1324. https://bit.ly/2kfGVy8 Hoed, M. D., et al. 2013. Heritability of objectively assessed daily physical activity and sedentary behavior. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 98(5), 1317-1325. https://bit.ly/2lNxeHk Lee, I. M., et al. 2012. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219-229. https://bit.ly/2ER2cT4 Lee, H. H., et al. 2016. The exercise–affect–adherence pathway: an evolutionary perspective. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1285. https://bit.ly/2maYy2E Lewis, B. A., personal communication. May 2019. Lewis, B. A., et al. 2014. A randomized trial examining a physical activity intervention for the prevention of postpartum depression: the healthy mom trial. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7(1), 42-49. https://bit.ly/2m9Xa0e Lieberman, D. E. 2015. Is exercise really medicine? An evolutionary perspective. Current sports medicine reports, 14(4), 313-319. https://bit.ly/2xuQtFU Rhodes, R. E., et al. 2018. Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://bit.ly/2kaPBpk US Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2Q1eF09 US Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. 2018 Physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2FmVa9p WHO. 2019. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity. Accessed May 2019. https://bit.ly/2TLLSuw
The Secret Global Sewer System The Secret Global Sewer System
3 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Ditches and drain pipes help crops survive but can negatively impact the broader landscape. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. __________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Waterlog - to saturate (a field) with water; a problem for most crops Drainage - the removal of liquid (water) from an area Ditch - a narrow channel dug in the ground, typically used for drainage alongside a road or the edge of a field Drain tile - a pipe buried (beneath a field) for drainage. Originally made of ceramic tiles, now typically of corrugated plastic Precision agriculture - putting corn seed + small dose of fertilizer/pesticides in hole in ground Controlled drainage - the use of a water control structure to raise the depth of a drain tile outlet to hold water in the field when drainage isn't needed Wood chip bioreactor - an underground trench filled with wood chips that provide carbon for bacteria that denitrify the water flowing through it Saturated buffer - a strip on the edge of a field filled with plants & bacteria that can remove some nitrogen from the water flowing onto it from drain tiles Denitrification - the removal of nitrogen from a substance (soil, air, or water) by chemical reduction, typically via bacteria Wetland - an area of land where water covers the soil year-round or at certain times of year Ecosystem services - the free benefits humans get from natural ecosystems ________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why plant roots need oxygen: https://bit.ly/2kgD0Be Restored wetlands don’t recover their original ecosystem functions: https://bit.ly/2VrccKK A guide to agricultural drainage: https://bit.ly/2jX1ChZ ________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Aerial view of treatment wetlands - Photo by David Hansen ________________________________________ References: Christianson, L.E. & Helmers, M.J., 2011. Woodchip Bioreactors for Nitrate in Agricultural Drainage. Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications. 85. https://bit.ly/2kdXPx7 Davidson, N. C. 2014. How much wetland has the world lost? Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. Marine and Freshwater Research, 65(10), 934-941. https://bit.ly/2lwLUKW Davidson, N. C., Fluet-Chouinard, E., & Finlayson, C. M. 2018. Global extent and distribution of wetlands: trends and issues. Marine and Freshwater Research, 69(4), 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17019 Discovery Farms MN. November 2016. Controlling Nutrient Loss in Tile Systems. https://bit.ly/2lTi8QI Dolph, C. Pers. comm. June 2019 Erb, K. H., et al. 2017. Land management: data availability and process understanding for global change studies. Global change biology, 23(2), 512-533. https://bit.ly/2kgs7zn Feick, S., Siebert, S., & Döll, P. 2005. A digital global map of artificially drained agricultural areas. https://bit.ly/2ksM3if Finlay, J. Pers. comm. June 2019 Foufoula‐Georgiou, E., et al. 2015. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions. Water Resources Research, 51(8), 6649-6671. https://bit.ly/2lu6Su7 Hansen, A. T., Dolph, C. L., Foufoula-Georgiou, E., & Finlay, J. C. 2018. Contribution of wetlands to nitrate removal at the watershed scale. Nature Geoscience, 11(2), 127. https://bit.ly/2lQe9nY IPBES. 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. S. Díaz, et al. (eds.). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. Pg 11-12. https://bit.ly/2WX4c4U Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2QYNd0v Mustroph, A. 2018. Improving flooding tolerance of crop plants. Agronomy, 8(9), 160. https://bit.ly/2k1jzfu
The Optimal Way To Browse The Internet The Optimal Way To Browse The Internet
3 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The decisions we make while we browse the internet are suprisingly similar to the ones animals make as they forage for food...here's why. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Optimality models: tools used to evaluate the costs and benefits of different organismal features, traits, and characteristics, including behavior, in the natural world. Optimal foraging theory: a behavioral ecology model that helps predict how an animal behaves when searching for food. Marginal value theorem: an optimality model that describes the strategy that maximizes gain per unit time in systems where resources, and thus rate of returns, decrease with time. Central place foraging: a model for analyzing how an organism traveling from a home base to a distant foraging location can maximize foraging rates. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Narrator, & Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chi, EH, Pirolli, P, and Pitkow, J. (2000) The scent of a site: A system for analyzing and predicting information scent, usage, and usability of a web site. In: ACM CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.42.7499&rep=rep1&type=pdf Fu, W and Pirolli, P. (2007) SNIF-ACT: a cognitive model of user navigation on the world wide web. Human-Computer Interactions 22(4), 355-412. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0d96/d03cf822ea1584b468389b3f4bc39164d85f.pdf Hayden, BY (2018) Economic choice: The foraging perspective. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 24: 1–6. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/economic-choice-the-foraging-perspective Hayden, BY, Pearson, JM, and Platt, ML. (2011) Neuronal basis of sequential foraging decisions in a patchy environment. Nature Neuroscience 14: 933-939 https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.2856 Hall-McMaster, S and Luyckx F. (2019) Revisiting foraging approaches in neuroscience. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 19 (2): 225-230. https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13415-018-00682-z Pyke, G and Stephens, DW. (2019) Optimal foraging theory: application and inspiration in human endeavors outside biology. In JC Choe (ed.), Encyclopedia of animal behavior . 2nd edn, vol. 2, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 217-222. https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/optimal-foraging-theory-application-and-inspiration-in-human-ende Van Koppen, PJ and Jansen, RWJ. (1998) The road to robbery: Travel patterns in commercial robberies . British Journal of Criminology 38: 230-246. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Koppen/publication/270802169_The_road_to_the_robbery_Travel_patterns_in_commercial_robberies/links/569e080008ae950bd7a81fc2/The-road-to-the-robbery-Travel-patterns-in-commercial-robberies.pdf
Our Best View Of Bacteria Is...From Space?! Our Best View Of Bacteria Is...From Space?!
4 months ago En Ru
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Observing the effects of microbes using satellites can give us all sorts of useful information about life on Earth ... and other planets too. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. And thanks to researchers from the University of Wisconsin and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln who help generate airborne data used in Professor Jeannine Cavender-Bares' studies. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Microbe - an organism (such as a bacterium or protozoan) of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size. Remote sensing - the scanning of the earth , especially by satellite or high-flying aircraft, in order to obtain information about it. Pathogen - a bacterium, virus, or other microbe that can cause disease. Chlorophyll - a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Phytoplankton - photosynthesizing microscopic biotic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. Cholera - an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Evaporite - a natural salt or mineral deposit left after the evaporation of a body of water. Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) - primary sedimentary structures formed by the interaction of microbes with sediment and physical agents of erosion, deposition, and transportation. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) Video Director: Julián Gómez, David Goldenberg Video Narrator: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Mirik M, Jones DC, Price JA, Workneh F, Ansley RJ, Rush CM. Satellite remote sensing of wheat infected by wheat streak mosaic virus. Plant Disease. 2011 Jan;95(1):4-12. Lowe A, Harrison N, French AP. Hyperspectral image analysis techniques for the detection and classification of the early onset of plant disease and stress. Plant methods. 2017 Dec;13(1):80. Lobitz B, Beck L, Huq A, Wood B, Fuchs G, Faruque AS, Colwell R. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2000 Feb 15;97(4):1438-43. de Magny GC, Mozumder PK, Grim CJ, Hasan NA, Naser MN, Alam M, Sack RB, Huq A, Colwell RR. Role of zooplankton diversity in Vibrio cholerae population dynamics and in the incidence of cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 2011 Sep 1;77(17):6125-32. Colwell RR. Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science. 1996 Dec 20;274(5295):2025-31. Lausch A, Erasmi S, King D, Magdon P, Heurich M. Understanding forest health with remote sensing-part II—a review of approaches and data models. Remote Sensing. 2017 Feb 5;9(2):129. Meng J, Li S, Wang W, Liu Q, Xie S, Ma W. Mapping forest health using spectral and textural information extracted from spot-5 satellite images. Remote Sensing. 2016 Aug 31;8(9):719. Baldridge AM, Farmer JD, Moersch JE. Mars remote‐sensing analog studies in the Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 2004 Dec;109(E12). Barbieri R, Stivaletta N. Continental evaporites and the search for evidence of life on Mars. Geological Journal. 2011 Nov;46(6):513-24. Crowley JK, Hook SJ. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 1996 Jan 10;101(B1):643-60. Noffke N. Ancient sedimentary structures in the [less than] 3.7 Ga Gillespie Lake Member, Mars, that resemble macroscopic morphology, spatial associations, and temporal succession in terrestrial microbialites. Astrobiology. 2015 Feb 1;15(2):169-92. Landis GA. Searching for life: the case for Halobacteria on Mars. InAIP Conference Proceedings 2001 Feb 2 (Vol. 552, No. 1, pp. 25-28). AIP.
