MinuteEarth
Science and stories about our awesome planet! Created by Henry Reich, with Emily Elert, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and David Goldenberg. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder. "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." ― John Muir

175 videos
The Bacteria That Made Life Possible Are Now Killing Us The Bacteria That Made Life Possible Are Now Killing Us
4 weeks ago En
Aquatic cyanobacteria first oxygenated earth’s air, making human life possible; now, due to our actions, cyanobacteria are madly blooming once more, poisoning our coasts in the process Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cyanobacteria: aquatic photosynthesizing bacteria often erroneously call blue-green algae Blue-green algae: incorrect name often used for cyanobacteria because they are blue-green in appearance and can be confused with algae Dead zone: coastal area where cyanobacteria blooms lead to anaerobic conditions, killing fish and other organisms Mycrosystins: a class of toxic compounds released by certain cyanobacteria ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bargu S et al. Mississippi River diversions and phytoplankton dynamics in deltaic Gulf of Mexico estuaries: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 221:39-52 (2019). Berman-Frank I, Lundgren P, Falkowski P. Nitrogen fixation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution in cyanobacteria. Research in Microbiology 154, 157–164 (2003) Carey CC et al. Eco-physiological adaptations that favour freshwater cyanobacteria in a changing climate. Water Research 46, 1394-1407 (2012) Garcia AK et al. Reconstructed ancestral enzymes suggest long-term cooling of Earth’s photic zone since the Archean. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:4619-4624 (2017) Glass JB, Wolfe-Simon F, Anbar AD. Coevolution of metal availability and nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria and algae. Geobiology 7, 100-123 (2009). Lyons TW, CT Reinhard, NJ Planavsky. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere Nature 506, 307–315 (2014). Planavsky NJ et al. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. Nature 467, 1088-1090 (2010) Soo RM et al. On the origins of oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration in Cyanobacteria. Science 355, 1436–1440 (2017) Tromas N et al. Characterising and predicting cyanobacterial blooms in an 8-year amplicon sequencing time course. ISME J 11:1746-1763 (2017)
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The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning
1 month ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The technology we use to keep cool is heating the world in a vicious feedback cycle, so we need to improve it and use it less. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with this keyword: Refrigerant - a substance used in air conditioners & refrigerators for its ability to change phases and transfer heat ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: How AC changed the world: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-39735802 People use AC to make their homes feel like Africa: http://bit.ly/2Y9fOH3 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Video Narrator: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: European Commission. Climate-friendly alternatives to HFCs. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/alternatives_en Accessed May 2019. Gunawardena, K. R., et al. 2017. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity. Science of the Total Environment, 584, 1040-1055. http://bit.ly/2GbBuHY Graves, R. Pers. comm. May 2019. International Energy Agency. 2017. Space cooling: More access, more comfort, less energy. https://www.iea.org International Energy Agency. 2018. The Future of Cooling: Opportunities for energy- efficient air conditioning. https://www.iea.org/futureofcooling/ International Institute of Refrigeration. Nov 2017. The impact of the refrigeration sector on climate change. http://bit.ly/30A56Xh Keeler, B. L., et al. 2019. Social-ecological and technological factors moderate the value of urban nature. Nature Sustainability, 2(1), 29. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-018-0202-1 Ministry of the Environment, Japan. 2016. Recovery, Recycling & Destruction of CFC, HCFC, & HFC. https://www.env.go.jp/en/earth/ozone/leaf2016/04.pdf Pakbaznia, E., & Pedram, M. 2009. Minimizing data center cooling and server power costs. In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM/IEEE international symposium on Low power electronics and design (pp. 145-150). http://bit.ly/2JDL5bN Reardon, C. & Clarke, R. 2013. Passive cooling. Australian Government: Your Home. http://bit.ly/2LNMmj7 Sachar, S., et al. 2018. Solving the Global Cooling Challenge: How to Counter the Climate Threat from Room Air Conditioners. Rocky Mountain Institute. www.rmi.org/insight/solving_the_global_cooling_challenge Sadineni, S. B., et al. 2011. Passive building energy savings: A review of building envelope components. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 15(8), 3617-3631. http://bit.ly/2G9uGec Sivak, M. 2013. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami. ERL, 8(1), 014050. http://bit.ly/2SbyOix Zhang, X., & Caldeira, K. 2015. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. GRL, 42(11), 4548-4555. http://bit.ly/2LS8id0 Zhao, L., et al. 2015. Reduction of potential greenhouse gas emissions of room air-conditioner refrigerants: a life cycle carbon footprint analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 100, 262-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.063
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Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage
1 month ago En
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth to get 75% off a 3 year plan and use code MINUTEEARTH for an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. Basic research can seem wasteful, but it's actually a great economic investment. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Evoniuk, G, Kuhn, and C Schanberg, SM. (1979) The effect of tactile stimulation on serum growth hormone and tissue ornithine decarboxylase activity during maternal deprivation in rat pups. Communications in Psychopharmacology 3:363–370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/548216 Field T, Diego M, and M Hernandez-Reif (2010) Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review. Infant Behavioral Development 33: 115-124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844909/ Jones, CI, and JC Williams (1998) Measuring the Social Return to R&D. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(5): 1119-1135. https://academic.oup.com/qje/article-abstract/113/4/1119/1916988?redirectedFrom=fulltext Press, WH. (2013) What's So Special about Science (And How Much Should We Spend on It?), Science 342: 817-822. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/817.full Salter, AJ and BR Martin. (2001) The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: a critical review. Research Policy 30:509-532. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048733300000913 Schanberg SM, Evoniuk G and CM Kuhn. (1984) Tactile and nutritional aspects of maternal care. specific regulators of neuroendocrine function and cellular development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 175, 135–146. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-175-41779?journalCode=ebma
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How to Turn Cancer Against Itself How to Turn Cancer Against Itself
2 months ago En
This video was made in partnership with the Swiss National Science Foundation. To see more videos about the importance of basic research, go to https://www.youtube.com/SNSFinfo ↓↓↓ Or watch the THREE OTHER VIDEOS we made with SNSF↓↓↓ What’s intelligent about artificial intelligence? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR6j9TLZdAw Why kids skip school (& what to do about it) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-MwcsyMk2k Why you should abandon some of your dreams - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Qy8pBaugRY Cancer has proven hard to beat, but a promising new type of treatment can use the disease's own powers against it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monoclonal antibodies: antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell Hybridoma: a hybrid cell used as the basis for the production of antibodies in large amounts for diagnostic or therapeutic use ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder __________________________________________ References: Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. B Cells and Antibodies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884/ Ecker DM, Jones SD, Levine HL (2015). The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market. MAbs 7(1): 9-14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4622599/ Kohler, G. and Milstein, C. (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495-497. https://www.nature.com/articles/256495a0
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This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants
2 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Morocco has 3/4 of the world’s known reserves of rock phosphate, our main source of phosphorus, so Morocco may be key to our long-term ability to grow food. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Phosphorus - a chemical element used in explosives, matches, and fertilizers (as it is a key nutrient for plant growth) Phosphate rock - a sedimentary rock containing high amounts of phosphate minerals - the main source of agricultural P fertilizer Phosphate - a salt or ester of phosphoric acid, containing PO4 -3 or a related anion or a group 4 Rs of Nutrient Management - Right fertilizer source, at the Right rate, at the Right time, and in the Right place Reserve - the part of a resource that could be economically extracted or produced at the moment Resource - a concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the concentration is currently or potentially feasible ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Article about conflict in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2ZjYjQW Radio about Phosphorus mines in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2IFv8kC Magazine about 350th Anniv of Phosphorus Discovery - http://bit.ly/2wLw0i3 ________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor (@jessika_arts) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Amundson, R., et al 2015. Soil and human security in the 21st century. Science, 348(6235), 1261071. http://bit.ly/2R0dRXe Bailey, J. Pers. comm. Feb 2019 Chowdhury, R. B., et al. 2017. Key sustainability challenges for the global phosphorus resource, their implications for global food security, and options for mitigation. J. of Cleaner Prod., 140, 945-963. http://agri.ckcest.cn/ass/NK001-20170130004.pdf CIA. The World Factbook. Country Comparison: Crude Oil - Proved Reserves. Accessed January 2019. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2244rank.html Cooper, J., et al. 2011. The future distribution and production of global phosphate rock reserves. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 57, 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.09.009 Cordell, D., et al. 2009. The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Global env change, 19(2), 292-305. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2014. Life's bottleneck: sustaining the world's phosphorus for a food secure future. Ann Rev of Env & Res, 39, 161-188. 10.1146/annurev-environ-010213-113300 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2015. Tracking phosphorus security: indicators of phosphorus vulnerability in the global food system. Food Sec, 7(2), 337-350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0442-0 Elser, J., & Bennett, E. 2011. Phosphorus cycle: a broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature, 478(7367), 29. http://bit.ly/2WvUark Filippelli, G. M. 2011. Phosphate rock formation and marine phosphorus geochemistry: the deep time perspective. Chemosphere, 84(6), 759-766. http://bit.ly/2X0mTcf MacDonald, G. K., et al. 2011. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands. PNAS, 108(7), 3086-3091. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/108/7/3086.full.pdf Peterson, H. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Rosen, C. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Sattari, S. Z., et al. 2012. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle. PNAS, 109(16), 6348-6353. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/109/16/6348.full.pdf Statista.com. Rare earth reserves worldwide by country 2018. Accessed January 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/277268/rare-earth-reserves-by-country/ Tilman, D., et al. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418(6898), 671. http://bit.ly/2KCL3To NOTE: Venezuela actually has 18% and Saudi Arabia has 16% of global oil reserves, not the other way around
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The Secrets of Extreme Breath Holding The Secrets of Extreme Breath Holding
3 months ago En
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days here: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. And use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off a yearly membership. Humans can hold our breath longer than we think by taking advantage of our body’s innate survival instincts - and then ignoring them. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Static Apnea: Holding your breath without swimming or moving. Apneist: Someone who competes in apnea-related contests. Fight or Flight Response: A set of physiological responses to a perceived mortal threat. Mammalian Dive Reflex: A set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes. Diaphragm: A strip of skeletal muscles underneath the lungs that contracts and flattens when you inhale. It starts spasming as part of involuntary breathing movements when the body starts to run out of oxygen. Spleen: An organ that primarily acts as a blood filter that can deflate to return blood to the circulatory system. Carbon Dioxide Tension: The increase in CO2 pressure in the blood as oxygen levels fall. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Mike Boyd learns how to hold his breath for 4 minutes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6iyDEWG1CU _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius, Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bain, A., Drvis, I., Dujic, Z., MacLeod, D., Ainslie, P. (2018). Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists. Experimental Physiology. 103 (635-651). Retrieved from: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP086269. Hutchinson, A. (2018). Pushing the Limits of Extreme Breath-Holding. New Yorker. Retrieved from: https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/pushing-the-limits-of-extreme-breath-holding. Panneton, W. M. (2013). The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life? Physiology. 28(5): 284–297. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768097/. Petrović, Branko (2019). Personal Communication. Schagatay E, van Kampen M, Emanuelsson S, Holm B. (2000). Effects of physical and apnea training on apneic time and the diving response in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 82(3) : 161-9. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10929209. Schagatay, Erika (2019). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University
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Why Is Lyme Disease Getting Worse? Why Is Lyme Disease Getting Worse?
