MinuteEarth
Science and stories about our awesome planet! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia, Sarah Berman, Jasper Palfree, and Julián Gómez. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder. "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." ― John Muir

212 videos
MinuteEarth Explains: Human Evolution MinuteEarth Explains: Human Evolution
2 days ago En
Give Blinkist a try! https://www.blinkist.com/minuteearth In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we answer the question "why are you the way that you are?" And check out the Tree of Life Explorer! https://labs.minutelabs.io/Tree-of-Life-Explorer/ 0:00 - Intro 0:10 - Which Fish Did We Evolve From? https://youtu.be/W2ojuZ_s4z8 1:31 - Are We Really 99% Chimp? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbY122CSC5w 4:26 - Why Are Snakes So Creepy? https://youtu.be/AeOrYPvUsTE 6:12 - How Long Can We Live? https://youtu.be/gxLSTOE5TaM 8:58 - Outro
Is There A Better Way To Power Airplanes? Is There A Better Way To Power Airplanes?
1 week ago En
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2WDTJ1L It’s hard to replace jet fuel because the alternatives aren’t energetic enough, are too dangerous, or aren’t yet being made at scale. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Jet fuel - a liquid petroleum fuel with high specific energy and energy density, used in airplane jet engines, made of kerosene with a few additives Specific Energy - how much energy something contains per unit mass Energy Density - how much energy something contains per unit volume Synthetic jet fuel - a jet fuel replacement, typically aiming to have lower life cycle environmental impacts than jet fuel (AKA: sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), alternative jet fuel, renewable aviation fuel, renewable jet fuel, biojet fuel, sustainable alternative fuel) Kerosene - a petroleum product that is the main component of jet fuel (and old fashioned lanterns) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: What you get from a barrel of oil - https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/oil-and-petroleum-products/ Real Engineering: Are Electric Planes Possible? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNvzZfsC13o&feature=youtu.be _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: ATAG. Nov 2017. Beginner’s Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuel, Edition 3. https://bit.ly/2AcJLLW Accessed Jan 2020. ATAG. “Producing sustainable aviation fuel” https://bit.ly/3gncnmh Accessed Jan 2020 Burton, Freya. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Caldeira, K. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Cey, E., et al. 2019. Energy Education. “Oil formation.” https://bit.ly/3ej8r3Y Accessed Jan 2020 Chuck, C. (Ed.). 2016. Biofuels for aviation: feedstocks, technology and implementation. Academic Press Goldmann, A., et al. 2018. A study on electrofuels in aviation. Energies, 11(2), 392. https://bit.ly/2AfRUis Hileman, J. I., & Stratton, R. W. 2014. Alternative jet fuel feasibility. Transport Policy, 34, 52-62. https://bit.ly/2X8832H IATA. May 2019. “Sustainable Aviation Fuels Fact sheet.” https://bit.ly/2ZO2BDX Accessed Jan 2020 IATA. December 2019. "Fuel Fact Sheet." https://bit.ly/3dcJ0Ry Accessed March 2020 Le Feuvre, P. 18 March 2019. Are aviation biofuels ready for take off? https://bit.ly/2XA5R2T Lehtveer, M., Brynolf, S., & Grahn, M. 2019. What Future for Electrofuels in Transport? Analysis of Cost Competitiveness in Global Climate Mitigation. Environmental science & technology, 53(3), 1690-1697. https://bit.ly/3d96QgX McKinsey. Energy Resources. https://bit.ly/2M7pYzW Accessed December 2019. Monroe Aerospace. 29 April 2019. Why Airplanes Use Kerosene Rather Than Plain Gasoline for Fuel. https://bit.ly/3d8FpnD Searle, S. 15 Nov 2018. Decarbonizing aviation through low-carbon fuels will be beyond difficult. https://bit.ly/2zAN1kc Shaw, R.J. 12 June 2014. "How does a jet engine work?" https://go.nasa.gov/2XOwG3F Accessed Jan 2020 Sindreu, J. 10 Jan 2020. The Promise of Sustainable Aviation Fuel Isn’t for Today. https://on.wsj.com/3gthykv Wikipedia. "Nuclear Powered Aircraft” https://bit.ly/2ZGECGw Accessed Jan 2020. Thanks also to Steve Thorne and Erik Pieh. References for calculations https://bit.ly/3c9Lvmc https://bit.ly/2yC04kS https://bit.ly/2X5OAPV https://bit.ly/2zDqoLT https://bit.ly/3gw1L4n https://bit.ly/2TLZQPo https://bit.ly/2TGOV9B https://bit.ly/2TLG86r https://bit.ly/2ZHdZkN https://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=jet+fuel https://www.toyota.com/corolla/features/capacities/1882/1863/1856 https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/how-much-does-gasoline-weigh.html https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Transatlantic_Fuel_Efficiency_Ranking_20180912.pdf https://www.transtats.bts.gov/Distance.asp?pn=0 https://physics.info/energy-chemical/ https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage https://neutrium.net/properties/specific-energy-and-energy-density-of-fuels/
💩💩💩 💩💩💩
1 week ago En