The Bacteria That Made Life Possible Are Now Killing Us The Bacteria That Made Life Possible Are Now Killing Us
4 months ago En
Aquatic cyanobacteria first oxygenated earth’s air, making human life possible; now, due to our actions, cyanobacteria are madly blooming once more, poisoning our coasts in the process Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cyanobacteria: aquatic photosynthesizing bacteria often erroneously call blue-green algae Blue-green algae: incorrect name often used for cyanobacteria because they are blue-green in appearance and can be confused with algae Dead zone: coastal area where cyanobacteria blooms lead to anaerobic conditions, killing fish and other organisms Mycrosystins: a class of toxic compounds released by certain cyanobacteria ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bargu S et al. Mississippi River diversions and phytoplankton dynamics in deltaic Gulf of Mexico estuaries: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 221:39-52 (2019). Berman-Frank I, Lundgren P, Falkowski P. Nitrogen fixation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution in cyanobacteria. Research in Microbiology 154, 157–164 (2003) Carey CC et al. Eco-physiological adaptations that favour freshwater cyanobacteria in a changing climate. Water Research 46, 1394-1407 (2012) Garcia AK et al. Reconstructed ancestral enzymes suggest long-term cooling of Earth’s photic zone since the Archean. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:4619-4624 (2017) Glass JB, Wolfe-Simon F, Anbar AD. Coevolution of metal availability and nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria and algae. Geobiology 7, 100-123 (2009). Lyons TW, CT Reinhard, NJ Planavsky. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere Nature 506, 307–315 (2014). Planavsky NJ et al. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. Nature 467, 1088-1090 (2010) Soo RM et al. On the origins of oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration in Cyanobacteria. Science 355, 1436–1440 (2017) Tromas N et al. Characterising and predicting cyanobacterial blooms in an 8-year amplicon sequencing time course. ISME J 11:1746-1763 (2017)
The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning
5 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The technology we use to keep cool is heating the world in a vicious feedback cycle, so we need to improve it and use it less. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with this keyword: Refrigerant - a substance used in air conditioners & refrigerators for its ability to change phases and transfer heat ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: How AC changed the world: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-39735802 People use AC to make their homes feel like Africa: http://bit.ly/2Y9fOH3 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Video Narrator: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: European Commission. Climate-friendly alternatives to HFCs. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/alternatives_en Accessed May 2019. Gunawardena, K. R., et al. 2017. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity. Science of the Total Environment, 584, 1040-1055. http://bit.ly/2GbBuHY Graves, R. Pers. comm. May 2019. International Energy Agency. 2017. Space cooling: More access, more comfort, less energy. https://www.iea.org International Energy Agency. 2018. The Future of Cooling: Opportunities for energy- efficient air conditioning. https://www.iea.org/futureofcooling/ International Institute of Refrigeration. Nov 2017. The impact of the refrigeration sector on climate change. http://bit.ly/30A56Xh Keeler, B. L., et al. 2019. Social-ecological and technological factors moderate the value of urban nature. Nature Sustainability, 2(1), 29. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-018-0202-1 Ministry of the Environment, Japan. 2016. Recovery, Recycling & Destruction of CFC, HCFC, & HFC. https://www.env.go.jp/en/earth/ozone/leaf2016/04.pdf Pakbaznia, E., & Pedram, M. 2009. Minimizing data center cooling and server power costs. In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM/IEEE international symposium on Low power electronics and design (pp. 145-150). http://bit.ly/2JDL5bN Reardon, C. & Clarke, R. 2013. Passive cooling. Australian Government: Your Home. http://bit.ly/2LNMmj7 Sachar, S., et al. 2018. Solving the Global Cooling Challenge: How to Counter the Climate Threat from Room Air Conditioners. Rocky Mountain Institute. www.rmi.org/insight/solving_the_global_cooling_challenge Sadineni, S. B., et al. 2011. Passive building energy savings: A review of building envelope components. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 15(8), 3617-3631. http://bit.ly/2G9uGec Sivak, M. 2013. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami. ERL, 8(1), 014050. http://bit.ly/2SbyOix Zhang, X., & Caldeira, K. 2015. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. GRL, 42(11), 4548-4555. http://bit.ly/2LS8id0 Zhao, L., et al. 2015. Reduction of potential greenhouse gas emissions of room air-conditioner refrigerants: a life cycle carbon footprint analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 100, 262-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.063
Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage
5 months ago En
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth to get 75% off a 3 year plan and use code MINUTEEARTH for an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. Basic research can seem wasteful, but it's actually a great economic investment. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Evoniuk, G, Kuhn, and C Schanberg, SM. (1979) The effect of tactile stimulation on serum growth hormone and tissue ornithine decarboxylase activity during maternal deprivation in rat pups. Communications in Psychopharmacology 3:363–370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/548216 Field T, Diego M, and M Hernandez-Reif (2010) Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review. Infant Behavioral Development 33: 115-124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844909/ Jones, CI, and JC Williams (1998) Measuring the Social Return to R&D. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(5): 1119-1135. https://academic.oup.com/qje/article-abstract/113/4/1119/1916988?redirectedFrom=fulltext Press, WH. (2013) What's So Special about Science (And How Much Should We Spend on It?), Science 342: 817-822. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/817.full Salter, AJ and BR Martin. (2001) The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: a critical review. Research Policy 30:509-532. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048733300000913 Schanberg SM, Evoniuk G and CM Kuhn. (1984) Tactile and nutritional aspects of maternal care. specific regulators of neuroendocrine function and cellular development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 175, 135–146. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-175-41779?journalCode=ebma
How to Turn Cancer Against Itself How to Turn Cancer Against Itself
5 months ago En
This video was made in partnership with the Swiss National Science Foundation. To see more videos about the importance of basic research, go to https://www.youtube.com/SNSFinfo ↓↓↓ Or watch the THREE OTHER VIDEOS we made with SNSF↓↓↓ What’s intelligent about artificial intelligence? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR6j9TLZdAw Why kids skip school (& what to do about it) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-MwcsyMk2k Why you should abandon some of your dreams - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Qy8pBaugRY Cancer has proven hard to beat, but a promising new type of treatment can use the disease's own powers against it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monoclonal antibodies: antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell Hybridoma: a hybrid cell used as the basis for the production of antibodies in large amounts for diagnostic or therapeutic use ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder __________________________________________ References: Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. B Cells and Antibodies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884/ Ecker DM, Jones SD, Levine HL (2015). The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market. MAbs 7(1): 9-14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4622599/ Kohler, G. and Milstein, C. (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495-497. https://www.nature.com/articles/256495a0
This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants
6 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Morocco has 3/4 of the world’s known reserves of rock phosphate, our main source of phosphorus, so Morocco may be key to our long-term ability to grow food. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Phosphorus - a chemical element used in explosives, matches, and fertilizers (as it is a key nutrient for plant growth) Phosphate rock - a sedimentary rock containing high amounts of phosphate minerals - the main source of agricultural P fertilizer Phosphate - a salt or ester of phosphoric acid, containing PO4 -3 or a related anion or a group 4 Rs of Nutrient Management - Right fertilizer source, at the Right rate, at the Right time, and in the Right place Reserve - the part of a resource that could be economically extracted or produced at the moment Resource - a concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the concentration is currently or potentially feasible ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Article about conflict in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2ZjYjQW Radio about Phosphorus mines in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2IFv8kC Magazine about 350th Anniv of Phosphorus Discovery - http://bit.ly/2wLw0i3 ________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor (@jessika_arts) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Amundson, R., et al 2015. Soil and human security in the 21st century. Science, 348(6235), 1261071. http://bit.ly/2R0dRXe Bailey, J. Pers. comm. Feb 2019 Chowdhury, R. B., et al. 2017. Key sustainability challenges for the global phosphorus resource, their implications for global food security, and options for mitigation. J. of Cleaner Prod., 140, 945-963. http://agri.ckcest.cn/ass/NK001-20170130004.pdf CIA. The World Factbook. Country Comparison: Crude Oil - Proved Reserves. Accessed January 2019. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2244rank.html Cooper, J., et al. 2011. The future distribution and production of global phosphate rock reserves. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 57, 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.09.009 Cordell, D., et al. 2009. The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Global env change, 19(2), 292-305. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2014. Life's bottleneck: sustaining the world's phosphorus for a food secure future. Ann Rev of Env & Res, 39, 161-188. 10.1146/annurev-environ-010213-113300 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2015. Tracking phosphorus security: indicators of phosphorus vulnerability in the global food system. Food Sec, 7(2), 337-350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0442-0 Elser, J., & Bennett, E. 2011. Phosphorus cycle: a broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature, 478(7367), 29. http://bit.ly/2WvUark Filippelli, G. M. 2011. Phosphate rock formation and marine phosphorus geochemistry: the deep time perspective. Chemosphere, 84(6), 759-766. http://bit.ly/2X0mTcf MacDonald, G. K., et al. 2011. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands. PNAS, 108(7), 3086-3091. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/108/7/3086.full.pdf Peterson, H. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Rosen, C. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Sattari, S. Z., et al. 2012. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle. PNAS, 109(16), 6348-6353. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/109/16/6348.full.pdf Statista.com. Rare earth reserves worldwide by country 2018. Accessed January 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/277268/rare-earth-reserves-by-country/ Tilman, D., et al. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418(6898), 671. http://bit.ly/2KCL3To NOTE: Venezuela actually has 18% and Saudi Arabia has 16% of global oil reserves, not the other way around
The Secrets of Extreme Breath Holding The Secrets of Extreme Breath Holding
7 months ago En
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days here: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. And use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off a yearly membership. Humans can hold our breath longer than we think by taking advantage of our body’s innate survival instincts - and then ignoring them. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Static Apnea: Holding your breath without swimming or moving. Apneist: Someone who competes in apnea-related contests. Fight or Flight Response: A set of physiological responses to a perceived mortal threat. Mammalian Dive Reflex: A set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes. Diaphragm: A strip of skeletal muscles underneath the lungs that contracts and flattens when you inhale. It starts spasming as part of involuntary breathing movements when the body starts to run out of oxygen. Spleen: An organ that primarily acts as a blood filter that can deflate to return blood to the circulatory system. Carbon Dioxide Tension: The increase in CO2 pressure in the blood as oxygen levels fall. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Mike Boyd learns how to hold his breath for 4 minutes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6iyDEWG1CU _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius, Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bain, A., Drvis, I., Dujic, Z., MacLeod, D., Ainslie, P. (2018). Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists. Experimental Physiology. 103 (635-651). Retrieved from: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP086269. Hutchinson, A. (2018). Pushing the Limits of Extreme Breath-Holding. New Yorker. Retrieved from: https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/pushing-the-limits-of-extreme-breath-holding. Panneton, W. M. (2013). The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life? Physiology. 28(5): 284–297. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768097/. Petrović, Branko (2019). Personal Communication. Schagatay E, van Kampen M, Emanuelsson S, Holm B. (2000). Effects of physical and apnea training on apneic time and the diving response in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 82(3) : 161-9. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10929209. Schagatay, Erika (2019). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University
Why Is Lyme Disease Getting Worse? Why Is Lyme Disease Getting Worse?