4 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! https://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Lyme disease is spreading like wildfire around the world: here's why. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brunner, J. L., LoGiudice, K., & Ostfeld, R. S. 2008. Estimating reservoir competence of Borrelia burgdorferi hosts: prevalence and infectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. Journal of medical entomology, 45(1), 139-147. http://bit.ly/2ZmxIDP Keesing, F., et al. 2009. Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Bological Sciences, 276(1675), 3911-3919. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rspb.2009.1159 Kilpatrick, A. M. et al. 2017 Lyme disease ecology in a changing world: consensus, uncertainty and critical gaps for improving control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372: 20160117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0117 Magnaval, J. F., et al. 2016. A serological survey about zoonoses in the verkhoyansk area, northeastern siberia (sakha republic, Russian federation). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 16(2), 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1828 Ostfeld, R. S., et al. 2014. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107387. Ostfeld, R. S., Levi, T. , Keesing, F. , Oggenfuss, K. and Canham, C. D. (2018), Tick‐borne disease risk in a forest food web. Ecology, 99: 1562-1573. doi:10.1002/ecy.2386 Robinson, S. J., et al. 2015. Disease risk in a dynamic environment: the spread of tick-borne pathogens in Minnesota, USA. EcoHealth, 12(1), 152-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10393-014-0979-y Scott, J. D. et al. 2017. Lyme disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, detected in multiple tick species at Kenora, Ontario, Canada. J. Bact. Parasitol, 8. http://bit.ly/2ZjOXWd Vandenesch, A., et al. 2014. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(34), 20883. http://bit.ly/2Dn693Q Wu, X. B., et al. 2013. Distribution of tick-borne diseases in China. Parasites & Vectors, 6(1), 119. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-119
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Why Can't We Get Power From Waves? Why Can't We Get Power From Waves?
4 months ago En
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ Wave power hasn’t yet made a splash because it’s hard to use waves to spin turbines, and because the sea is a harsh place to build things. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Wave energy converter - a device for turning the mechanical energy of ocean waves into mechanical energy (flow of a substance) or electrical energy Oscillating water column - an open-bottomed chamber filled with air and water, whose wave action moves the water column up and down like a piston, forcing the air out past a turbine Attenuator - a long multisegment floating structure oriented parallel to the direction waves travel, where differing heights of waves along the length of the device flex the connections driving hydraulic pumps that can be connected to turbines Oscillating body - a floating buoy that oscillates with waves, generating electricity within the buoy or by pulling on a generator or by pumping water through a turbine Overtopping device - a reservoir filled by waves to a height higher the average nearby ocean, into which reservoir water is released, spinning a turbine Biofouling - undesirable growth of organisms like barnacles and algae on underwater surfaces Ocean wave - energy passing through water and causing it to move in a circular motion Turbine - a machine for producing continuous power in which a wheel with blades gets hit by a fast-moving flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other fluid, and spins (often connected to a magnet that spins) Induction - the production of an electric current in a wire by movement of a nearby magnetic field ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why Wave Power Has Lagged Far Behind as Energy Source https://e360.yale.edu/features/why_wave_power_has_lagged_far_behind_as_energy_source _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Aderinto, T., & Li, H. 2018. Ocean wave energy converters: Status and challenges. Energies, 11(5), 1250. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/5/1250/pdf Khan, N., Kalair, A., Abas, N., & Haider, A. 2017. Review of ocean tidal, wave and thermal energy technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 590-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.079 Lewis, A., et al. 2011. Ocean Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, et al (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/Chapter-6-Ocean-Energy-1.pdf Pérez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D., & Iglesias, G. 2015. A review of combined wave and offshore wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42, 141-153. 10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.032 Shintake, T. 2016. Harnessing the Power of Breaking Waves. In Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (AWTEC2016) (Vol. 174, pp. 9-13). http://bit.ly/2U0tt1I Shintake, T. March 2019. Personal communication. Tollefson, J. 2014. Power from the oceans: Blue energy. Nature News, 508(7496), 302. https://www.nature.com/articles/508302a Uihlein, A., & Magagna, D. 2016. Wave and tidal current energy–A review of the current state of research beyond technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58, 1070-1081. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115016676 US Department of the Interior. May 2006. Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. https://www.boem.gov/Wave-Energy-White-Paper-2006/ Wang, Z. L. 2017. New wave power. Nature, 542(7640), 159-160. http://bit.ly/2HYE2v5
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You Are A Fish You Are A Fish
5 months ago En
We built the Tree of Life Explorer! Check it out here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/Tree-of-Life-Explorer/ And watch our video about why we made it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eE2fCLay-Q With our current understanding of evolutionary history and our strategy of cladistic naming, if we wanted to have both goldfish and sharks under a single group called "fish", then mammals must also be called fish. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: - Phylogenetic tree: a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species - Cladogram: a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms - Monophyletic group (or clade): a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor - Paraphyletic group: all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups - Similarity trap: people can name different species the same thing, only to find out they aren’t even closely related. We made a video about this phenomana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flVK-rbeT4g ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Jasper Palfree Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman Video Director: Ever Salazar Video Narrator: Ever Salazar & Jasper Palfree With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Weinstein, Bret (2016). On Being a Fish. Inference, Volume 2, Issue 3 September. https://inference-review.com/article/on-being-a-fish Lahti, David (2016). An Ambivalent Amphibian (In response to "On Being a Fish"). Volume 2, Issue 4 December. https://inference-review.com/letter/an-ambivalent-amphibian Podani, János (2013). Tree thinking, time and topology: Comments on the interpretation of tree diagrams in evolutionary/phylogenetic systematics. Cladistics Volume 29, Issue 3. May http://real.mtak.hu/9727/1/PodaniOnTreesFINAL.pdf
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The Problem With Concrete The Problem With Concrete
5 months ago En
This video is in partnership with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: https://b-gat.es/2GxIwba Concrete is responsible for 8% of humanity’s carbon emissions because making its key ingredient - cement - chemically releases CO2, and because we burn fossil fuels to make it happen. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Portland cement - the most common type of cement used worldwide, made with limestone Limestone - a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate (which is also in shells & eggs) Cement - a powder used in construction that’s made by grinding clinker with other minerals and mixing with water to form a paste that sticks to sand, gravel or crushed stone to make concrete Concrete - a building material made by mixing cement with water to form a paste that gains body through fillers like sand and gravel Clinker - an intermediate marble-sized product in cement production created by sintering limestone with clay and other things Sinter - to turn a powdery solid into a single mass by heating it without liquefaction Mortar - another building material (used to adhere bricks or stones together) made by mixing cement with water and sand Calcination - the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting point, so it thermally decomposes (like limestone into lime & CO2) Process emissions - the name for the CO2 that comes from limestone when it thermally decomposes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Adam Thompson Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andrew, R. M. 2018. Global CO2 emissions from cement production. Earth System Science Data, 10(1), 195. https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/10/195/2018/essd-10-195-2018.pdf Benhelal, E., et al. 2013. Global strategies and potentials to curb CO2 emissions in cement industry. Journal of cleaner production, 51, 142-161. http://www.academia.edu/download/39977040/1-s2.0-S0959652612006129-main.pdf Beyond Zero Emissions. August 2017. Zero Carbon Industry Plan: Rethinking Cement. Available for download at http://bze.org.au Davis, S.J., et al. 2018. Net-zero emissions energy systems. Science, 360(6396), eaas9793. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt16109441/qt16109441.pdf Lehne, J., & Preston., F. June 2018. Making Concrete Change: Innovation in Low-carbon Cement and Concrete. Chatham House Report. http://bit.ly/2Vlb3oC Timperley, J. September 13 2018. Q&A: Why cement emissions matter for climate change. https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-why-cement-emissions-matter-for-climate-change World Bank. 2019. World Development Indicators: Urban population. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL
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Why Earthquakes Are So Hard To Predict Why Earthquakes Are So Hard To Predict
6 months ago En
Scientists are trying to figure out if they can predict big earthquakes by simulating small quakes in labs and studying big quakes under the ocean. Thanks to the University of Rhode Island for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Earthquake: A violent shaking of the earth, usually due to movements of tectonic plates under the earth’s crust. Seismometer: An instrument that detects changes in the up-down motion of the earth. Seismic body waves: Higher frequency waves released by earthquakes that can move through solid rock. Seismic surface waves: Lower frequency waves released by earthquakes that move along the ground and cause most damage. Earthquake Early Warning System: A network of strategically placed seismometers that trigger emergency warning systems in particular areas when they detect large seismic body waves. Evacuation Clearance Time: The time needed to evacuate a particular population to safety. Earthquake Precursor: An anomalous event that gives an effective warning of an impending earthquake. Transform Faults: Faults where two tectonic plates slide past each other. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor, Video Director & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 1654416. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. ___________________________________________ References: Geller, R. (1997). Earthquake Prediction: A Critical Review. Geophysical Journal International. 131 (425-450). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/131/3/425/2138719 Wei, M. (2018). Seismic Behavior on Oceanic Transform Faults at the East Pacific Rise. Transform Plate Boundaries and Fracture Zones. Elsevier. Retrieved from: https://www.elsevier.com/books/transform-plate-boundaries-and-fracture-zones/duarte/978-0-12-812064-4 Hsu, Y., and Peeta, S. (2015). Clearance Time Estimation for Incorporating Evacuation Risk in Routing Strategies for Evacuation Operation. Networks and Spatial Economics. 15 (743-764). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11067-013-9195-5 Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Wei, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Graduate School of Oceanography. University of Rhode Island.
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How Chaos Makes Your Fingerprints Unique How Chaos Makes Your Fingerprints Unique
7 months ago En
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. Use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off Dashlane Premium. Because of the chaotic way fingerprints develop and the multiplying effect of compound probability, it's basically impossible for any two fingers to have matching prints. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Fingerprint: The markings on the skin on the last joint of the thumb or finger. Fingerprint Ridges: The raised lines on the fingerprint. Fingerprint Pattern: The main design in the middle of the fingerprint; usually a loop, whorl, or arch. Volar Pad: The mass of stem cells that grows under the fingers during a particular time during fetal development that is responsible for determining the pattern of the fingerprint. Fingerprint Minutiae: The various tiny points in each fingertip where the ridgelines get blocked or split. Compound Probability: The likelihood that independent events will occur simultaneously. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Kucken, M. (2007). Models for Fingerprint Pattern Formation. Forensic Science International. 171 (85-96). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17459625. Kucken, Michael (2018). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Wertheim, K. (2011). Fingerprint Sourcebook: Embryology and Morphology of the Friction Skin Ridge. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=247303
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The Bird Poop That Changed The World The Bird Poop That Changed The World
8 months ago En
Thanks to my grandmother for inspiring this story, and to my mother for helping make it. If you like our videos, please consider supporting MinuteEarth on Patreon! - Alex Bird poop was the gateway fertilizer that turned humanity onto the imported-chemical-based farming system of modern agriculture. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Guano: seabird (or bat) poop. From the indigenous Peruvian word “wanu”, meaning “manure that’s good for fertilizer" Manure: animal poop used as fertilizer (typically cow or pig poop) Fertilizer: a chemical-containing substance added to soil to provide nutrients to plants Nitrate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element nitrogen (sodium nitrate) Phosphate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element phosphorus Haber-Bosch process: the major industrial method to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to ammonia ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Our fertilizer is killing us. Here's a fix: https://grist.org/article/billionaires-and-bacteria-are-racing-to-save-us-from-death-by-fertilizer/ Why bird poop is white: https://www.audubon.org/news/what-makes-bird-poop-white In 1856 US Congress enabled US citizens to take over unclaimed islands with guano on them: http://americanhistory.si.edu/norie-atlas/guano-islands-act Guano is in demand again today: https://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/30/world/americas/30peru.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr ___________________________________________ References: Canby, T.Y. 2002. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. VI. Introduction: Pg. 26-27. Sandy Spring Museum. Cushman, G.T. 2013. Guano and the opening of the Pacific World: A global ecological history. Cambridge University Press. Cushman, G.T., personal communication, October 2018. Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr Lorimor, J., Powers, W., Sutton, A. 2004. Manure Characteristics. MWPS-18, Section 1. Second Edition. Table 6. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. http://msue.anr.msu.edu/uploads/files/ManureCharacteristicsMWPS-18_1.pdf Robinson, M.B. April 26, 2007. In Once-Rural Montgomery, a Rich History. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/25/AR2007042501342.html S. Sands & Son. 1875. The American Farmer: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture and Rural Life. Vol. 4, Issue 12, pg. 417-418. Baltimore. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=ul1TAAAAYAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA417 Stabler, H.O. 1950. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. V, Pg. 43. American Publishing Company. Szpak, P., et al. 2012. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of seabird guano fertilization: results from growth chamber studies with Maize (Zea mays). PloS one, 7(3), e33741. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033741 Thanks also to the Sandy Spring Museum.