Check out our official TikTok account: https://www.tiktok.com/@minuteearth In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we dive into one of our favorite topics, well at least our #2: poop. 0:00 - Intro 0:22 - Do Fetuses Poop? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qc-244lKjjM 2:23 - Would You Drink Water Made From Sewage? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YocDQ9OqeuA 5:01 - Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ubt2fl11v5E 8:20 - Poop Transplants! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dim7YXYlRm0 11:23 - Outro, TikTok and Blooper
Why You Can't Build A Clone Army... (Yet) Why You Can't Build A Clone Army... (Yet)
2 weeks ago En
Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs. Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development. Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits. Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development. Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2382 Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-9521(02)00141-6 Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1038/12696 Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.07.017 Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.020867 Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.thj.6200435 Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09798 Morgan, H. D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., & Reik, W. (2005). Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Human Molecular Genetics, 14(suppl_1), R47–R58. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddi114 Reik, W. (2001). Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammalian Development. Science, 293(5532), 1089–1093. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1063443 Srivastava, D., & DeWitt, N. (2016). In Vivo Cellular Reprogramming: The Next Generation. Cell, 166(6), 1386–1396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.055 Wakayama, S., Kohda, T., Obokata, H., et al. (2013). Successful Serial Recloning in the Mouse over Multiple Generations. Cell Stem Cell, 12(3), 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.01.005 Wakayama, T., Shinkai, Y., Tamashiro, K. L. K., et al. (2000). Cloning of mice to six generations. Nature, 407(6802), 318–319. https://doi.org/10.1038/35030301 Yamanaka, S. (2012). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future. Cell Stem Cell, 10(6), 678–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.005
Why Wolves Don't Chirp Why Wolves Don't Chirp
3 weeks ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Sounds that animals make can be really different, and it turns out that there's a reason why some species communicate with certain sounds. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: frequency - how often a wave occurs in a certain unit of time Hertz - a unit of frequency (Hz), the number of waves that occus in a second pitch - a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale echolocation - the location of objects by reflected sound refraction - the change in direction of a wave diffraction - the bending of waves around obstacles and the spreading out of waves beyond openings ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arch, V. A. and P. M. Narins. 2008. “Silent” signals: selective forces acting on ultrasonic communication systems in terrestrial vertebrates. Animal Behaviour 76: 1423–1428. https://www.mn.uio.no/cees/english/research/news/events/research/journal-clubs/eef/2008/silent-signals.html Bedard Jr. and T. M. Georges. 2000. Atmospheric Infrasound, Physics Today, 53(3): 32-37. https://psl.noaa.gov/programs/infrasound/atmospheric_infrasound.pdf Ladich F. and H. Winkler. 2017. Acoustic communication in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates,” Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2306–2317. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/220/13/2306.full.pdf Michelsen, A. and O.N. Larsen. 1983. Strategies for acoustic communication in complex environments. In: Neuroethology and Behavioural Physiology (ed Huber, F. and Markl, H.) pp. 321-331 Berlin: Springer-Verlag. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-69271-0_23 Narins, P.M., A.S. Stoeger, and C. O'Connell-Rodwell. 2016. Infrasonic and seismic communication in the vertebrates with special emphasis on the Afrotheria: An update and future directions. In Vertebrate Sound Production and Acoustic Communication (ed. R. A. Suthers, W. T. Fitch, R. R. Fay and A. N. Popper), pp. 191-227. Cham: Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-27721-9_7
MinuteEarth Explains: Space MinuteEarth Explains: Space
3 weeks ago En
Signup for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs. In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we travel beyond Earth and explore some of our favorite mysteries about space. These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:00 Intro 0:29 Why So Many Meteorites Come From The Same Place https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kygTzIXmqfM 2:52 Tidal Locking | Why Do We Only See One Side of the Moon? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6jUpX7J7ySo 5:10 How Do Greenhouse Gases Actually Work? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sTvqIijqvTg 8:09 The Faint Young Sun Paradox! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbnaes8X4iQ 10:48 Outro
Why Do We STILL Use Lead Pipes?! Why Do We STILL Use Lead Pipes?!