7 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! https://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Lyme disease is spreading like wildfire around the world: here's why. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brunner, J. L., LoGiudice, K., & Ostfeld, R. S. 2008. Estimating reservoir competence of Borrelia burgdorferi hosts: prevalence and infectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. Journal of medical entomology, 45(1), 139-147. http://bit.ly/2ZmxIDP Keesing, F., et al. 2009. Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Bological Sciences, 276(1675), 3911-3919. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rspb.2009.1159 Kilpatrick, A. M. et al. 2017 Lyme disease ecology in a changing world: consensus, uncertainty and critical gaps for improving control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372: 20160117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0117 Magnaval, J. F., et al. 2016. A serological survey about zoonoses in the verkhoyansk area, northeastern siberia (sakha republic, Russian federation). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 16(2), 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1828 Ostfeld, R. S., et al. 2014. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107387. Ostfeld, R. S., Levi, T. , Keesing, F. , Oggenfuss, K. and Canham, C. D. (2018), Tick‐borne disease risk in a forest food web. Ecology, 99: 1562-1573. doi:10.1002/ecy.2386 Robinson, S. J., et al. 2015. Disease risk in a dynamic environment: the spread of tick-borne pathogens in Minnesota, USA. EcoHealth, 12(1), 152-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10393-014-0979-y Scott, J. D. et al. 2017. Lyme disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, detected in multiple tick species at Kenora, Ontario, Canada. J. Bact. Parasitol, 8. http://bit.ly/2ZjOXWd Vandenesch, A., et al. 2014. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(34), 20883. http://bit.ly/2Dn693Q Wu, X. B., et al. 2013. Distribution of tick-borne diseases in China. Parasites & Vectors, 6(1), 119. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-119
Why Can't We Get Power From Waves? Why Can't We Get Power From Waves?
8 months ago En
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ Wave power hasn’t yet made a splash because it’s hard to use waves to spin turbines, and because the sea is a harsh place to build things. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Wave energy converter - a device for turning the mechanical energy of ocean waves into mechanical energy (flow of a substance) or electrical energy Oscillating water column - an open-bottomed chamber filled with air and water, whose wave action moves the water column up and down like a piston, forcing the air out past a turbine Attenuator - a long multisegment floating structure oriented parallel to the direction waves travel, where differing heights of waves along the length of the device flex the connections driving hydraulic pumps that can be connected to turbines Oscillating body - a floating buoy that oscillates with waves, generating electricity within the buoy or by pulling on a generator or by pumping water through a turbine Overtopping device - a reservoir filled by waves to a height higher the average nearby ocean, into which reservoir water is released, spinning a turbine Biofouling - undesirable growth of organisms like barnacles and algae on underwater surfaces Ocean wave - energy passing through water and causing it to move in a circular motion Turbine - a machine for producing continuous power in which a wheel with blades gets hit by a fast-moving flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other fluid, and spins (often connected to a magnet that spins) Induction - the production of an electric current in a wire by movement of a nearby magnetic field ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why Wave Power Has Lagged Far Behind as Energy Source https://e360.yale.edu/features/why_wave_power_has_lagged_far_behind_as_energy_source _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Aderinto, T., & Li, H. 2018. Ocean wave energy converters: Status and challenges. Energies, 11(5), 1250. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/5/1250/pdf Khan, N., Kalair, A., Abas, N., & Haider, A. 2017. Review of ocean tidal, wave and thermal energy technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 590-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.079 Lewis, A., et al. 2011. Ocean Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, et al (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/Chapter-6-Ocean-Energy-1.pdf Pérez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D., & Iglesias, G. 2015. A review of combined wave and offshore wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42, 141-153. 10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.032 Shintake, T. 2016. Harnessing the Power of Breaking Waves. In Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (AWTEC2016) (Vol. 174, pp. 9-13). http://bit.ly/2U0tt1I Shintake, T. March 2019. Personal communication. Tollefson, J. 2014. Power from the oceans: Blue energy. Nature News, 508(7496), 302. https://www.nature.com/articles/508302a Uihlein, A., & Magagna, D. 2016. Wave and tidal current energy–A review of the current state of research beyond technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58, 1070-1081. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115016676 US Department of the Interior. May 2006. Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. https://www.boem.gov/Wave-Energy-White-Paper-2006/ Wang, Z. L. 2017. New wave power. Nature, 542(7640), 159-160. http://bit.ly/2HYE2v5
You Are A Fish You Are A Fish
8 months ago En
We built the Tree of Life Explorer! Check it out here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/Tree-of-Life-Explorer/ And watch our video about why we made it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eE2fCLay-Q With our current understanding of evolutionary history and our strategy of cladistic naming, if we wanted to have both goldfish and sharks under a single group called "fish", then mammals must also be called fish. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: - Phylogenetic tree: a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species - Cladogram: a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms - Monophyletic group (or clade): a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor - Paraphyletic group: all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups - Similarity trap: people can name different species the same thing, only to find out they aren’t even closely related. We made a video about this phenomana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flVK-rbeT4g ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Jasper Palfree Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman Video Director: Ever Salazar Video Narrator: Ever Salazar & Jasper Palfree With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Weinstein, Bret (2016). On Being a Fish. Inference, Volume 2, Issue 3 September. https://inference-review.com/article/on-being-a-fish Lahti, David (2016). An Ambivalent Amphibian (In response to "On Being a Fish"). Volume 2, Issue 4 December. https://inference-review.com/letter/an-ambivalent-amphibian Podani, János (2013). Tree thinking, time and topology: Comments on the interpretation of tree diagrams in evolutionary/phylogenetic systematics. Cladistics Volume 29, Issue 3. May http://real.mtak.hu/9727/1/PodaniOnTreesFINAL.pdf
The Problem With Concrete The Problem With Concrete
9 months ago En
This video is in partnership with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: https://b-gat.es/2GxIwba Concrete is responsible for 8% of humanity’s carbon emissions because making its key ingredient - cement - chemically releases CO2, and because we burn fossil fuels to make it happen. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Portland cement - the most common type of cement used worldwide, made with limestone Limestone - a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate (which is also in shells & eggs) Cement - a powder used in construction that’s made by grinding clinker with other minerals and mixing with water to form a paste that sticks to sand, gravel or crushed stone to make concrete Concrete - a building material made by mixing cement with water to form a paste that gains body through fillers like sand and gravel Clinker - an intermediate marble-sized product in cement production created by sintering limestone with clay and other things Sinter - to turn a powdery solid into a single mass by heating it without liquefaction Mortar - another building material (used to adhere bricks or stones together) made by mixing cement with water and sand Calcination - the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting point, so it thermally decomposes (like limestone into lime & CO2) Process emissions - the name for the CO2 that comes from limestone when it thermally decomposes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Adam Thompson Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andrew, R. M. 2018. Global CO2 emissions from cement production. Earth System Science Data, 10(1), 195. https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/10/195/2018/essd-10-195-2018.pdf Benhelal, E., et al. 2013. Global strategies and potentials to curb CO2 emissions in cement industry. Journal of cleaner production, 51, 142-161. http://www.academia.edu/download/39977040/1-s2.0-S0959652612006129-main.pdf Beyond Zero Emissions. August 2017. Zero Carbon Industry Plan: Rethinking Cement. Available for download at http://bze.org.au Davis, S.J., et al. 2018. Net-zero emissions energy systems. Science, 360(6396), eaas9793. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt16109441/qt16109441.pdf Lehne, J., & Preston., F. June 2018. Making Concrete Change: Innovation in Low-carbon Cement and Concrete. Chatham House Report. http://bit.ly/2Vlb3oC Timperley, J. September 13 2018. Q&A: Why cement emissions matter for climate change. https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-why-cement-emissions-matter-for-climate-change World Bank. 2019. World Development Indicators: Urban population. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL
Why Earthquakes Are So Hard To Predict Why Earthquakes Are So Hard To Predict
10 months ago En
Scientists are trying to figure out if they can predict big earthquakes by simulating small quakes in labs and studying big quakes under the ocean. Thanks to the University of Rhode Island for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Earthquake: A violent shaking of the earth, usually due to movements of tectonic plates under the earth’s crust. Seismometer: An instrument that detects changes in the up-down motion of the earth. Seismic body waves: Higher frequency waves released by earthquakes that can move through solid rock. Seismic surface waves: Lower frequency waves released by earthquakes that move along the ground and cause most damage. Earthquake Early Warning System: A network of strategically placed seismometers that trigger emergency warning systems in particular areas when they detect large seismic body waves. Evacuation Clearance Time: The time needed to evacuate a particular population to safety. Earthquake Precursor: An anomalous event that gives an effective warning of an impending earthquake. Transform Faults: Faults where two tectonic plates slide past each other. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor, Video Director & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 1654416. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. ___________________________________________ References: Geller, R. (1997). Earthquake Prediction: A Critical Review. Geophysical Journal International. 131 (425-450). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/131/3/425/2138719 Wei, M. (2018). Seismic Behavior on Oceanic Transform Faults at the East Pacific Rise. Transform Plate Boundaries and Fracture Zones. Elsevier. Retrieved from: https://www.elsevier.com/books/transform-plate-boundaries-and-fracture-zones/duarte/978-0-12-812064-4 Hsu, Y., and Peeta, S. (2015). Clearance Time Estimation for Incorporating Evacuation Risk in Routing Strategies for Evacuation Operation. Networks and Spatial Economics. 15 (743-764). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11067-013-9195-5 Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Wei, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Graduate School of Oceanography. University of Rhode Island.