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These Names Can Kill Animals These Names Can Kill Animals
8 months ago En
To get your free 30-day trial of CuriosityStream, go to https://curiositystream.com/minute and use the code "minute". Just like the names of products and companies, animals' names can affect how we feel about them...and changing the name of a species might actually help us save it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hong Kong's Golden Beach Dolphin Plaza by Wikimedia user WiNg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HK_Golden_Beach_Dolphin_Plaza.jpg African Wild Dog by Mathias Appel https://www.flickr.com/photos/mathiasappel/25233930273 Family Dog by Richard Elzey https://www.flickr.com/photos/elzey/6307525340/ Sloth by Régis Leroy https://www.flickr.com/photos/regilero/8727491349 Racoon Just Checking the Trash by Julie Corsi https://www.flickr.com/photos/corsinet/2967516964/ Scorpion by Steve Slater https://www.flickr.com/photos/wildlife_encounters/11026569913/ Snake by Photo by Jessica Bolser/USFWS https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmidwest/11193222776/ ___________________________________________ References: Jacquet, J. L. and Pauly, D. (2008) Trade secrets: renaming and mislabeling of seafood. Marine Policy 32: 309-318. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X07000760 Karaffa, P.T., M.M. Draheim, and Parsons, E.C.M. (2012) What’s in a name? Do species’ names impact student support for conservation? Human Dimensions of Wildlife 17: 308-310. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10871209.2012.676708?journalCode=uhdw20 Parsons, E.C.M., personal communication, October 2018. Rasmussen, G.S.A. (1999) Livestock predation by the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in a cattle ranching region of Zimbabwe: a case study. Biological Conservation 88: 133–139. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320798000068?via%3Dihub Sarasa M., Alasaad S., and Pérez J.M. (2012) Common names of species, the curious case of Capra pyrenaica and the concomitant steps towards the 'wild-to-domestic' transformation of a flagship species and its vernacular names. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:1–12. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-011-0172-3 Scott, C. (2015) Otter social science research: An evaluation of the general public’s knowledge of otter species. (Master’s thesis) George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Retrieved from digilib.gmu.edu/ xmlui/handle/1920/10282 Wright, A., Veríssimo, D., Pilfold, K., Parsons, E. C. M., Ventre, K., Cousins, J., et al. (2015). Competitive outreach in the 21st Century: why we need conservation marketing. Ocean & Coastal Management 115: 41–48. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115001829
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The Mystery of The Exploding Appendix The Mystery of The Exploding Appendix
9 months ago En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: https://tab.gladly.io/minuteearth2/ Rates of appendicitis vary around the world, likely due to the forces of modernization. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. **Appendix** - There are many other unforeseen health changes that seem to be related to the forces of modernization, like the increase in rates of diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and ADHD. Those changes likely stem from all sorts of complicated genetic and environmental interactions - including changes in diet, exposure to pollution, and access to hygiene - that researchers haven’t yet figured out. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Fecalith: A stony mass of feces inside a person’s intestinal tract. Appendix: A tube-shaped sac at the bottom of a person’s intestinal tract. Appendicitis: A painful inflammation of the appendix. Fiber: Plant-derived dietary material that’s resistant to certain digestive enzymes. Tertiary Food Processing: Commercial production of food that often contains synthetic elements or an overabundance of certain salts and sugars. “Western Diet”: A collective term for a diet high in fat, cholesterol, protein, sugar, and salt, that often involves frequent consumption of “fast food”. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r9amif1DQMc _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Editor, Director & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) with Adam Thompson With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Addiss, D., Shaffer, N., Fowler, B., Tauxe, R. (1990). The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States. The American Journal of Epidemiology.132:5 (910-1925). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2239906 Fares, A. (2014). Summer Appendicitis. Annals of Medical and Health Science Research. 4(1): 18-21. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952290 Ferris, M., Quan, S., Kaplan, B., Molodecky, N., Ball, C., Chernoff, G., Bhala, N., Ghosh, S., Dixon, E., Ng, S., Kaplan, G. (2017). The Global Incidence of Appendicitis: A Systematic Review of Population-based Studies. Annals of Surgery. 266:2 (237-241). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288060 Kaplan, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, The Gastrointestinal REsearch Group, University of Calgary. Ramdass, M., Young Sing, Q., Milne, D., Mooteeram, J., and Barrow, S. (2015). Association between the appendix and the fecalith in adults. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 58 (10-14). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309758/
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Why Do You Make So Many Poop Videos? (& Other Questions) Why Do You Make So Many Poop Videos? (& Other Questions)
9 months ago En
We answer your burning questions in our first-ever Q&A video. Thanks for asking, and for watching!! Thanks also to our patrons and YouTube members. You make MinuteEarth possible https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Writing and Narration From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ LINKS 1) We Made A Poop Video Playlist | https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLElB7nLNHZvjP3AyYe6Kit_PoarcUJ1xI 3) What To Do When It's Really Cold Outside | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3Gs6tyiNX4 5) Jesse's Channel - This Place | https://www.youtube.com/user/ThisPlaceChannel/ 6) Arcadi's Channel - Tippe Top Physics | https://www.youtube.com/user/tippetopphysics/ 7) Hot Mess | https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw/ 8) MinutePhysics | https://www.youtube.com/user/minutephysics 9) Ever's Dormant Channel - Un Punto Circular | https://www.youtube.com/UnPuntoCircular 10) Lion Guardians | http://lionguardians.org/ 11) Paradigms Show | https://vrv.co/paradigms 12) MinuteLabs | http://www.minutelabs.io 14) Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA 15) Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE 16) The Deadliest Ice Age Ever | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJWIgS-1hJc 17) How We Make MinuteEarth Videos (Behind the Scenes) | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnIZybxCW1k 18) ASAP Science | https://www.youtube.com/AsapSCIENCE/ 19) Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c 20) MinuteEarth in other languages: Spanish: https://www.youtube.com/MinutoDeLaTierra French: https://www.youtube.com/MinutePourLaTerre Italian: https://www.youtube.com/MinutiDellaTerra Portuguese (Brazilian): https://www.youtube.com/MinutoDaTerra 21) These are our favorite MinuteEarth videos: David | Ambergris: Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN1brVnlBZU Emily | Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c Melissa | This Is Not A Bee https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDMBykrogXs Alex | Climate Change: The View From MinuteEarth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEX2J_sAdGs Kate | Why Do We Eat Spoiled Food? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yswzITbAbA Ever’s Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA&list=PLJTyadQhEGyWJJaTkzwdsAWl1MCHNtFRR
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The Secret Weapon That Could Help Save Bees The Secret Weapon That Could Help Save Bees
10 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Honeybees are dying from parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition, but we can help them in a number of ways, including by encouraging them to make a homemade antibiotic. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Propolis: a kind of bee glue made up of resins and beeswax, rich in flavonoids and aromatic acids with antibiotic properties Pollination circuit: commercial bee-keepers move their colonies around the country, renting them out to farmers to pollinate almonds, apples, and many other crops. Bee health: term used to indicate concern about a set of issues challenging to health of honey bees, including parasites, pathogens, and pesticides. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) with Ever Salazar Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Spivak, M, Browning Z, Goblirsch M, Lee K, Otto C, Smart M, Wu-Smart J. 2017. Why Does Bee Health Matter? The Science Surrounding Honey Bee Health Concerns and What We Can Do About It. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) Commentary, QTA2017. CAST, Ames, Iowa. Pp 1-16 Borba, R. S. & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis envelope in Apis melliferacolonies supports honey bees against the pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. Scientific Reports 7: 11429. Klein S, Cabirol A, Devaud JM, Barron AB, Lihoreau M. (2017). Why Bees Are So Vulnerable to Environmental Stressors. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Apr;32(4):268-278. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.12.009. Epub 2017 Jan 19. Simone-Finstrom, M., Borba, R. S., Wilson, M., & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health. Insects, 8(2), 46. http://doi.org/10.3390/insects8020046
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Why Malaria Isn’t Just a Tropical Disease Why Malaria Isn’t Just a Tropical Disease
11 months ago En
Watch Hot Mess here! ►► http://bit.ly/hotmess_sub Malaria is a global disease that we've beaten back around the world, including in some tropical places, but we’ve had the hardest time in Africa. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anthropophily: an organism’s propensity to feed on humans rather than other animals Biogeography: the study of the distribution of species and organisms throughout space and time Malaria Control: the reduction of malaria’s impacts to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts. Continued intervention is required to sustain control. Malaria Elimination: the interruption of local transmission (i.e. reducing the rate of malaria cases to zero) of a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographic area. Continued intervention is needed to prevent reestablishment of transmission. Malaria Eradication: the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by human malaria parasites, after which intervention measures are no longer needed (e.g. as with smallpox, the only disease we've eradicated) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: How the US CDC grew out of the "Office of Malaria Control in War Areas": https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/history/history_cdc.html Amazing animation of how different parts of the world become more or less suitable for malaria over the seasons: https://www.dropbox.com/s/acqlg5l8pnxjl2x/Gething%202011%20Vivax%20suitability%2013071_2011_324_MOESM4_ESM.MPEG?dl=0 Animated map of malaria's shrinking distribution: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2015/10/14/the-shrinking-malaria-map _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) & Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Carter, R., & Mendis, K. N. 2002. Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clinical microbiology reviews, 15(4), 564-594. https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/15/4/564.full.pdf Gething, P. W., et al. 2011. Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Parasites & vectors, 4(1), 92. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-92 Hay, S. I., et al. 2004. The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. The Lancet infectious diseases, 4(6), 327-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS1473-3099(04)01043-6 Lardeux, F. et al. 2007. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia. Malaria journal, 6(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-8 United States CDC. 2018. Malaria: Biology. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/index.html World Health Organization. 2016. World malaria report 2015. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/report/en/ World Health Organization. 2016. Eliminating malaria. Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205565/WHO_HTM_GMP_2016.3_eng.pdf
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Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop? Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop?