How Chaos Makes Your Fingerprints Unique How Chaos Makes Your Fingerprints Unique
11 months ago En
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. Use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off Dashlane Premium. Because of the chaotic way fingerprints develop and the multiplying effect of compound probability, it's basically impossible for any two fingers to have matching prints. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Fingerprint: The markings on the skin on the last joint of the thumb or finger. Fingerprint Ridges: The raised lines on the fingerprint. Fingerprint Pattern: The main design in the middle of the fingerprint; usually a loop, whorl, or arch. Volar Pad: The mass of stem cells that grows under the fingers during a particular time during fetal development that is responsible for determining the pattern of the fingerprint. Fingerprint Minutiae: The various tiny points in each fingertip where the ridgelines get blocked or split. Compound Probability: The likelihood that independent events will occur simultaneously. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Kucken, M. (2007). Models for Fingerprint Pattern Formation. Forensic Science International. 171 (85-96). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17459625. Kucken, Michael (2018). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Wertheim, K. (2011). Fingerprint Sourcebook: Embryology and Morphology of the Friction Skin Ridge. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=247303
The Bird Poop That Changed The World The Bird Poop That Changed The World
2 years ago En
Thanks to my grandmother for inspiring this story, and to my mother for helping make it. If you like our videos, please consider supporting MinuteEarth on Patreon! - Alex Bird poop was the gateway fertilizer that turned humanity onto the imported-chemical-based farming system of modern agriculture. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Guano: seabird (or bat) poop. From the indigenous Peruvian word “wanu”, meaning “manure that’s good for fertilizer" Manure: animal poop used as fertilizer (typically cow or pig poop) Fertilizer: a chemical-containing substance added to soil to provide nutrients to plants Nitrate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element nitrogen (sodium nitrate) Phosphate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element phosphorus Haber-Bosch process: the major industrial method to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to ammonia ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Our fertilizer is killing us. Here's a fix: https://grist.org/article/billionaires-and-bacteria-are-racing-to-save-us-from-death-by-fertilizer/ Why bird poop is white: https://www.audubon.org/news/what-makes-bird-poop-white In 1856 US Congress enabled US citizens to take over unclaimed islands with guano on them: http://americanhistory.si.edu/norie-atlas/guano-islands-act Guano is in demand again today: https://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/30/world/americas/30peru.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr ___________________________________________ References: Canby, T.Y. 2002. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. VI. Introduction: Pg. 26-27. Sandy Spring Museum. Cushman, G.T. 2013. Guano and the opening of the Pacific World: A global ecological history. Cambridge University Press. Cushman, G.T., personal communication, October 2018. Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr Lorimor, J., Powers, W., Sutton, A. 2004. Manure Characteristics. MWPS-18, Section 1. Second Edition. Table 6. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. http://msue.anr.msu.edu/uploads/files/ManureCharacteristicsMWPS-18_1.pdf Robinson, M.B. April 26, 2007. In Once-Rural Montgomery, a Rich History. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/25/AR2007042501342.html S. Sands & Son. 1875. The American Farmer: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture and Rural Life. Vol. 4, Issue 12, pg. 417-418. Baltimore. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=ul1TAAAAYAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA417 Stabler, H.O. 1950. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. V, Pg. 43. American Publishing Company. Szpak, P., et al. 2012. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of seabird guano fertilization: results from growth chamber studies with Maize (Zea mays). PloS one, 7(3), e33741. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033741 Thanks also to the Sandy Spring Museum.
These Names Can Kill Animals These Names Can Kill Animals
2 years ago En
To get your free 30-day trial of CuriosityStream, go to https://curiositystream.com/minute and use the code "minute". Just like the names of products and companies, animals' names can affect how we feel about them...and changing the name of a species might actually help us save it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hong Kong's Golden Beach Dolphin Plaza by Wikimedia user WiNg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HK_Golden_Beach_Dolphin_Plaza.jpg African Wild Dog by Mathias Appel https://www.flickr.com/photos/mathiasappel/25233930273 Family Dog by Richard Elzey https://www.flickr.com/photos/elzey/6307525340/ Sloth by Régis Leroy https://www.flickr.com/photos/regilero/8727491349 Racoon Just Checking the Trash by Julie Corsi https://www.flickr.com/photos/corsinet/2967516964/ Scorpion by Steve Slater https://www.flickr.com/photos/wildlife_encounters/11026569913/ Snake by Photo by Jessica Bolser/USFWS https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmidwest/11193222776/ ___________________________________________ References: Jacquet, J. L. and Pauly, D. (2008) Trade secrets: renaming and mislabeling of seafood. Marine Policy 32: 309-318. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X07000760 Karaffa, P.T., M.M. Draheim, and Parsons, E.C.M. (2012) What’s in a name? Do species’ names impact student support for conservation? Human Dimensions of Wildlife 17: 308-310. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10871209.2012.676708?journalCode=uhdw20 Parsons, E.C.M., personal communication, October 2018. Rasmussen, G.S.A. (1999) Livestock predation by the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in a cattle ranching region of Zimbabwe: a case study. Biological Conservation 88: 133–139. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320798000068?via%3Dihub Sarasa M., Alasaad S., and Pérez J.M. (2012) Common names of species, the curious case of Capra pyrenaica and the concomitant steps towards the 'wild-to-domestic' transformation of a flagship species and its vernacular names. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:1–12. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-011-0172-3 Scott, C. (2015) Otter social science research: An evaluation of the general public’s knowledge of otter species. (Master’s thesis) George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Retrieved from digilib.gmu.edu/ xmlui/handle/1920/10282 Wright, A., Veríssimo, D., Pilfold, K., Parsons, E. C. M., Ventre, K., Cousins, J., et al. (2015). Competitive outreach in the 21st Century: why we need conservation marketing. Ocean & Coastal Management 115: 41–48. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115001829
The Mystery of The Exploding Appendix The Mystery of The Exploding Appendix
2 years ago En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: https://tab.gladly.io/minuteearth2/ Rates of appendicitis vary around the world, likely due to the forces of modernization. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. **Appendix** - There are many other unforeseen health changes that seem to be related to the forces of modernization, like the increase in rates of diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and ADHD. Those changes likely stem from all sorts of complicated genetic and environmental interactions - including changes in diet, exposure to pollution, and access to hygiene - that researchers haven’t yet figured out. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Fecalith: A stony mass of feces inside a person’s intestinal tract. Appendix: A tube-shaped sac at the bottom of a person’s intestinal tract. Appendicitis: A painful inflammation of the appendix. Fiber: Plant-derived dietary material that’s resistant to certain digestive enzymes. Tertiary Food Processing: Commercial production of food that often contains synthetic elements or an overabundance of certain salts and sugars. “Western Diet”: A collective term for a diet high in fat, cholesterol, protein, sugar, and salt, that often involves frequent consumption of “fast food”. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r9amif1DQMc _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Editor, Director & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) with Adam Thompson With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Addiss, D., Shaffer, N., Fowler, B., Tauxe, R. (1990). The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States. The American Journal of Epidemiology.132:5 (910-1925). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2239906 Fares, A. (2014). Summer Appendicitis. Annals of Medical and Health Science Research. 4(1): 18-21. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952290 Ferris, M., Quan, S., Kaplan, B., Molodecky, N., Ball, C., Chernoff, G., Bhala, N., Ghosh, S., Dixon, E., Ng, S., Kaplan, G. (2017). The Global Incidence of Appendicitis: A Systematic Review of Population-based Studies. Annals of Surgery. 266:2 (237-241). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288060 Kaplan, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, The Gastrointestinal REsearch Group, University of Calgary. Ramdass, M., Young Sing, Q., Milne, D., Mooteeram, J., and Barrow, S. (2015). Association between the appendix and the fecalith in adults. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 58 (10-14). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309758/
Why Do You Make So Many Poop Videos? (& Other Questions) Why Do You Make So Many Poop Videos? (& Other Questions)
2 years ago En
We answer your burning questions in our first-ever Q&A video. Thanks for asking, and for watching!! Thanks also to our patrons and YouTube members. You make MinuteEarth possible https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Writing and Narration From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ LINKS 1) We Made A Poop Video Playlist | https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLElB7nLNHZvjP3AyYe6Kit_PoarcUJ1xI 3) What To Do When It's Really Cold Outside | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3Gs6tyiNX4 5) Jesse's Channel - This Place | https://www.youtube.com/user/ThisPlaceChannel/ 6) Arcadi's Channel - Tippe Top Physics | https://www.youtube.com/user/tippetopphysics/ 7) Hot Mess | https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw/ 8) MinutePhysics | https://www.youtube.com/user/minutephysics 9) Ever's Dormant Channel - Un Punto Circular | https://www.youtube.com/UnPuntoCircular 10) Lion Guardians | http://lionguardians.org/ 11) Paradigms Show | https://vrv.co/paradigms 12) MinuteLabs | http://www.minutelabs.io 14) Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA 15) Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE 16) The Deadliest Ice Age Ever | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJWIgS-1hJc 17) How We Make MinuteEarth Videos (Behind the Scenes) | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnIZybxCW1k 18) ASAP Science | https://www.youtube.com/AsapSCIENCE/ 19) Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c 20) MinuteEarth in other languages: Spanish: https://www.youtube.com/MinutoDeLaTierra French: https://www.youtube.com/MinutePourLaTerre Italian: https://www.youtube.com/MinutiDellaTerra Portuguese (Brazilian): https://www.youtube.com/MinutoDaTerra 21) These are our favorite MinuteEarth videos: David | Ambergris: Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN1brVnlBZU Emily | Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c Melissa | This Is Not A Bee https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDMBykrogXs Alex | Climate Change: The View From MinuteEarth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEX2J_sAdGs Kate | Why Do We Eat Spoiled Food? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yswzITbAbA Ever’s Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA&list=PLJTyadQhEGyWJJaTkzwdsAWl1MCHNtFRR
The Secret Weapon That Could Help Save Bees The Secret Weapon That Could Help Save Bees
2 years ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Honeybees are dying from parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition, but we can help them in a number of ways, including by encouraging them to make a homemade antibiotic. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Propolis: a kind of bee glue made up of resins and beeswax, rich in flavonoids and aromatic acids with antibiotic properties Pollination circuit: commercial bee-keepers move their colonies around the country, renting them out to farmers to pollinate almonds, apples, and many other crops. Bee health: term used to indicate concern about a set of issues challenging to health of honey bees, including parasites, pathogens, and pesticides. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) with Ever Salazar Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Spivak, M, Browning Z, Goblirsch M, Lee K, Otto C, Smart M, Wu-Smart J. 2017. Why Does Bee Health Matter? The Science Surrounding Honey Bee Health Concerns and What We Can Do About It. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) Commentary, QTA2017. CAST, Ames, Iowa. Pp 1-16 Borba, R. S. & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis envelope in Apis melliferacolonies supports honey bees against the pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. Scientific Reports 7: 11429. Klein S, Cabirol A, Devaud JM, Barron AB, Lihoreau M. (2017). Why Bees Are So Vulnerable to Environmental Stressors. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Apr;32(4):268-278. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.12.009. Epub 2017 Jan 19. Simone-Finstrom, M., Borba, R. S., Wilson, M., & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health. Insects, 8(2), 46. http://doi.org/10.3390/insects8020046
Why Malaria Isn’t Just a Tropical Disease Why Malaria Isn’t Just a Tropical Disease
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Watch Hot Mess here! ►► http://bit.ly/hotmess_sub Malaria is a global disease that we've beaten back around the world, including in some tropical places, but we’ve had the hardest time in Africa. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anthropophily: an organism’s propensity to feed on humans rather than other animals Biogeography: the study of the distribution of species and organisms throughout space and time Malaria Control: the reduction of malaria’s impacts to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts. Continued intervention is required to sustain control. Malaria Elimination: the interruption of local transmission (i.e. reducing the rate of malaria cases to zero) of a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographic area. Continued intervention is needed to prevent reestablishment of transmission. Malaria Eradication: the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by human malaria parasites, after which intervention measures are no longer needed (e.g. as with smallpox, the only disease we've eradicated) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: How the US CDC grew out of the "Office of Malaria Control in War Areas": https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/history/history_cdc.html Amazing animation of how different parts of the world become more or less suitable for malaria over the seasons: https://www.dropbox.com/s/acqlg5l8pnxjl2x/Gething%202011%20Vivax%20suitability%2013071_2011_324_MOESM4_ESM.MPEG?dl=0 Animated map of malaria's shrinking distribution: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2015/10/14/the-shrinking-malaria-map _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) & Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Carter, R., & Mendis, K. N. 2002. Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clinical microbiology reviews, 15(4), 564-594. https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/15/4/564.full.pdf Gething, P. W., et al. 2011. Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Parasites & vectors, 4(1), 92. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-92 Hay, S. I., et al. 2004. The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. The Lancet infectious diseases, 4(6), 327-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS1473-3099(04)01043-6 Lardeux, F. et al. 2007. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia. Malaria journal, 6(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-8 United States CDC. 2018. Malaria: Biology. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/index.html World Health Organization. 2016. World malaria report 2015. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/report/en/ World Health Organization. 2016. Eliminating malaria. Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205565/WHO_HTM_GMP_2016.3_eng.pdf
Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop? Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop?
2 years ago En
Learn more about quokkas over on Animalogic: https://bit.ly/2MWz9pa Animals eat their own poop in order to gain extra access to nutrients or to microbes that help digest those nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Coprophagy: Consuming feces Allocoprophagy: Consuming others’ feces Autocoprophagy: Consuming one’s own feces Fecal microbiota transplant: A treatment for C. diff that involves transplanting feces from a healthy individual into a patient. Cecotropes: Also known as night poops, these are the soft, shiny pellets that rabbits excrete and then consume. Pap: A special substance produced by mother koalas that their babies feed on during the transition from drinking milk to eating eucalyptus leaves. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Masi, S., and Brueur, T. (2018). Dialiumseed coprophagy in wild western gorillas: Multiple nutritional benefits and toxicity reduction hypotheses. American Journal of Primatology. 80:4 (e22752). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29664132 Osawa, R. Blanshard, W. and Ocallaghan, P. (1993). Microbiological Studies of the Intestinal Microflora of the Koala, Phascolarctos-Cinereus .2. Pap, a Special Maternal Feces Consumed by Juvenile Koalas. Australian Journal of Zoology. 41(6): 611-620. Retrieved from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/ZO/ZO9930611. Mack, A., and Druliner, G. (2003). A Non-Intrusive Method for Measuring Movements and Seed Dispersal in Cassowaries. Journal of Field Ornithology. 74:2 (193-196). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4131128 Eckman, L. (2018). Personal communication. Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, UCSD. Suen, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Brogan, J. (2016). Everyone Poops. Some Animals Eat It. Why?. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/everyone-poops-some-animals-eat-it-why-180961020/
Why Are There Penguins At The Equator? Why Are There Penguins At The Equator?
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: minuteearth When nutrients from the ocean depths reach the sunlit surface (like in the Galapagos), life is more productive. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Net Primary Production (NPP): the amount of primary production that organisms do, minus the amount of carbon they use up to do so (by respiring) Phytoplankton: microscopic green algae that live in water and get energy through photosynthesis. Learn more here: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/phyto.html Primary Production: the synthesis of organic chemicals from carbon dioxide (mostly happens through photosynthesis) Upwelling: the motion of cooler, usually nutrient-rich, water towards the ocean surface ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Alex Reich & Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Ainley, David. Personal Communication, 2018. Baker, A. J., et al. 2006. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proc of Royal Soc B: Biol Sci, 273 (1582), 11-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560011/ Behrenfeld, M. J., et al. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature, 444(7120), 752. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature05317 Boersma, Dee. Personal Communication, 2018. Boyd, P.W., et al. 2014. Cross-chapter box on net primary production in the ocean. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC [Field, C.B., et al (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA, pp. 133-136. Dybdahl, Mark. Personal Communication, 2018. Falkowski, P. G., et al. 1998. Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281(5374), 200-206. https://goo.gl/1P7b69 Field, C. B., et al. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281(5374), 237-240. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt9gm7074q/qt9gm7074q.pdf Karnauskas, K. B., et al. 2017. Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galapagos upwelling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 460, 22-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.005 LaRue, Michelle. Personal Communication, 2018. Kallmeyer, Jens. Personal Communication, 2018. Pockalny, Robert. Personal Communication, 2018. Sigman, D. M. & Hain, M. P. 2012. The Biological Productivity of the Ocean. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):21. https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-biological-productivity-of-the-ocean-70631104 Stock, Charlie. Personal Communication, 2018. Galapagos penguin diet https://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/galpen1/foodhabits Penguin diet https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix Cromwell Current & Galapagos: http://www.iflscience.com/environment/new-study-may-reveal-how-galapagos-islands-became-so-biodiverse/ Penguin distribution: https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix , http://www.penguins.cl/penguins-region.htm Ocean productivity: https://ci.coastal.edu/~sgilman/770productivitynutrients.htm
Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve
2 years ago En
Get NordVPN at https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth. Use code MINUTEEARTH to save 77%! Earth’s outer shell is made of two materials whose different densities and thicknesses give rise to two distinct “levels” on the planet’s surface. Watch our new show Paradigms (U.S. servers only!): https://www.vrv.co/paradigms Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Hypsometric Curve: Basically, a chart that shows the proportions of surface area at every elevation on a planet. Crust: Earth's outermost layer, made out of two distinct materials – oceanic crust (which is denser) and continental crust (which is less dense). Lithosphere: The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and the hard, un-bending part of the upper mantle. Subduction: The process of an ocean plate crashing into another plate and getting forced to dive down into Earth's mantle. Isostasy: Describes the way earth's crust sort of floats in the underlying mantle. Continental crust is less dense and thicker, and floats higher than the oceanic crust, which is denser and thinner. Geologists talk about things like "isostatic rebound," which is what happens after an ice age, when the ice melts off a continent and the continent lifts up, like a floating raft in a pool after someone gets off (though continents rise more slowly). ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Albarede, F. (2009) Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, Vol 461. Calogero, Meredith. Personal Communication, 2018. Eakins, B.W. and G.F. Sharman. Hypsographic Curve of Earth's Surface from ETOPO1, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, 2012 from: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/etopo1_surface_histogram.html Hawkesworth, C. J. & Kemp, A. I. S. (2006) Evolution of the continental crust. Nature, Vol 443. Rosenblatt, P.C , & Thouvenot, P.E. (1994). Comparative hypsometric analysis of Earth and Venus. Geophysics Research Letters, Vol 21, pp 465-468. Stern, R.J., Gerya, T, & Tackley, P.J. (2018) Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids. Geoscience Frontiers, 9.