11 months ago En
Learn more about quokkas over on Animalogic: https://bit.ly/2MWz9pa Animals eat their own poop in order to gain extra access to nutrients or to microbes that help digest those nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Coprophagy: Consuming feces Allocoprophagy: Consuming others’ feces Autocoprophagy: Consuming one’s own feces Fecal microbiota transplant: A treatment for C. diff that involves transplanting feces from a healthy individual into a patient. Cecotropes: Also known as night poops, these are the soft, shiny pellets that rabbits excrete and then consume. Pap: A special substance produced by mother koalas that their babies feed on during the transition from drinking milk to eating eucalyptus leaves. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Masi, S., and Brueur, T. (2018). Dialiumseed coprophagy in wild western gorillas: Multiple nutritional benefits and toxicity reduction hypotheses. American Journal of Primatology. 80:4 (e22752). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29664132 Osawa, R. Blanshard, W. and Ocallaghan, P. (1993). Microbiological Studies of the Intestinal Microflora of the Koala, Phascolarctos-Cinereus .2. Pap, a Special Maternal Feces Consumed by Juvenile Koalas. Australian Journal of Zoology. 41(6): 611-620. Retrieved from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/ZO/ZO9930611. Mack, A., and Druliner, G. (2003). A Non-Intrusive Method for Measuring Movements and Seed Dispersal in Cassowaries. Journal of Field Ornithology. 74:2 (193-196). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4131128 Eckman, L. (2018). Personal communication. Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, UCSD. Suen, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Brogan, J. (2016). Everyone Poops. Some Animals Eat It. Why?. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/everyone-poops-some-animals-eat-it-why-180961020/
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Why Are There Penguins At The Equator? Why Are There Penguins At The Equator?
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: minuteearth When nutrients from the ocean depths reach the sunlit surface (like in the Galapagos), life is more productive. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Net Primary Production (NPP): the amount of primary production that organisms do, minus the amount of carbon they use up to do so (by respiring) Phytoplankton: microscopic green algae that live in water and get energy through photosynthesis. Learn more here: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/phyto.html Primary Production: the synthesis of organic chemicals from carbon dioxide (mostly happens through photosynthesis) Upwelling: the motion of cooler, usually nutrient-rich, water towards the ocean surface ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Alex Reich & Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Ainley, David. Personal Communication, 2018. Baker, A. J., et al. 2006. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proc of Royal Soc B: Biol Sci, 273 (1582), 11-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560011/ Behrenfeld, M. J., et al. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature, 444(7120), 752. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature05317 Boersma, Dee. Personal Communication, 2018. Boyd, P.W., et al. 2014. Cross-chapter box on net primary production in the ocean. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC [Field, C.B., et al (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA, pp. 133-136. Dybdahl, Mark. Personal Communication, 2018. Falkowski, P. G., et al. 1998. Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281(5374), 200-206. https://goo.gl/1P7b69 Field, C. B., et al. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281(5374), 237-240. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt9gm7074q/qt9gm7074q.pdf Karnauskas, K. B., et al. 2017. Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galapagos upwelling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 460, 22-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.005 LaRue, Michelle. Personal Communication, 2018. Kallmeyer, Jens. Personal Communication, 2018. Pockalny, Robert. Personal Communication, 2018. Sigman, D. M. & Hain, M. P. 2012. The Biological Productivity of the Ocean. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):21. https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-biological-productivity-of-the-ocean-70631104 Stock, Charlie. Personal Communication, 2018. Galapagos penguin diet https://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/galpen1/foodhabits Penguin diet https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix Cromwell Current & Galapagos: http://www.iflscience.com/environment/new-study-may-reveal-how-galapagos-islands-became-so-biodiverse/ Penguin distribution: https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix , http://www.penguins.cl/penguins-region.htm Ocean productivity: https://ci.coastal.edu/~sgilman/770productivitynutrients.htm
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Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve
2 years ago En
Get NordVPN at https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth. Use code MINUTEEARTH to save 77%! Earth’s outer shell is made of two materials whose different densities and thicknesses give rise to two distinct “levels” on the planet’s surface. Watch our new show Paradigms (U.S. servers only!): https://www.vrv.co/paradigms Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Hypsometric Curve: Basically, a chart that shows the proportions of surface area at every elevation on a planet. Crust: Earth's outermost layer, made out of two distinct materials – oceanic crust (which is denser) and continental crust (which is less dense). Lithosphere: The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and the hard, un-bending part of the upper mantle. Subduction: The process of an ocean plate crashing into another plate and getting forced to dive down into Earth's mantle. Isostasy: Describes the way earth's crust sort of floats in the underlying mantle. Continental crust is less dense and thicker, and floats higher than the oceanic crust, which is denser and thinner. Geologists talk about things like "isostatic rebound," which is what happens after an ice age, when the ice melts off a continent and the continent lifts up, like a floating raft in a pool after someone gets off (though continents rise more slowly). ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Albarede, F. (2009) Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, Vol 461. Calogero, Meredith. Personal Communication, 2018. Eakins, B.W. and G.F. Sharman. Hypsographic Curve of Earth's Surface from ETOPO1, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, 2012 from: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/etopo1_surface_histogram.html Hawkesworth, C. J. & Kemp, A. I. S. (2006) Evolution of the continental crust. Nature, Vol 443. Rosenblatt, P.C , & Thouvenot, P.E. (1994). Comparative hypsometric analysis of Earth and Venus. Geophysics Research Letters, Vol 21, pp 465-468. Stern, R.J., Gerya, T, & Tackley, P.J. (2018) Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids. Geoscience Frontiers, 9.
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The Similarity Trap The Similarity Trap
2 years ago En Ru
Try Squarespace for free: http://squarespace.com/MinuteEarth And subscribe to MinuteEarth! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd As we try to figure out the evolutionary trees for languages and species, we sometimes get led astray by similar but unrelated words and traits. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cladistics: A method of recreating evolutionary trees based on evidence about relationships. Etymology: The study of the origin of words and how they have changed throughout history. Convergent Evolution: A process whereby different species evolve similar traits in order to adapt to similar environments. Polyphyly: A group containing members with multiple ancestral sources. Homoplasy: A trait shared by a group of species that is not shared in their common ancestor. False Cognates: Pairs of words with similar sounds and meanings but unrelated etymologies. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A photographer who has taken amazing photos of unrelated people who look alike: http://mentalfloss.com/article/53774/photos-unrelated-people-who-look-exactly-alike _________________________________________ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Lappet-faced Vulture (Old World) - Steve Garvie https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torgos_tracheliotos_-Masai_Mara_National_Reserve,_Kenya-8.jpg Turkey vulture (New World) - Flickr User minicooper93402 https://www.flickr.com/photos/minicooper93402/5440526260 Crested Porcupine (Old World) - Flickr user 57777529@N02 https://www.flickr.com/photos/57777529@N02/5398915634 North American Porcupine (New World) - iStock.com/GlobalP https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/north-american-porcupine-or-canadian-porcupine-or-common-porcupine-walking-gm515605852-88578399 Chinchilla lanigera - Nicolas Guérin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinchilla_lanigera_(Wroclaw_zoo)-2.JPG Naked Mole Rat - Roman Klementschitz https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nacktmull.jpg Ganges river dolphin - Zahangir Alom, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platanista_gangetica_noaa.jpg Atlantic Spotted Dolphin - Flickr user 53344659@N05 https://www.flickr.com/photos/53344659@N05/4978423771/ Orcinus orcas - Robert Pittman, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Killerwhales_jumping.jpg Euphorbia obesa - Frank Vincentz https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E_obesa_symmetrica_ies.jpg Astrophytum asterias - David Midgley https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Astrophytum_asterias1.jpg Sweet William Dwarf - Nicholas M. Bashour https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spring_Flowers.JPG ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, Q. and Gray, R. (2005). Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). Curious Parallels and Curious Connections — Phylogenetic Thinking in Biology and Historical Linguistics. Systematic Biology. 54:5 (513-526). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/sysbio/article/54/4/513/2842862 Atkinson, Quentin. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Evolution and Human Behavior at the University of Auckland. Bennu, D. (2004). The Evolution of Birds: An Overview of the Avian Tree of Life. Lab Animal. 33 (42-28)). Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/laban0504-42 De La Fuente, J.(2010). Urban legends: Turkish kayık ‘boat’ and “Eskimo” qayaq ‘kayak’. Studia Linguistica. 127 (7-24). Retrieved from: http://www.ejournals.eu/Studia-Linguistica/2010/2010/art/180/
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Rise Of The Mesopredator🎵 (ft. ScienceWithTom) Rise Of The Mesopredator🎵 (ft. ScienceWithTom)
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane for free: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Use promo code "minuteearth" for 10% off Dashlane Premium. To see song lyrics, click "CC" on the video or, for an annotated version, click here: https://genius.com/14774391 Thanks to humans, old school apex predators are struggling to hold onto their perch at the top of the food chain. And now a new class of adaptable mesopredators are remaking the ecosystems they take over. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food Web: The feeding relationships between animals that determine how energy and nutrients are spread throughout an ecosystem. Trophic Level: A hierarchical level in an ecosystem made up of organisms that share the same function in the food web. Apex predator: The animals at the top trophic level that feed on animals and organisms below them. Mesopredator: A member of a mid-ranking trophic level that preys on animals and organisms in lower trophic levels and occasionally gets eat by apex predators. Mesopredator Release: An ecological phenomenon in which mesopredators rapidly grow in population once apex predators are removed from an ecosystem. Trophic Cascade: A series of dramatic changes in an ecosystem often triggered by mesopredator release. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: ScienceWithTom goes deep on the science in this video with ecologist Alex McInturff: https://youtu.be/TJcgtqjj-yo _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Tom McFadden Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert, Tom McFadden With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). The Unique Ecology of Human Predators. Science. 349: 6250 (858-860). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6250/858 Prugh, L., Stoner, C., Epps, C., Bean, W., Ripple, W., Laliberte, A. and Brashares, J. (2009). The Rise of the Mesopredator. BioScience. 59:9 (779-791). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/bio.2009.59.9.9 Baum, J. and Worm, B. (2009). Cascading Top-down Effects of Changing Oceanic Predator Abundances (2009). Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 699-714. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19298616 McInturff, Alex. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at University of California, Berkeley.
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How Long Can We Live? How Long Can We Live?