The Similarity Trap The Similarity Trap
2 years ago En Ru
Try Squarespace for free: http://squarespace.com/MinuteEarth And subscribe to MinuteEarth! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd As we try to figure out the evolutionary trees for languages and species, we sometimes get led astray by similar but unrelated words and traits. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cladistics: A method of recreating evolutionary trees based on evidence about relationships. Etymology: The study of the origin of words and how they have changed throughout history. Convergent Evolution: A process whereby different species evolve similar traits in order to adapt to similar environments. Polyphyly: A group containing members with multiple ancestral sources. Homoplasy: A trait shared by a group of species that is not shared in their common ancestor. False Cognates: Pairs of words with similar sounds and meanings but unrelated etymologies. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A photographer who has taken amazing photos of unrelated people who look alike: http://mentalfloss.com/article/53774/photos-unrelated-people-who-look-exactly-alike _________________________________________ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Lappet-faced Vulture (Old World) - Steve Garvie https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torgos_tracheliotos_-Masai_Mara_National_Reserve,_Kenya-8.jpg Turkey vulture (New World) - Flickr User minicooper93402 https://www.flickr.com/photos/minicooper93402/5440526260 Crested Porcupine (Old World) - Flickr user 57777529@N02 https://www.flickr.com/photos/57777529@N02/5398915634 North American Porcupine (New World) - iStock.com/GlobalP https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/north-american-porcupine-or-canadian-porcupine-or-common-porcupine-walking-gm515605852-88578399 Chinchilla lanigera - Nicolas Guérin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinchilla_lanigera_(Wroclaw_zoo)-2.JPG Naked Mole Rat - Roman Klementschitz https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nacktmull.jpg Ganges river dolphin - Zahangir Alom, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platanista_gangetica_noaa.jpg Atlantic Spotted Dolphin - Flickr user 53344659@N05 https://www.flickr.com/photos/53344659@N05/4978423771/ Orcinus orcas - Robert Pittman, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Killerwhales_jumping.jpg Euphorbia obesa - Frank Vincentz https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E_obesa_symmetrica_ies.jpg Astrophytum asterias - David Midgley https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Astrophytum_asterias1.jpg Sweet William Dwarf - Nicholas M. Bashour https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spring_Flowers.JPG ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, Q. and Gray, R. (2005). Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). Curious Parallels and Curious Connections — Phylogenetic Thinking in Biology and Historical Linguistics. Systematic Biology. 54:5 (513-526). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/sysbio/article/54/4/513/2842862 Atkinson, Quentin. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Evolution and Human Behavior at the University of Auckland. Bennu, D. (2004). The Evolution of Birds: An Overview of the Avian Tree of Life. Lab Animal. 33 (42-28)). Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/laban0504-42 De La Fuente, J.(2010). Urban legends: Turkish kayık ‘boat’ and “Eskimo” qayaq ‘kayak’. Studia Linguistica. 127 (7-24). Retrieved from: http://www.ejournals.eu/Studia-Linguistica/2010/2010/art/180/
Rise Of The Mesopredator🎵 (ft. ScienceWithTom) Rise Of The Mesopredator🎵 (ft. ScienceWithTom)
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane for free: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Use promo code "minuteearth" for 10% off Dashlane Premium. To see song lyrics, click "CC" on the video or, for an annotated version, click here: https://genius.com/14774391 Thanks to humans, old school apex predators are struggling to hold onto their perch at the top of the food chain. And now a new class of adaptable mesopredators are remaking the ecosystems they take over. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food Web: The feeding relationships between animals that determine how energy and nutrients are spread throughout an ecosystem. Trophic Level: A hierarchical level in an ecosystem made up of organisms that share the same function in the food web. Apex predator: The animals at the top trophic level that feed on animals and organisms below them. Mesopredator: A member of a mid-ranking trophic level that preys on animals and organisms in lower trophic levels and occasionally gets eat by apex predators. Mesopredator Release: An ecological phenomenon in which mesopredators rapidly grow in population once apex predators are removed from an ecosystem. Trophic Cascade: A series of dramatic changes in an ecosystem often triggered by mesopredator release. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: ScienceWithTom goes deep on the science in this video with ecologist Alex McInturff: https://youtu.be/TJcgtqjj-yo _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Tom McFadden Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert, Tom McFadden With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). The Unique Ecology of Human Predators. Science. 349: 6250 (858-860). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6250/858 Prugh, L., Stoner, C., Epps, C., Bean, W., Ripple, W., Laliberte, A. and Brashares, J. (2009). The Rise of the Mesopredator. BioScience. 59:9 (779-791). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/bio.2009.59.9.9 Baum, J. and Worm, B. (2009). Cascading Top-down Effects of Changing Oceanic Predator Abundances (2009). Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 699-714. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19298616 McInturff, Alex. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at University of California, Berkeley.
How Long Can We Live? How Long Can We Live?
2 years ago En Ru
Try Squarespace for free: https://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth The human lifespan might be limited, in part, because natural selection just stops working late in life. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors for helping to make this video possible. ___________________________________________ Video Keywords: Mortality plateau: the leveling out of the mortality rate that is observed at late ages in various species ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: David Goldenberg and Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Grey, A (Sept 2016, personal communication) Horiuchi S, Wilmoth JR (1998) Deceleration in the Age Pattern of Mortality at Older Ages. Demography 35: 4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2307/3004009 Mueller, LD, Rose MR (1996) Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. PNAS 26:15249-15253. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.26.15249 Rose MR, Rauser CL, Mueller LD, Benford G. (2006) A revolution for aging research. Biogerontology 7:269-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16612665 Rose, MR, Flatt, T, Graves, JL, Greer, L, Martinez, DE, Matos, MM, Mueller, LD, Shmookler Reis, RJ, and P. Shahrestani. 2012. What is aging? Frontiers in Genetics 3:134. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2012.00134/full Rose, M. (Sept 2016, personal communication)
When Trees Go Nuts When Trees Go Nuts
2 years ago En Ru
Please support us through Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Or, click the "Sponsor" button to support us through YouTube itself. Thank you! Every once in a while, all the oaks or spruces or other plants in a region suddenly produce a tremendous bounty of seeds – up to 100 times more than usual. But why do they do it, and how do they all manage to sync up? ___________________________________________ To learn more about mast seeding, start your googling with these keywords: Mast Year: A year in which all the plants of a particular species in a region ramp up their seed production. Predator Satiation Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mast seeding is a strategy plants use for controlling the population of squirrels and other seed-eating animals. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fletcher, Quinn E., Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Jalene M. LaMontagne, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs, and Murray M. Humphries. 2010. “The Functional Response of a Hoarding Seed Predator to Mast Seeding.” Ecology 91 (9): 2673–83. Kelly, Dave, and Victoria L. Sork. 2002. “Mast Seeding in Perennial Plants: Why, How, Where?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33 (1). Annual Reviews: 427–47. Kelly, D. 1994. “The Evolutionary Ecology of Mast Seeding.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (12): 465–70. LaMontagne, J. 2018. Personal Communication.
Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings) Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings)
2 years ago En Ru
Learn new skills from this video’s sponsor, Skillshare: http://skl.sh/minuteearth4 Humans from different cultures anthropomorphize different animals to represent the same human traits. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sunshower: A meteorological phenomenon in which the sunshines while rain is falling. Idiom: A group of words whose meaning is not readily understandable by defining the individual words. Anthropomorphism: The attribution of human characteristics to an animal or god or object. Linguistic Anthropology: A field of study into how language shapes communication around the world. ___________________________________________ If you’re an American, this New York Times dialect quiz can predict your hometown based on the particular words you use: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/dialect-quiz-map.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blust, R. (1999). The Fox’s Wedding. Anthropos. 94: 487-499. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40465016. Perkovic, A. and Rata, G. (2008). On The Romanian Equivalency Of Animal Idioms In English. Journal of Linguistic Studies. 1: 65-71. Retrieved from: http://docplayer.net/amp/64640306-Journal-of-linguistic-studies.html Tiechuan, M. (2015). Cause Analysis of Different Culture Image in English and Chinese Animal Idiom. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3: 10-19. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f582/3a67a9d085c57417d069ef4bda0df7dd4b4c.pdf Shi, T. (2015). A Comparison of Animal Words in English and Chinese Culture. Presented at the 5th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Medicine. Retrieved from: https://wenku.baidu.com/view/95eb244105087632311212ee.html
Milk Is Just Filtered Blood Milk Is Just Filtered Blood
2 years ago En Ru
Join Honey for FREE at: https://www.joinhoney.com/MinuteEarth. Special thanks to Honey for sponsoring this episode. Female mammals make milk, a cocktail of filtered blood, to provide their babies with vital nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Mammal: Endothermic vertebrates that nurse their young. Lactation: The secretion of milk by the mammary glands. Mammary Gland: A cluster of alveoli and ducts that secretes milk. Mammary Alveoli: The tiny sacs that are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland. Oxytocin: A hormone released by the pituitary gland that - among other things - causes the milk ejection reflex during nursing. Holstein: A large black and white cow known for the large quantities of milk it yields. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Skibiel, A., Downing, L., Orr, T., and Hood, W. (2013).The Evolution Of The Nutrient Composition Of Mammalian Milks. Journal of Animal Ecology. 82 (6): 1254-1264. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895187 Sharp, J., Wanyonyi, S., Modepalli, V., Watt, A., Kuruppath, S., Hinds, L., Kumar, A., Abud, H., Lefevre, C., and Nicholas, K. (2017). The Tammar Wallaby: A Marsupial Model To Examine The Timed Delivery And Role Of Bioactives In Milk. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 244: 164-177. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27528357 Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I., and Lawlor, T. (2004). Genetic Correlations Among Production, Body Size, Udder,and Productive Life Traits Over Time in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(5):1457-1468. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15290995 Nicholas, K. (1988). Asynchronous Dual Lactation In A Marsupial, The Tammar Wallaby. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 529-536. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2456758
Are Plastics Too Strong? Are Plastics Too Strong?