2 years ago En Ru
Try Squarespace for free: https://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth The human lifespan might be limited, in part, because natural selection just stops working late in life. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors for helping to make this video possible. ___________________________________________ Video Keywords: Mortality plateau: the leveling out of the mortality rate that is observed at late ages in various species ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: David Goldenberg and Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Grey, A (Sept 2016, personal communication) Horiuchi S, Wilmoth JR (1998) Deceleration in the Age Pattern of Mortality at Older Ages. Demography 35: 4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2307/3004009 Mueller, LD, Rose MR (1996) Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. PNAS 26:15249-15253. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.26.15249 Rose MR, Rauser CL, Mueller LD, Benford G. (2006) A revolution for aging research. Biogerontology 7:269-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16612665 Rose, MR, Flatt, T, Graves, JL, Greer, L, Martinez, DE, Matos, MM, Mueller, LD, Shmookler Reis, RJ, and P. Shahrestani. 2012. What is aging? Frontiers in Genetics 3:134. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2012.00134/full Rose, M. (Sept 2016, personal communication)
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When Trees Go Nuts When Trees Go Nuts
2 years ago En Ru
Please support us through Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Or, click the "Sponsor" button to support us through YouTube itself. Thank you! Every once in a while, all the oaks or spruces or other plants in a region suddenly produce a tremendous bounty of seeds – up to 100 times more than usual. But why do they do it, and how do they all manage to sync up? ___________________________________________ To learn more about mast seeding, start your googling with these keywords: Mast Year: A year in which all the plants of a particular species in a region ramp up their seed production. Predator Satiation Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mast seeding is a strategy plants use for controlling the population of squirrels and other seed-eating animals. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fletcher, Quinn E., Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Jalene M. LaMontagne, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs, and Murray M. Humphries. 2010. “The Functional Response of a Hoarding Seed Predator to Mast Seeding.” Ecology 91 (9): 2673–83. Kelly, Dave, and Victoria L. Sork. 2002. “Mast Seeding in Perennial Plants: Why, How, Where?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33 (1). Annual Reviews: 427–47. Kelly, D. 1994. “The Evolutionary Ecology of Mast Seeding.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (12): 465–70. LaMontagne, J. 2018. Personal Communication.
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Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings) Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings)
2 years ago En Ru
Learn new skills from this video’s sponsor, Skillshare: http://skl.sh/minuteearth4 Humans from different cultures anthropomorphize different animals to represent the same human traits. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sunshower: A meteorological phenomenon in which the sunshines while rain is falling. Idiom: A group of words whose meaning is not readily understandable by defining the individual words. Anthropomorphism: The attribution of human characteristics to an animal or god or object. Linguistic Anthropology: A field of study into how language shapes communication around the world. ___________________________________________ If you’re an American, this New York Times dialect quiz can predict your hometown based on the particular words you use: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/dialect-quiz-map.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blust, R. (1999). The Fox’s Wedding. Anthropos. 94: 487-499. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40465016. Perkovic, A. and Rata, G. (2008). On The Romanian Equivalency Of Animal Idioms In English. Journal of Linguistic Studies. 1: 65-71. Retrieved from: http://docplayer.net/amp/64640306-Journal-of-linguistic-studies.html Tiechuan, M. (2015). Cause Analysis of Different Culture Image in English and Chinese Animal Idiom. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3: 10-19. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f582/3a67a9d085c57417d069ef4bda0df7dd4b4c.pdf Shi, T. (2015). A Comparison of Animal Words in English and Chinese Culture. Presented at the 5th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Medicine. Retrieved from: https://wenku.baidu.com/view/95eb244105087632311212ee.html
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Milk Is Just Filtered Blood Milk Is Just Filtered Blood
2 years ago En Ru
Join Honey for FREE at: https://www.joinhoney.com/MinuteEarth. Special thanks to Honey for sponsoring this episode. Female mammals make milk, a cocktail of filtered blood, to provide their babies with vital nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Mammal: Endothermic vertebrates that nurse their young. Lactation: The secretion of milk by the mammary glands. Mammary Gland: A cluster of alveoli and ducts that secretes milk. Mammary Alveoli: The tiny sacs that are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland. Oxytocin: A hormone released by the pituitary gland that - among other things - causes the milk ejection reflex during nursing. Holstein: A large black and white cow known for the large quantities of milk it yields. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Skibiel, A., Downing, L., Orr, T., and Hood, W. (2013).The Evolution Of The Nutrient Composition Of Mammalian Milks. Journal of Animal Ecology. 82 (6): 1254-1264. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895187 Sharp, J., Wanyonyi, S., Modepalli, V., Watt, A., Kuruppath, S., Hinds, L., Kumar, A., Abud, H., Lefevre, C., and Nicholas, K. (2017). The Tammar Wallaby: A Marsupial Model To Examine The Timed Delivery And Role Of Bioactives In Milk. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 244: 164-177. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27528357 Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I., and Lawlor, T. (2004). Genetic Correlations Among Production, Body Size, Udder,and Productive Life Traits Over Time in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(5):1457-1468. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15290995 Nicholas, K. (1988). Asynchronous Dual Lactation In A Marsupial, The Tammar Wallaby. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 529-536. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2456758
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Are Plastics Too Strong? Are Plastics Too Strong?
2 years ago En Ru
The same chemistry that makes plastic tough, light and flexible also makes it nearly impossible to get rid of, because it’s hard to break those resilient chemical bonds. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Polymer: A substance whose molecular structure consists of large numbers of similar units covalently bonded together Covalent bond: A strong type of bond in which adjacent atoms share electrons. Backbone chain: A long series of covalently bonded atoms that create the continuous chain of the molecule. Bioplastic: A type of plastic, usually biodegradable, made from biological substances. Scission: The breakage of a backbone chain at the bond level. Microbial biodegradation: The use of microbes to break molecules into smaller and less harmful forms. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Disposable plastic cup - Wikimedia user Lionel Allorge https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tasse_Plastique_Air_France_1.jpg Sandbox and Beach Toys - The Children's Museum of Indianapolis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Childrens_Museum_of_Indianapolis_-_Sandbox_and_Beach_Toys.jpg PET plastic - Montgomery County Division of Solid Waste Services https://flic.kr/p/cnfKKw LEGO Tank - Flickr user MaxFragg https://flic.kr/p/gDR7iV PVC Pipe - Pam Broviak https://flic.kr/p/4sy8kb IKEA Watering cans - Sonny Abesamis https://flic.kr/p/pcXrpj LEGO Figure - Marco Verch https://flic.kr/p/DseDts Wetsuit - Clemens Pfeiffer https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shorty-wetsuit-O%27Neill.jpg White PVC Pipes - Teresa Trimm https://www.flickr.com/photos/ttrimm/7355733948 STS-120 Shuttle Mission Imagery - NASA https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-120/html/sts120-s-028.html Providing clean water - UK Department for International Development https://flic.kr/p/a4UESo ___________________________________________ References: Albertsson, A. and Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Designed To Degrade. Science. 358 (6365). 872-873. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/872 De Hoe, G., Zumstein, M., Tiegs, B., Brutman, J., McNeill, K., Sander, M., Coates, G., and Hillmyer, M. (2018). Sustainable Polyester Elastomers from Lactones: Synthesis,Properties, and Enzymatic Hydrolyzability. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140: 963-973. Retrieved from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.7b10173 Tokiwa, Y., Calabia, B., Ugwu, C., and Aiba, S. (2009). Biodegradability of Plastics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10: 3722-3742. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/9/3722 Rydz, J., ,Sikorska, W., Kyulavska, M., and Christova, D. (2015). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16: 564-596. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/1/564 Hillmyer, M. (2017). The Promise of Plastics from Plants. Science. 358 (6365). 868-870. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6365/868 Hillmyer, M. (2017). Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.
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How Much Food Is There On Earth? How Much Food Is There On Earth?
2 years ago Ru En
Go to https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth to build your math & science skills! Food already in cupboards, supermarkets, & warehouses could feed humanity for 4 months, but potential food - berries, termites & krill - could extend that by another year. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food stock: the total amount of any particular food existing at any point in time Strategic reserve: food intentionally kept on reserve to be sold when supplies otherwise become low Stock to use ratio: the amount of stock of any given food at any point in time as a fraction of the total annual consumption of the commodity ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., et al. 2009. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. Volume 56, Issue 5, 727-740 FAO. World Food Situation http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/ FAO. World Cassava Situation and Recent Trends http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/X4007E04.htm Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D. 2012. Energy, taxonomic aggregation, and the geography of ant abundance. Ecography 35:65-72. National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ Penn State University Extension. Oil factsheet: oilseed presses. 7pp (undated). Ritchie, H., Roser, M. 2018. "Meat and Seafood Production & Consumption". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/meat-and-seafood-production-consumption' Sanderson, MG. 1996. Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide: A global database. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 543-557. Statista https://www.statista.com/statistics/251728/weekly-number-of-us-grocery-shopping-trips-per-household/ USDA ISSN: 1554-9089, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, February 8, 2018; https://www.usda.gov/oce/commodity/wasde/latest.pdf (latest monthly update) Wilson, RW. et al. 2009, Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle, Science 323, 359-362 https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/
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Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested? Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested?
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: youtube2018 Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. Once it’s out of your body, your genetic information is valuable to a variety of people, but you can keep it safe(ish) with a few simple steps. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Personal Genetic Analysis: Direct-to-consumer DNA testing, usually through mail-in saliva samples. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism: A variation at a single spot on the genome that is present in some part of the population. Genotyping chip: A microarray that allows genetic testing companies to test a DNA sample for hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Health Care Fraud: A crime that usually involves misrepresenting medical information in order to make money. Targeted Advertising: The practice of placing ads based on consumer demographics or behavior. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act: A 2008 American law that prohibits health insurers and employers from using genetic information when making coverage or hiring decisions. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Melissa Gymrek, Amy L. McGuire, David Golan, Eran Halperin, Yaniv Erlich (2013). Identifying Personal Genomes by Surname Inference. Science. 339:6117 (321-324). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6117/321.full Joh, E. (2011). DNA Theft: Recognizing the Crime of Nonconsensual Genetic Collection and Testing. Boston University Law Review. 91:2 (666-700) Retrieved from: https://www.bu.edu/law/journals-archive/bulr/documents/joh.pdf Tanner, A. (2017). Our Bodies, Our Data: How Companies Make Billions Selling Our Medical Records. Available at: https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780807033340 Koerner, B. (2015). Your Relative’s DNA Could Turn You Into A Suspect. Wired. Retrieved from: https://www.wired.com/2015/10/familial-dna-evidence-turns-innocent-people-into-crime-suspects/ Pollack, A. (2015). Building a Face, and a Case, on DNA. New Yourk Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/science/building-face-and-a-case-on-dna.html?_r=0 Cappos, Justin. (2017). Professor of Computer Science and Engineering, NYU. Personal Communication.
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We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy? We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy?
2 years ago En Ru
This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. No matter how wealthy a country is, there's a lot it can do to improve the health of its citizens. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Bill Gates Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Bill Gates & Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bolt, J., Timmer, M., & van Zanden, J. L. 2014. "GDP per capita since 1820”, in van Zanden, et al. (eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264214262-7-en Life expectancy over time estimated from: https://github.com/open-numbers/ddf--gapminder--life_expectancy Countries that developed insurance systems found in: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/theimpactofhealthinsurance_fulltext.pdf Thanks also to Dr. Shyam Deshpande and Dr. Tracy Seimears
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Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back
2 years ago En Ru
Please support us on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth or as a YouTube Sponsor! Thanks to everyone who already does! Shocking the brain has come and gone as a medical treatment, but it’s currently resurging, as it often provides the best form of relief for severe depression and advanced Parkinson’s disease. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Electroshock therapy: the original name for treating severe depression with a series of brief electrical shocks to the brain Electroconvulsive therapy: the current name for electroshock therapy Deep brain stimulation: a treatment for advanced Parkinson’s that uses pulsed electrical signals to targeted brain regions ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arlotti M, et al 2016. The adaptive deep brain stimulation challenge. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 28: 12-17 Benabid AL, S Chabardes, J Mitrofanis, P Polla. 2009. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 8:67-81 Leiknes KA, Jarosh-von Schweder L, Høie B. 2012. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide. Brain and Behavior 2(3):283-344 Pagnin D, et al. 2004. Efficacy of ECT in Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review. J ECT 20:13-20 Sienaert P, K Vansteeland, K Demyttenaere, J Peuskens. 2010. Randomized comparison of ultra-brief bifrontal and unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: cognitive side-effects. J Affective Disorders 122:60-67 UK ECT Review Group, 2003. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 361, 799–808.