2 years ago En Ru
The same chemistry that makes plastic tough, light and flexible also makes it nearly impossible to get rid of, because it’s hard to break those resilient chemical bonds. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Polymer: A substance whose molecular structure consists of large numbers of similar units covalently bonded together Covalent bond: A strong type of bond in which adjacent atoms share electrons. Backbone chain: A long series of covalently bonded atoms that create the continuous chain of the molecule. Bioplastic: A type of plastic, usually biodegradable, made from biological substances. Scission: The breakage of a backbone chain at the bond level. Microbial biodegradation: The use of microbes to break molecules into smaller and less harmful forms. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Disposable plastic cup - Wikimedia user Lionel Allorge https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tasse_Plastique_Air_France_1.jpg Sandbox and Beach Toys - The Children's Museum of Indianapolis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Childrens_Museum_of_Indianapolis_-_Sandbox_and_Beach_Toys.jpg PET plastic - Montgomery County Division of Solid Waste Services https://flic.kr/p/cnfKKw LEGO Tank - Flickr user MaxFragg https://flic.kr/p/gDR7iV PVC Pipe - Pam Broviak https://flic.kr/p/4sy8kb IKEA Watering cans - Sonny Abesamis https://flic.kr/p/pcXrpj LEGO Figure - Marco Verch https://flic.kr/p/DseDts Wetsuit - Clemens Pfeiffer https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shorty-wetsuit-O%27Neill.jpg White PVC Pipes - Teresa Trimm https://www.flickr.com/photos/ttrimm/7355733948 STS-120 Shuttle Mission Imagery - NASA https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-120/html/sts120-s-028.html Providing clean water - UK Department for International Development https://flic.kr/p/a4UESo ___________________________________________ References: Albertsson, A. and Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Designed To Degrade. Science. 358 (6365). 872-873. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/872 De Hoe, G., Zumstein, M., Tiegs, B., Brutman, J., McNeill, K., Sander, M., Coates, G., and Hillmyer, M. (2018). Sustainable Polyester Elastomers from Lactones: Synthesis,Properties, and Enzymatic Hydrolyzability. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140: 963-973. Retrieved from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.7b10173 Tokiwa, Y., Calabia, B., Ugwu, C., and Aiba, S. (2009). Biodegradability of Plastics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10: 3722-3742. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/9/3722 Rydz, J., ,Sikorska, W., Kyulavska, M., and Christova, D. (2015). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16: 564-596. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/1/564 Hillmyer, M. (2017). The Promise of Plastics from Plants. Science. 358 (6365). 868-870. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/868 Hillmyer, M. (2017). Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.
How Much Food Is There On Earth? How Much Food Is There On Earth?
2 years ago Ru En
Go to https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth to build your math & science skills! Food already in cupboards, supermarkets, & warehouses could feed humanity for 4 months, but potential food - berries, termites & krill - could extend that by another year. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food stock: the total amount of any particular food existing at any point in time Strategic reserve: food intentionally kept on reserve to be sold when supplies otherwise become low Stock to use ratio: the amount of stock of any given food at any point in time as a fraction of the total annual consumption of the commodity ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., et al. 2009. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. Volume 56, Issue 5, 727-740 FAO. World Food Situation http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/ FAO. World Cassava Situation and Recent Trends http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/X4007E04.htm Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D. 2012. Energy, taxonomic aggregation, and the geography of ant abundance. Ecography 35:65-72. National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ Penn State University Extension. Oil factsheet: oilseed presses. 7pp (undated). Ritchie, H., Roser, M. 2018. "Meat and Seafood Production & Consumption". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/meat-and-seafood-production-consumption' Sanderson, MG. 1996. Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide: A global database. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 543-557. Statista https://www.statista.com/statistics/251728/weekly-number-of-us-grocery-shopping-trips-per-household/ USDA ISSN: 1554-9089, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, February 8, 2018; https://www.usda.gov/oce/commodity/wasde/latest.pdf (latest monthly update) Wilson, RW. et al. 2009, Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle, Science 323, 359-362 https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/
Introducing Our NEW SHOW: Paradigms Introducing Our NEW SHOW: Paradigms
2 years ago En
WATCH PARADIGMS EPISODE 1 FOR FREE ►► http://vrv.co/paradigms (No subscription needed) ↓↓↓ And follow Paradigms on social media! ↓↓↓ Twitter: https://twitter.com/paradigmshow Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/paradigmshow/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/paradigm_show/ We teamed up with MinutePhysics and Veritasium to tell the stories of how we know what we know about the universe and our place in it. Please watch episode 1 and let us know what you think! http://vrv.co/paradigms
Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested? Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested?
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: youtube2018 Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. Once it’s out of your body, your genetic information is valuable to a variety of people, but you can keep it safe(ish) with a few simple steps. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Personal Genetic Analysis: Direct-to-consumer DNA testing, usually through mail-in saliva samples. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism: A variation at a single spot on the genome that is present in some part of the population. Genotyping chip: A microarray that allows genetic testing companies to test a DNA sample for hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Health Care Fraud: A crime that usually involves misrepresenting medical information in order to make money. Targeted Advertising: The practice of placing ads based on consumer demographics or behavior. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act: A 2008 American law that prohibits health insurers and employers from using genetic information when making coverage or hiring decisions. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Melissa Gymrek, Amy L. McGuire, David Golan, Eran Halperin, Yaniv Erlich (2013). Identifying Personal Genomes by Surname Inference. Science. 339:6117 (321-324). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6117/321.full Joh, E. (2011). DNA Theft: Recognizing the Crime of Nonconsensual Genetic Collection and Testing. Boston University Law Review. 91:2 (666-700) Retrieved from: https://www.bu.edu/law/journals-archive/bulr/documents/joh.pdf Tanner, A. (2017). Our Bodies, Our Data: How Companies Make Billions Selling Our Medical Records. Available at: https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780807033340 Koerner, B. (2015). Your Relative’s DNA Could Turn You Into A Suspect. Wired. Retrieved from: https://www.wired.com/2015/10/familial-dna-evidence-turns-innocent-people-into-crime-suspects/ Pollack, A. (2015). Building a Face, and a Case, on DNA. New Yourk Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/science/building-face-and-a-case-on-dna.html?_r=0 Cappos, Justin. (2017). Professor of Computer Science and Engineering, NYU. Personal Communication.
We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy? We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy?
2 years ago En Ru
This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. No matter how wealthy a country is, there's a lot it can do to improve the health of its citizens. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Bill Gates Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Bill Gates & Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bolt, J., Timmer, M., & van Zanden, J. L. 2014. "GDP per capita since 1820”, in van Zanden, et al. (eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264214262-7-en Life expectancy over time estimated from: https://github.com/open-numbers/ddf--gapminder--life_expectancy Countries that developed insurance systems found in: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/theimpactofhealthinsurance_fulltext.pdf Thanks also to Dr. Shyam Deshpande and Dr. Tracy Seimears
Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back
2 years ago En Ru
Please support us on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth or as a YouTube Sponsor! Thanks to everyone who already does! Shocking the brain has come and gone as a medical treatment, but it’s currently resurging, as it often provides the best form of relief for severe depression and advanced Parkinson’s disease. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Electroshock therapy: the original name for treating severe depression with a series of brief electrical shocks to the brain Electroconvulsive therapy: the current name for electroshock therapy Deep brain stimulation: a treatment for advanced Parkinson’s that uses pulsed electrical signals to targeted brain regions ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arlotti M, et al 2016. The adaptive deep brain stimulation challenge. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 28: 12-17 Benabid AL, S Chabardes, J Mitrofanis, P Polla. 2009. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 8:67-81 Leiknes KA, Jarosh-von Schweder L, Høie B. 2012. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide. Brain and Behavior 2(3):283-344 Pagnin D, et al. 2004. Efficacy of ECT in Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review. J ECT 20:13-20 Sienaert P, K Vansteeland, K Demyttenaere, J Peuskens. 2010. Randomized comparison of ultra-brief bifrontal and unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: cognitive side-effects. J Affective Disorders 122:60-67 UK ECT Review Group, 2003. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 361, 799–808.
Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young
2 years ago En Ru
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 We mostly grow annual plants because they reliably produce energy-rich seeds, which we like to eat. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual: a plant that typically lives for a year or less Biennial: a plant that typically lives for two years Perennial: a plant that typically lives for multiple years ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: The Case Against Civilization: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/09/18/the-case-against-civilization _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Bruno van Wayenburg and Ever Salazar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bonser, S. P. (2013). High reproductive efficiency as an adaptive strategy in competitive environments. Functional Ecology, 27(4), 876-885. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12064/full Crews, T. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Crews, T. E., & DeHaan, L. R. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A response. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 500-515. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1008777 Friedman, J., & Rubin, M. J. (2015). All in good time: understanding annual and perennial strategies in plants. American journal of botany, 102(4), 497-499. http://www.amjbot.org/content/102/4/497.short Denison, R.F. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Milla, R. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Pimentel, D., et al. (2012). Annual vs. perennial grain production. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 161, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880912002058 Rees, M., & Long, M. J. (1992). Germination biology and the ecology of annual plants. The American Naturalist, 139(3), 484-508. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1403/1/reesm8_Rees_and_Long_1992_Am_Nat.pdf Reich, P. B. (2014). The world‐wide ‘fast–slow’plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. Journal of Ecology, 102(2), 275-301. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12211/full Smaje, C. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A critical review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 471-499. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1007200 Van Tassel, D. L., DeHaan, L. R., & Cox, T. S. (2010). Missing domesticated plant forms: can artificial selection fill the gap?. Evolutionary Applications, 3(5‐6), 434-452. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00132.x/full Vico, G. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Vico, G., et al. (2016). Trade‐offs between seed output and life span–a quantitative comparison of traits between annual and perennial congeneric species. New Phytologist, 209(1), 104-114. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.13574/full Westoby, M. Personal Communication, Nov 2017.
A Disease's Guide to World Domination A Disease's Guide to World Domination
2 years ago En Ru
Get 3 weeks of free access to CuriosityStream by visiting http://curiositystream.com/minute and using the promo code "minute" There's something surprising that helps determine how damaging a disease is: distance. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Direct transmission: occurs when a pathogen is transmitted to a new host by physical or close contact Virulence: the degree of damage a pathogen causes its host _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) and Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blanquart, F., et al. (2016). A transmission-virulence evolutionary trade-off explains attenuation of HIV-1 in Uganda. Elife 5: 5. de Roode, J.C., Yates, A.J., & Altizer, S. (2008). Virulence-transmission trade-offs and population divergence in virulence in a naturally occurring butterfly parasite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105: 7489-7494 Ewald, P.W. (1983). Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Reviews Ecology & Systematics 14: 465-485 Ewald, P.W. (1991). Waterborne transmission and the evolution of virulence among gastrointestinal bacteria. Epidemiology & Infection 106: 83-119. Ewald, P.W. (1991). Transmission modes and the evolution of virulence: with special reference to cholera, influenza, and AIDS. Human Nature 2: 1-30. Galvani, A.P. (2003) Epidemiology meets evolutionary ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 132-139. Lipsitch, M. & Moxon, E.R. (1997). Virulence and transmissibility of pathogens: what is the relationship? Trends in Microbiology 5: 31-37.
Why Do Birds Migrate Like This? Why Do Birds Migrate Like This?
2 years ago En Ru
Buy the book: "Where the Animals Go: Tracking Wildlife with Technology in 50 Maps and Graphics" at http://www.wheretheanimalsgo.com Copyright 2016 by James Cheshire and Oliver Uberti. First American Edition published by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. in 2017. First published in Great Britain in 2016 by Particular Books, an imprint of Penguin Books. Migrating birds care more about the ease of their trip than the distance they travel, and that leads to some truly roundabout routes. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Migration: The seasonal movement of a population of animals from one area to another. Prevailing winds: Winds in a particular area that blow in a particular direction. Thermal: An upward current of warm air. Lift: A force that counteracts the weight of an object and holds it in the air. Flyway: A route regularly used by lots of migrating birds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi García Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Horton, K., Van Doren, B., Stepanian, P.,Hochachka, W., Farnsworth, A., and Kelly, J. (2016). Nocturnally migrating songbirds drift when they can and compensate when they must. Scientific Reports 6, 1-8. Nature. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep21249 Kranstauber,B., Weinzierl, R., Wikelski, M., Safi, K. (2015). Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling. Ecology Letters. 18: 133. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12528/full Liechti, F. (2006). Birds: blowin’ by the wind.Journal of Ornithology. 47: 202–211. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10336-006-0061-9. Reddy, G., Celani, A., Sejnowski, T., and Vergassola, M. (2016). Learning to soar in turbulent environments. PNAS. 113(33):E4877-84. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482099 Shamoun-Baranes, J., Leshem, Y., Yom-Tov, Y., and Liech, O. (2003). Differential use of thermal convection by soaring birds over central Israel. The Condor. 105:208-218. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1370541. Leshem, Yossi. (2017) Professor of Life Science, Tel-Aviv University. Personal Communication.
Are "Acts of God" Disappearing? Are "Acts of God" Disappearing?
3 years ago En Ru
Considering humans' increased impact on the environment, we may want to reconsider whether there is still a place in our legal system for the Act of God defense. Thanks to all our viewers and supporters for an incredible year of videos! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Act of God: A natural disaster that is outside of human influence or control, such that no one will be held responsible for the resulting damages. Reasonable precautions: The ordinary or usual precautions that a person would take to prevent damage from a natural disaster. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about some of the damage done in the flood of 1903: https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/flood-of-1903/17221 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Melissa Hayes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Merritt Creamery Co. v. Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 122 S.W. 322, 139 Mo. App. 149 (Mo. App., 1909). Herring, S. C., A. Hoell, M. P. Hoerling, J. P. Kossin, C. J. Schreck III, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2016: Explaining Extreme Events of 2015 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (12), S1–S145, doi:10.1175/BAMS -ExplainingExtremeEvents2015.1. Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J. T., & Shepherd, T. G. (2015). Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change, 5(8), 725-730. doi:10.1038/nclimate2657. Stott, P. (2016). How climate change affects extreme weather events. Science, 352(6293), 1517-1518. doi:10.1126/science.aaf7271. Jill M. Fraley, Re-examining Acts of God, 27 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 669 (2010) Available at: h6p://digitalcommons.pace.edu/pelr/vol27/iss3/4. Loimer, H., & Guarnieri, M. (1996). Accidents and acts of God: a history of the terms. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 101-107. doi:10.2105/ajph.86.1.101
Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains
3 years ago Ru En
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth If you live outside the US, click here: https://www.23andme.com/ When we domesticate an animal species, their brains shrink and they freak out less. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth And to our SPONSORS on YouTube. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Domesticated animal: a species of animal bred by humans over generations to become nonreactive and gain characteristics suitable for life as a farm animal or pet Tame animal: an individual animal raised in a way that it has become less dangerous and frightened of people Feral animal: an animal that escapes from captivity or domestication (& regains some similar & some different characteristics compared to its pre-domesticated state) "Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies a creature to either to resist forcibly or escape Limbic system: the brain’s “panic button” - a system of nerves and networks near the bottom of the cortex that controls basic emotions (e.g. fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (e.g. hunger, sex, dominance) Telencephalon: the most developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting chiefly of the cerebral hemispheres, and the brain region that shrinks most in domesticated animals Domestication: a sustained multigenerational, mutualistic relationship in which one species (e.g. humans) assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another species (e.g. cows) in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest (e.g. milk/meat/traction), and through which the domesticated organisms gain advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship (e.g. aurochs, which went extinct), thereby benefitting and often increasing the fitness of both species involved ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Brain Scoop video on brain size and intelligence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJW8jIDfP9E Russian Fox Domestication Experiment: https://goo.gl/5nWnXz What happens to domesticated animals & their brains when they escape back to the wild?: http://www.nature.com/news/when-chickens-go-wild-1.19195#/free%5C _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Keenan Parry & Ever Salazar (@unpuntocircular) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Agnvall, B. et al. 2017. Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.09.006 Eberhard, W. G., & Wcislo, W. T. 2011. Grade changes in brain-body allometry: morphological and behavioural correlates of brain size in miniature spiders, insects and other invertebrates. Advances in Insect Physiology, 40, 155. http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/2011_Eberhard_Wcislo_AdvIns_Physiol.pdf Kruska, D. C. 2005. On the evolutionary significance of encephalization in some eutherian mammals: effects of adaptive radiation, domestication, and feralization. Brain, behavior and evolution, 65(2), 73-108. https://goo.gl/J86NEd Kruska, D. C. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Marchetti, M. P., & Nevitt, G. A. 2003. Effects of hatchery rearing on brain structures of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental biology of Fishes, 66(1), 9-14. https://goo.gl/GL6LWG Marchetti, M. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Wright, D. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Zeder, M. A. 2012. Pathways to animal domestication. Biodiversity in agriculture: Domestication, evolution and sustainability, 227-259. https://goo.gl/2xWSB8 Zeder, M. A. 2015. Core questions in domestication research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), 3191-3198. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3191.full Zeder, M. A. Personal Communication, Oct 2017.
Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic? Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic?
3 years ago En Ru
Get your first KiwiCo box free by going to http://www.kiwico.com/minuteearth Occasionally, internal or external factors change, allowing certain animals to become giant versions of themselves. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Spiracles: External respiratory openings on insects Carboniferous Period: The time period from 359-299 million years ago when the Earth’s oxygen levels increased rapidly. Square-Cube Law: A mathematical principle that describes the relationship between area and volume. Buoyancy: An upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. Phytoplankton: Microscopic plants eaten by krill and other zooplankton. Baleen: A filter-feeding system inside the mouth of some whales. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kaiser, A., et al. (2007). Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism. 13198-13203. PNAS. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1941816/ Sander, P. Christian, et al. (2011). Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:the evolution of gigantism. Biological Reviews. 86(1): 117–155. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045712/ Taylor, M and Weder, M. (2013). Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks. PeerJ 1:e36. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.5439.pdf. Verberk, W. and Bilton, D. (2011). Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism? PLOS One. 6(7): e22610. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022610 Slater, G., Goldbogen, J., Pyenson, N. (2017). Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284: 20170546. Retrieved from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1855/20170546.
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