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Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young
2 years ago En Ru
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 We mostly grow annual plants because they reliably produce energy-rich seeds, which we like to eat. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual: a plant that typically lives for a year or less Biennial: a plant that typically lives for two years Perennial: a plant that typically lives for multiple years ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: The Case Against Civilization: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/09/18/the-case-against-civilization _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Bruno van Wayenburg and Ever Salazar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bonser, S. P. (2013). High reproductive efficiency as an adaptive strategy in competitive environments. Functional Ecology, 27(4), 876-885. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12064/full Crews, T. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Crews, T. E., & DeHaan, L. R. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A response. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 500-515. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1008777 Friedman, J., & Rubin, M. J. (2015). All in good time: understanding annual and perennial strategies in plants. American journal of botany, 102(4), 497-499. http://www.amjbot.org/content/102/4/497.short Denison, R.F. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Milla, R. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Pimentel, D., et al. (2012). Annual vs. perennial grain production. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 161, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880912002058 Rees, M., & Long, M. J. (1992). Germination biology and the ecology of annual plants. The American Naturalist, 139(3), 484-508. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1403/1/reesm8_Rees_and_Long_1992_Am_Nat.pdf Reich, P. B. (2014). The world‐wide ‘fast–slow’plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. Journal of Ecology, 102(2), 275-301. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12211/full Smaje, C. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A critical review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 471-499. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1007200 Van Tassel, D. L., DeHaan, L. R., & Cox, T. S. (2010). Missing domesticated plant forms: can artificial selection fill the gap?. Evolutionary Applications, 3(5‐6), 434-452. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00132.x/full Vico, G. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Vico, G., et al. (2016). Trade‐offs between seed output and life span–a quantitative comparison of traits between annual and perennial congeneric species. New Phytologist, 209(1), 104-114. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.13574/full Westoby, M. Personal Communication, Nov 2017.
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A Disease's Guide to World Domination A Disease's Guide to World Domination
2 years ago En Ru
Get 3 weeks of free access to CuriosityStream by visiting http://curiositystream.com/minute and using the promo code "minute" There's something surprising that helps determine how damaging a disease is: distance. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Direct transmission: occurs when a pathogen is transmitted to a new host by physical or close contact Virulence: the degree of damage a pathogen causes its host _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) and Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blanquart, F., et al. (2016). A transmission-virulence evolutionary trade-off explains attenuation of HIV-1 in Uganda. Elife 5: 5. de Roode, J.C., Yates, A.J., & Altizer, S. (2008). Virulence-transmission trade-offs and population divergence in virulence in a naturally occurring butterfly parasite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105: 7489-7494 Ewald, P.W. (1983). Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Reviews Ecology & Systematics 14: 465-485 Ewald, P.W. (1991). Waterborne transmission and the evolution of virulence among gastrointestinal bacteria. Epidemiology & Infection 106: 83-119. Ewald, P.W. (1991). Transmission modes and the evolution of virulence: with special reference to cholera, influenza, and AIDS. Human Nature 2: 1-30. Galvani, A.P. (2003) Epidemiology meets evolutionary ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 132-139. Lipsitch, M. & Moxon, E.R. (1997). Virulence and transmissibility of pathogens: what is the relationship? Trends in Microbiology 5: 31-37.
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Why Do Birds Migrate Like This? Why Do Birds Migrate Like This?
2 years ago En Ru
Buy the book: "Where the Animals Go: Tracking Wildlife with Technology in 50 Maps and Graphics" at http://www.wheretheanimalsgo.com Copyright 2016 by James Cheshire and Oliver Uberti. First American Edition published by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. in 2017. First published in Great Britain in 2016 by Particular Books, an imprint of Penguin Books. Migrating birds care more about the ease of their trip than the distance they travel, and that leads to some truly roundabout routes. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Migration: The seasonal movement of a population of animals from one area to another. Prevailing winds: Winds in a particular area that blow in a particular direction. Thermal: An upward current of warm air. Lift: A force that counteracts the weight of an object and holds it in the air. Flyway: A route regularly used by lots of migrating birds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi García Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Horton, K., Van Doren, B., Stepanian, P.,Hochachka, W., Farnsworth, A., and Kelly, J. (2016). Nocturnally migrating songbirds drift when they can and compensate when they must. Scientific Reports 6, 1-8. Nature. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep21249 Kranstauber,B., Weinzierl, R., Wikelski, M., Safi, K. (2015). Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling. Ecology Letters. 18: 133. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12528/full Liechti, F. (2006). Birds: blowin’ by the wind.Journal of Ornithology. 47: 202–211. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10336-006-0061-9. Reddy, G., Celani, A., Sejnowski, T., and Vergassola, M. (2016). Learning to soar in turbulent environments. PNAS. 113(33):E4877-84. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482099 Shamoun-Baranes, J., Leshem, Y., Yom-Tov, Y., and Liech, O. (2003). Differential use of thermal convection by soaring birds over central Israel. The Condor. 105:208-218. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1370541. Leshem, Yossi. (2017) Professor of Life Science, Tel-Aviv University. Personal Communication.
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Are "Acts of God" Disappearing? Are "Acts of God" Disappearing?
2 years ago En Ru
Considering humans' increased impact on the environment, we may want to reconsider whether there is still a place in our legal system for the Act of God defense. Thanks to all our viewers and supporters for an incredible year of videos! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Act of God: A natural disaster that is outside of human influence or control, such that no one will be held responsible for the resulting damages. Reasonable precautions: The ordinary or usual precautions that a person would take to prevent damage from a natural disaster. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about some of the damage done in the flood of 1903: https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/flood-of-1903/17221 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Melissa Hayes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Merritt Creamery Co. v. Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 122 S.W. 322, 139 Mo. App. 149 (Mo. App., 1909). Herring, S. C., A. Hoell, M. P. Hoerling, J. P. Kossin, C. J. Schreck III, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2016: Explaining Extreme Events of 2015 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (12), S1–S145, doi:10.1175/BAMS -ExplainingExtremeEvents2015.1. Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J. T., & Shepherd, T. G. (2015). Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change, 5(8), 725-730. doi:10.1038/nclimate2657. Stott, P. (2016). How climate change affects extreme weather events. Science, 352(6293), 1517-1518. doi:10.1126/science.aaf7271. Jill M. Fraley, Re-examining Acts of God, 27 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 669 (2010) Available at: h6p://digitalcommons.pace.edu/pelr/vol27/iss3/4. Loimer, H., & Guarnieri, M. (1996). Accidents and acts of God: a history of the terms. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 101-107. doi:10.2105/ajph.86.1.101
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Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains
2 years ago Ru En
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth If you live outside the US, click here: https://www.23andme.com/ When we domesticate an animal species, their brains shrink and they freak out less. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth And to our SPONSORS on YouTube. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Domesticated animal: a species of animal bred by humans over generations to become nonreactive and gain characteristics suitable for life as a farm animal or pet Tame animal: an individual animal raised in a way that it has become less dangerous and frightened of people Feral animal: an animal that escapes from captivity or domestication (& regains some similar & some different characteristics compared to its pre-domesticated state) "Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies a creature to either to resist forcibly or escape Limbic system: the brain’s “panic button” - a system of nerves and networks near the bottom of the cortex that controls basic emotions (e.g. fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (e.g. hunger, sex, dominance) Telencephalon: the most developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting chiefly of the cerebral hemispheres, and the brain region that shrinks most in domesticated animals Domestication: a sustained multigenerational, mutualistic relationship in which one species (e.g. humans) assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another species (e.g. cows) in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest (e.g. milk/meat/traction), and through which the domesticated organisms gain advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship (e.g. aurochs, which went extinct), thereby benefitting and often increasing the fitness of both species involved ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Brain Scoop video on brain size and intelligence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJW8jIDfP9E Russian Fox Domestication Experiment: https://goo.gl/5nWnXz What happens to domesticated animals & their brains when they escape back to the wild?: http://www.nature.com/news/when-chickens-go-wild-1.19195#/free%5C _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Keenan Parry & Ever Salazar (@unpuntocircular) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Agnvall, B. et al. 2017. Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.09.006 Eberhard, W. G., & Wcislo, W. T. 2011. Grade changes in brain-body allometry: morphological and behavioural correlates of brain size in miniature spiders, insects and other invertebrates. Advances in Insect Physiology, 40, 155. http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/2011_Eberhard_Wcislo_AdvIns_Physiol.pdf Kruska, D. C. 2005. On the evolutionary significance of encephalization in some eutherian mammals: effects of adaptive radiation, domestication, and feralization. Brain, behavior and evolution, 65(2), 73-108. https://goo.gl/J86NEd Kruska, D. C. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Marchetti, M. P., & Nevitt, G. A. 2003. Effects of hatchery rearing on brain structures of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental biology of Fishes, 66(1), 9-14. https://goo.gl/GL6LWG Marchetti, M. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Wright, D. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Zeder, M. A. 2012. Pathways to animal domestication. Biodiversity in agriculture: Domestication, evolution and sustainability, 227-259. https://goo.gl/2xWSB8 Zeder, M. A. 2015. Core questions in domestication research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), 3191-3198. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3191.full Zeder, M. A. Personal Communication, Oct 2017.
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Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic? Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic?
2 years ago En Ru
Get your first KiwiCo box free by going to http://www.kiwico.com/minuteearth Occasionally, internal or external factors change, allowing certain animals to become giant versions of themselves. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Spiracles: External respiratory openings on insects Carboniferous Period: The time period from 359-299 million years ago when the Earth’s oxygen levels increased rapidly. Square-Cube Law: A mathematical principle that describes the relationship between area and volume. Buoyancy: An upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. Phytoplankton: Microscopic plants eaten by krill and other zooplankton. Baleen: A filter-feeding system inside the mouth of some whales. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kaiser, A., et al. (2007). Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism. 13198-13203. PNAS. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1941816/ Sander, P. Christian, et al. (2011). Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:the evolution of gigantism. Biological Reviews. 86(1): 117–155. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045712/ Taylor, M and Weder, M. (2013). Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks. PeerJ 1:e36. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.5439.pdf. Verberk, W. and Bilton, D. (2011). Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism? PLOS One. 6(7): e22610. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022610 Slater, G., Goldbogen, J., Pyenson, N. (2017). Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284: 20170546. Retrieved from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1855/20170546.
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What Are Brain Waves? What Are Brain Waves?
2 years ago En Ru
This video was sponsored by "Robot-Proof", written by Northeastern University's President, Joseph E. Aoun. Learn more here: https://goo.gl/uF5Kx8 Thank you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Even the parts of our brains that don't control physical movement show a lot of rhythm, and that might be integral to how our brains work. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: neural oscillation: better known as a "brainwave," a neural oscillation is repetitive, often rhythmic activity in the central nervous system. neurons can sync up with the help of pacemaker cells or structure, or through entrainment. entrainment: the ability of tons and tons of neurons to quickly sync up is due to something called entrainment – here's a cool demo of essentially how that works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl2aYFv_978 central pattern generator: neural networks that produce rhythmic, patterned electrical outputs. CPGs are usually relatively simple neural circuits and are responsible for virtually all the rhythmic motions you see in nature, from jellyfish swimming to human breathing. while we often think of our brains as reaction machines – like, we touch something hot and quickly pull away – central pattern generators don't need any stimulus to work. you can pull them out of an animal and put them in a petri dish and the neurons will still fire with the same rhythms. feature binding: when you see your cat and you know right away it's your cat...well, somehow, your brain is putting together all kinds of information about the object's shape, size, color, motion, position in your field of vision, and lots of other contextual clues to make that happen. neuroscientists call this "feature binding," and neural oscillations may be key to pulling it off. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Snake Crawling - BigfootHD https://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-2582720-stock-footage-snake-crawling.html Greyhound running - Objectivity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq_Oj6qzeIU Hummingbird - Smarter Every Day https://youtu.be/1VA8v1btKdQ?t=73 ___________________________________________ References: Buzsaki, G. Personal Communication, October 2017. Buzsaki, G. (2006) Rhythms of the Brain. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gyorgy_Buzsaki/publication/223130267_Rhythms_of_The_Brain/links/00b4952bb0ae609ac9000000/Rhythms-of-The-Brain.pdf Cabron, J. Personal Communcation, October 2017. Engel, A.K. and Fries, P. and Singer, W. (2001) Dynamic predictions: Oscillations and synchrony in top–down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, pp 704-716. Retrieved from http://www.dankalia.com/science/neu127.pdf Getting, P.A. (1989) Emerging Principles Governing the Operation of Neural Networks. Annual Review of Neuroscience. Vol. 12:185-204 Llinas, R. Personal Communication, October 2017. Lisman, J. and Buzsaki, G. (2008) A Neural Coding Scheme Formed by the Combined Function of Gamma and Theta Oscillations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Volume 34:5, pp 974–980. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/34/5/974/1881304 Lisman, J. Personal Communication, October 2017. Marder, E and Calabrese, R.L. (1996) Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. Physiological Reviews, 76(3), pp 687-717. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1900/8ec50b0d0bcff24438c9a0eb57f9e33f7a85.pdf Marder, E. Personal Communication, October 2017. Singer, W. Personal Communication, October 2017.
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Why Bird Penises Are So Weird Why Bird Penises Are So Weird
2 years ago En
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! https://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Male birds have the largest genital diversity of any class of animals because their sex chromosomes make it easy to pass male-helping mutations down the line. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sex chromosome: A chromosome involved in determining the sex of an individual. Cloaca: A posterior orifice that serves as the only exit for the gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts. Mutation: An alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Sexually-selected Trait: A trait based on a mutation that confers a reproductive advantage. BMP4: A protein whose presence halts the growth of bird penises in the egg. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: An article from The Week about some of the strangest penises in the animal kingdom: http://theweek.com/articles/474417/12-weirdest-animal-penises-earth-updated _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brennan, P. and Prum, R. (2015). Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection,Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict. 1-21. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Retrieved from: http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/7/7/a017749.abstract Brennan, P. (2013). Genital Evolution: Cock-a-Doodle-Don’t. Current Biology. R523-R525. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213004430 Brennan, P., Birkhead, T., Zyskowski, K., van der Waagand, J., and Prum, R. (2008). Independent evolutionary reductions of the phallus in basal birds. Journal of Avian Biology, 39: 487-492. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04610.x/abstract. Briskie, J. and Montgomerie, R. (1997). Sexual selection and the intromittent organ of birds. Journal of Avian Biology. 28: 73-86. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3677097?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Herrera, A., Brennan, P., and Cohn, M. (2014). Development of Avian External Genitalia: Interspecific Differences and Sexual Differentiation of the Male and Female Phallus. Sexual Development. 9: 43-52. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25011524. Reinhold, K. (1998). Sex linkage among genes controlling sexually selected traits. Sexual Selection. 44:1-7. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s002650050508. Image Credits: Mandarin Ducks - Francis C. Franklin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pair_of_mandarin_ducks.jpg Gorillas - Based on photo by Wikimedia user No escape https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gorillafamily.JPG Lake Duck Penis - Kevin McCracken (Published in Nature 2001)
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Where Do Our Drugs Come From? Where Do Our Drugs Come From?
2 years ago Ru En
The incredible chemical weapon-making abilities of fungi, bacteria, and plants have created a diverse array of compounds that are useful to humans. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Bioprospecting: the systematic search for and development of new sources of chemical compounds, genes, micro-organisms, macro-organisms, and other valuable products from nature ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bills, G.F. and Gloer, J.B. (2016) Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi. Microbiology Spectrum 4(6): 6 Cragg, G.M. and Newman, D.J. (2005) Biodiversity: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Pure and Appled Chemistry 77: 7–24 Mazid, M., Khan, T.A. and Mohammad, F. (2011) Role of secondary metabolites in defense mechanisms of plants. Biology and Medicine 3(2): 232–249. Newman, D.J. and Cragg, G.M. (2016) Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs from 1981 to 2014. Journal of Natural Products 79: 629-661 O’Brien, J. and Wright, G.D. (2011) An ecological perspective of microbial secondary metabolism. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 22:552–558
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Why Do Female Hyenas Have Pseudo-Penises?! Why Do Female Hyenas Have Pseudo-Penises?!
2 years ago Ru En
Female hyenas don't have penises, but it sure looks like they do - and we still aren't quite sure why. To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Pseudopenis: a structure that resembles a penis but is developmentally (and functionally) different Masculinization: the process by which female genitalia is made to appear more like male genitalia ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE Hyena having a baby at the Buffalo Zoo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rd7TvoPtWM _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Video Credits: Spotted Hyenas Mating - Olivia Spagnuolo Image Credits: Female Spotted Hyena - Kate Yoshida Spotted Hyena Pseudopenis - Kay Holekamp Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) - Flickr user Jean https://www.flickr.com/photos/7326810@N08/3091611374 Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) - Bernard DUPONT https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/6472940707/ Proteles cristatus - Dominik Käuferle https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Proteles_cristatus1.jpg Squirrel monkey - Wikimedia user Megapixie https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Squirrel_monkey-_fuji.jpg Ring tailed lemur - Wikimedia user Sannse https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ring_tailed_lemur_and_twins.jpg Fossa - Ran Kirlian https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptoprocta_Ferox.JPG Binturong - Tassilo Rau https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Binturong_in_Overloon.jpg ___________________________________________ References: Cunha GR, Risbridger G, Wang H, Place NJ, Grumbach M, Cunha TJ, Weldele M, Conley AJ, Barcellos D, Agarwal S, Bhargava A, Drea C, Hammond GL, Siiteri P, Coscia EM, McPhaul MJ, Baskin LS, Glickman SE. (2014) Development of the external genitalia: perspectives from the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Differentiation. 87(1-2):4-22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030146811300087X?via%3Dihub Frank LG (1997) Evolution of genital masculinization: why do female hyenas have such a large 'penis'? Trends Ecol. Evol. 12:58-62. http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/abstract/S0169-5347(96)10063-X Frank LG and Glickman SE (1994) Giving birth through a penile clitoris: parturition and dystocia in the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta). J. Zool. 234:659–665. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb04871.x/abstract Frank LG, Weldele ML, and Glickman SE (1995) Masculinization costs in hyaenas. Nature 377:584–585. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v377/n6550/abs/377584b0.html?foxtrotcallback=true Glickman SE, Cunha GR, Drea CM, Conley AJ and Place NJ (2006) Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena. rends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 17 (9): 349–356. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043276006001767 Holekamp, KE, personal communication. August and September 2017. Muller MN and Wrangham R (2002) Sexual Mimicry in Hyenas. The Quarterly Review of Biology 77 (1):3-16. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/339199?journalCode=qrb
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Why Farming Is Broken (And Always Has Been) Why Farming Is Broken (And Always Has Been)
2 years ago En Ru
Thanks to the Land Institute for sponsoring this video! To learn more about their work, visit https://landinstitute.org/ To feed everyone in the future, we may need to disrupt 10,000 years of farming practices and turn agriculture into a closed system. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual plant: living for a year or less, perpetuating itself by seed Perennial plant: living for several years Polyculture: the simultaneous cultivation or exploitation of several crops or kinds of animals Natural systems agriculture: cropping systems based on processes found in nature Agroforestry: land use management that combines the cultivation of trees/shrubs with crops/pasture to create more productive and sustainable land-use systems Alley cropping: planting agricultural crops between rows of trees or shrubs ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Alley cropping: https://nac.unl.edu/documents/agroforestrynotes/an12ac01.pdf Agroforestry: http://www.fao.org/forestry/agroforestry/89997/en/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Baker, B. 2017. Can Modern Agriculture Be Sustainable? Perennial polyculture holds promise. BioScience, 67(4), 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix018 Crews, T. E. 2016. Closing the Gap between Grasslands and Grain Agriculture. Kan. JL & Pub. Pol'y, 26, 274. https://goo.gl/d7BGsb Dawson, C. J., & Hilton, J. 2011. Fertiliser availability in a resource-limited world: Production and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus. Food Policy, 36, S14-S22. https://goo.gl/8dMuP1 Famiglietti, J. S. 2014. The global groundwater crisis. Nature Climate Change, 4(11), 945-948. http://aquadoc.typepad.com/files/jfam_global_gw_crisis.pdf Kantar, M. B. et al. 2016. Perennial grain and oilseed crops. Annual review of plant biology, 67, 703-729. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-arplant-043015-112311 Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13268-13272. http://goo.gl/Si9E6g
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Why Is Your Grandma So Short? Why Is Your Grandma So Short?
2 years ago Ru En
Learn more about the Goalkeepers report from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation here: http://gates.ly/2fb6CNH Nutrition during the first few years of life has a huge impact on adult height, and since nutrition has been getting better over time, humanity - including your family - is getting taller. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Osteoporosis: Condition in which bones lose density and break down. Stunting: Impaired growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition. Malabsorption: Condition in which the intestine can’t absorb enough nutrients and fluids. Food insecurity: Lacking reliable access to sufficient and nutritious food. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: More info on the Global Goals for Sustainable Development: http://www.globalgoals.org/#the-goals _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: World Health Organization (2014). WHA Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Stunting Policy Brief. 1-10. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/globaltargets_stunting_policybrief.pdf Caulfield, L., Richard, S., Rivera, J., Musgrove, P. and Black, R. (2006). Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 551-570. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11761/ NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). A Century of Trends in Adult Human Height. eLife. Retrieved from: https://elifesciences.org/articles/13410 Kang, H., Kreuels, B., Adjei, O., Krumkamp, R., May, J., and Small, D. (2013). The Causal Effect Of Malaria On Stunting: A Mendelian Randomization And Matching Approach. International Journal of Epidemiology. 42:1390–1398. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925429 Sorkin, J., Muller, G., and Andres, R. (1999) Longitudinal Change in Height of Men and Women: Implications for Interpretation of the Body Mass Index. American Journal of Epidemiology. 150: 969-977. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547143
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Why Do India And China Have So Many People? Why Do India And China Have So Many People?
2 years ago Ru En
Please subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth India and China have so many people today because they’re good for farming and big, but they’ve always been that way, so they’ve actually had a huge proportion of Earth’s people for thousands of years. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A very detailed map of world population density: https://populationexplorer.com/ Info about world population growth: https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth/ _________________________________________ Visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Eraly, A., Khan, Y., Michell, G. & Saran, M. 2008. India. DK Publishing, New York. Gidwani, V.K., April 2017, personal communication. Goldewijk, K.K., Beusen, A., & Janssen, P. 2010. Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene, 20(4), 565-573. https://goo.gl/BuwJLQ Goldewijk, K.K., Arthur Beusen, Jonathan Doelman, and Elke Stehfest. "New anthropogenic land use estimates for the Holocene; HYDE 3.2.” Unpublished manuscript. https://goo.gl/z73PNr Goldewijk, K.K., April 2017, personal communication. Maddison, A. 2006. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. OECD. https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~aldous/157/Papers/world_economy.pdf Roberts, E., March 2017, personal communication. Ruggles, S., March 2017, personal communication. Stearns, P. N. (Ed.). 2001. The encyclopedia of world history: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, chronologically arranged. Houghton Mifflin. Chicago. Thanks also to Deepak Ray, Jamie Gerber, Emily Cassidy, and Ryan Loomis.
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Why Is Syrup Sticky? Why Is Syrup Sticky?
2 years ago Ru En
Give Blinkist a try! https://www.blinkist.com/MinuteEarth What exactly makes sugary syrups so sticky, when neither water nor sugar is very sticky on its own? Support MinuteEarth on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Ever Salazar Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brown, T.L, LeMay, H.E., Bursten, B.E. (2006). Chapter 11: Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids. In Chemistry, The Central Science 10th edition. Retrieved from: http://alpha.chem.umb.edu/chemistry/ch115/Mridula/CHEM%20116/documents/chapter_11au.pdf Elert, M., Personal Communication, July 2017. Husband, T. (2014). The Sweet Science of Candymaking. Retrieved from: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/past-issues/archive-2014-2015/candymaking.html Longinotti, M.P. & Corti, H.R. (2008) Viscosity of concentrated sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions including the supercooled regime. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 37: 1503-1516. Molinero, V., Cagin, T., Goddard, W.A. (2003) Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions. Chemical Physics Letters, 377:469–474. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8b49/ce63d9430af305c87c1dadfa0ec9bc646461.pdf Wang, L.P., Personal Communication, February 2017. Xia, J., & Case, D. A. (2012). Sucrose in Aqueous Solution Revisited: 1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Direct and Indirect Dipolar Coupling Analysis. Biopolymers, 97(5), 276–288. http://doi.org/10.1002/bip.22017 ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Sugar - Melissa Wiese https://www.flickr.com/photos/42dreams/2452033439/ Sugar beet field - Gilles San Martin https://www.flickr.com/photos/sanmartin/4799481326/ Sugar Cubes - David Pacey https://www.flickr.com/photos/63723146@N08/7164573186/
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Our Definition For “Moon” Is Broken (Collab. w/ MinutePhysics) Our Definition For “Moon” Is Broken (Collab. w/ MinutePhysics)
3 years ago Ru En
Watch Henry’s MinutePhysics video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NucdlR9EGbA MinuteEarth & MinutePhysics are on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth & http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics It’s becoming harder and harder to categorize moons as moons. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Moon: a natural satellite of a satellite of a star. Satellite: A celestial body orbiting a larger celestial body. Orbit: The path followed by one object revolving around another object under the influence of gravity. Barycenter: The center of mass that two or more bodies orbit around. Binary System: A system in which two similarly sized object orbit the same barycenter. Hydrostatic equilibrium: Roundness that occurs when gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient force. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: That’s no moon … it’s a space station! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGp_5gOww0E. And here's a tidy illustrated difference between geocentrism and heliocentrism: http://www.malinc.se/math/trigonometry/geocentrismen.php And MinuteLabs interactive chaotic planet orbit simulation: http://labs.minutelabs.io/Chaotic-Planets/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Norton, J. (2008) Could a moon have moons? Popular Science. Retrieved from: http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2008-04/could-moon-have-moons H. A. Weaver, S. A. Stern, M. J. Mutchler, A. J. Steffl, M. W. Buie, W. J. Merline, J. R. Spencer, E. F. Young, L. A. Young (2006). The Discovery of Two New Satellites of Pluto. Nature. 439: 943-945. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7079/abs/nature04547.html?foxtrotcallback=true Tiscareno, M., Burns, J., Sremcevi, M., Beurle, K., Hedman, M. Copper, N., Milano, A., Evans, M., Porco, C., Spitale, J., and WEiss, J. (2010) Physical Characteristics And Non-Keplerian Orbital Motion Of “Propeller” Moons Embedded In Saturn’s Rings. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 718: 92-96. Retrieved from: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/718/2/L92 Spahn, F., and Schmidt, J. (2006) Saturn’s Bared Mini-Moons. Nature, 440: 30-31. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7084/full/440614a.html
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UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! (Response to MinutePhysics) UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! (Response to MinutePhysics)
3 years ago En Ru
Get your FREE 2-month Skillshare trial: http://skl.sh/minuteearth2 The "Mountain or Valley?" illusion makes our brains turn valleys inside out. But inside-out valleys are a real thing, both on Earth and on Mars. Thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this video, and to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Watch: The "Mountain Or Valley?" Illusion by MinutePhysics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7C318DGB38 ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Inverted relief: a topographic feature, such as an old riverbed, that has reversed its elevation relative to other features. Duricrust: a hard mineral crust formed at or near the surface of soil in semiarid regions by the evaporation of groundwater. Geomorphology: the study of the physical features of the surface of the earth and their relation to its geological structures. Exhumed paleochannel: a remnant of an inactive river or stream channel that has been either filled or buried by younger sediment, and then subsequently uncovered by erosion. Erosion: the action of surface processes, including wind and water, that move dirt and rock from their original location to some other place. Capillary action: the tendency of a liquid in a capillary tube or absorbent material to rise or fall as a result of surface tension. Mineral precipitation: when dissolved compounds in a solution bond together to form a solid (a simple example is how dissolved sodium and chloride ions come together to form salt as water evaporates) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) & Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Yardangs and Ridges of the Edge of Aeolis Planum - NASA JPL University of Arizona https://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/PSP_006683_1740 Raised Footprints - Alan Light https://www.flickr.com/photos/alan_light/5904493388/ _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ The inverted relief at the end of the video is at Green River, Utah https://www.google.com/maps/@38.8744077,-110.2558884,867m/data=!3m1!1e3 ___________________________________________ References: Clarke, J., July 2016, personal communication. Clarke, J. D., & Stoker, C. R. (2011). Concretions in exhumed and inverted channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars. International Journal of Astrobiology, 10(03), 161-175. doi:10.1017/s1473550411000048 Harris, D.R. (1980). Exhumed paleochannels in the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain formation near Green river. Utah: Brigham Young Univ. Geol. Stud. 27, 51–66. Malin, M. C. (2003). Evidence for Persistent Flow and Aqueous Sedimentation on Early Mars. Science, 302(5652), 1931-1934. doi:10.1126/science.1090544 Miller, R. P. (1937). Drainage Lines in Bas-Relief. The Journal of Geology, 45(4), 432-438. doi:10.1086/624550 Pain, C.P & Ollier, C.D. (1996). Regolith stratigraphy: principles and problems. Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 16(3), 197-202. Pain, C., Clarke, J., & Thomas, M. (2007). Inversion of relief on Mars. Icarus, 190(2), 478-491. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.03.017 Pain, C., July 2016, personal communication.
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TRANSPARENT Solar Panels?! TRANSPARENT Solar Panels?!
3 years ago Ru En
Infinitesimally small quantum dots can turn a window into a see-through solar panel! Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Solar window: a window that functions like an ordinary window but also generates power like a solar panel Nanoparticle (also called nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal): a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. These tiny objects often have characteristics that differ from larger versions of the same material. Quantum dots (QD): tiny nanoparticles of some kind of semiconducting material, only several nanometers in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. The QDs embedded in solar windows can absorb radiation largely in short wavelengths and re-emit in longer wavelengths; useful for capturing solar energy and successfully transferring it to the solar cells on the edges of the pane. Total internal reflection: a phenomenon in which a wave hits a medium boundary at such an angle that it doesn't pass through to the other side ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: Peter Reich & Emily Elert Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Thumbnail: R. Lunt, MSU. _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Bradshaw, L. R., Knowles, K. E., McDowall, S. & Gamelin, D. R. Nanocrystals for luminescent solar concentrators. Nano Lett. 15, 1315–1323 (2015). Meinardi, F., Ehrenberg, S., Dhamo, L., Carulli, F., Mauri, M., Bruni, F., Simonutti, R., Kortshagen, U. and Brovelli, S., 2017. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots. Nature Photonics, 11(3), pp.177-185. Meinardi, F. et al. Highly efficient large-area colourless luminescent solar concentrators using heavy-metal-free colloidal quantum dots. Nat. Nanotech.10, 878–885 (2015). Yang, C, R. R. Lunt. Limits of Visibly Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators. Adv. Opt. Mat., 5, 8, 1600851, 2017. Zhao Y., G. Meek, B. Levine, and R. R. Lunt, “Near-Infrared Harvesting Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators”. Adv. Opt. Mat., 2, 606, 2014.
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Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena
3 years ago Ru En
Thanks to spotted hyenas’ unusual social structure, males experience a tough life of solitude, harassment, and deprivation. Support us on Patreon to see more videos like this: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth/posts Thank you to our current supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Watch our Q&A from 7/21/17: https://www.patreon.com/posts/friday-q-with-13099025 ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Sex role reversed species: a species in which males and females exhibit roles other than what might be expected based on other aspects of their biology and mating systems ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Video Credits: Hyenas feeding - Kate Yoshida Image Credits: Scarface - Kate Yoshida _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A blog by researchers currently studying spotted hyenas in Kenya's Masai Mara: http://msuhyenas.blogspot.com/ ___________________________________________ References: Chepko-Sade, B. D. & Z. T. Halpin. 1987. Mammalian dispersal patterns: the effects of social stucture on population genetics. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois. Holekamp, K.E. & Smale, L. (2000) Feisty females and meek males: reproductive strategies in the spotted hyena. In Reproduction in Context. K. Wallen and J. Schneider (Eds). MIT Press. Cambridge. MA. Pp. 257-285. Kruuk H. 1972. The spotted hyena: a study of predation and social behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Smale, L., Nunes, S., and Holekamp, K.E. (1997) Sexually dimorphic dispersal in mammals: patterns, causes and consequences. Advances in the Study of Behavior 26: 181-250. Strauss, E., February 2017, personal communication. Turner, J., June 2017, personal communication. Van Horn, R.C., McElhinny, T.L. & Holekamp, K. E. (2003) Age estimation and dispersal in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Journal of Mammalogy 84: 1019-1030. Watts, H. E. & Holekamp, K. E. (2007) Hyena societies. Current Biology 17: R657-R660.
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