4 weeks ago En
Visit https://www.apmreports.org/water to read "Buried Lead". This video was made in partnership with The Water Main. We've known for millennia that lead pipes could make us sick, so why are we still drinking from them? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Hard water: water with a high mineral content Soft water: water with a low mineral content ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hernberg, S. (2000) Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 38(3): 256-249. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/1097-0274%28200009%2938%3A3%3C244%3A%3AAID-AJIM3%3E3.0.CO%3B2-F Hodge, AT. (1981) Vitruvius, lead pipes and lead poisoning. American Journal of Archaeology 85(4): 486–491. https://www.jstor.org/stable/504874 Milton, AL. (1988) Lead and lead poisoning from Antiquity to Modern Times. Ohio Journal of Science 88: 78-84. https://kb.osu.edu/handle/1811/23252 Rabin, R. (2008) The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes: a Modest Campaign. Public Health 98 (9): 1584–92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2509614/ Troesken W. and Beeson, P. (2003) On the Significance of Lead Water Mains in American Cities: Some Historical Evidence.” In Health and Labor Force Participation over the Life Course, ed. Costa Dora L., 127–51. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and NBER. https://www.nber.org/chapters/c9632.pdf
This Atom Can Predict The Future This Atom Can Predict The Future
1 month ago En
Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org Many of the bewildering correlations in our world - like that between Beryllium-7 and the Asian monsoon - are a result of huge and unseen forces that tie them together. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monsoon: A seasonal increase in precipitation driven by atmospheric conditions. Hadley Cell: A global scale atmospheric cell driven by air rising near the equator and falling as it flows towards the polls. Ferrel Cell: A secondary atmospheric circulation that collides with the Hadley cell and pushes air back down towards the Earth’s surface. Intertropical Convergence Zone: The narrow zone between the northern and southern Hadley cells where warm air comes together and rises. Tropopause: The boundary area roughly 15 kilometers above the Earth’s surface between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Radionuclide: Isotopes of atoms that release radiation as they break down. Beryllium-7: A relatively stable radionuclide of the element Beryllium that naturally forms in the tropopause during spallation. Spallation: The process in which a heavier atom loses nuclear particles after being bombarded by cosmic rays. Cosmic Rays: High energy atomic particles that move at near light speed through space. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Terzi, L., Kalinowski, M., Schoeppner, M., and Wotawa, G. (2019). How to predict seasonal weather and monsoons with radionuclide monitoring. Nature. 9: 2729. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39664-7. Köhn‐Reich, L., Bürger, G. (2019). Dynamical prediction of Indian monsoon: Past and present skill. International Journal of Climatology. 38:3574-3581. Retrieved from: https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joc.6039. Delaygue, G., Bekki, S., and Bard, E. (2015) Modelling the stratospheric budget of beryllium isotopes. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 67:1 Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/tellusb.v67.28582. Palukkat, H. (2016) The odds of foretelling rains: Why monsoon prediction is hard, and why it could soon improve. Economic Times. Retrieved from: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/the-odds-of-foretelling-rains-why-monsoon-prediction-is-hard-and-why-it-could-soon-improve/articleshow/52876823.cms. Kalinowski, M. (2020). Personal Communication. Provisional Technical Secretariat, Preparatory Commission for the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.
MinuteEarth Explains: Water MinuteEarth Explains: Water
1 month ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we take a look at one of Earth’s most critical - and unique - features. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:25 - Where Did Earth's Water Come From? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LpgBvEPozk 3:05 - Why Are There Clouds? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC2x_RRnk8E 5:46 - Why Do Rivers Curve? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a3r-cG8Wic 8:31 - UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yy5UpVoQDJw
The Extinction Happening Inside You The Extinction Happening Inside You
1 month ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Our modern lifestyle and diet are leading to the extinction of parts of our microbiome, but we can use what we've learned from dealing with nearly-extinct macrobiota, like bald eagles, to understand the consequences and find solutions. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Extinction: the termination of a kind of organism or group of kinds, usually a species Endangered: a species that is very likely to become extinct in the near future Microbiome: a community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and protists) that inhabit a particular environment and especially the collection of microorganisms living in or on the human body Hunter-gatherer: a member of a culture in which food is obtained by hunting, fishing, and foraging rather than by agriculture or animal husbandry Prevotella: a genus of bacteria most commonly found in the microbiome of people who eat a plant-rich diet DDT: an aromatic organochlorine sometimes used as insecticide banned in the U.S. that tends to accumulate and persist in ecosystems and has toxic effects on many vertebrates C. diff: (short for Clostridium difficile) a toxin-producing bacterium which can infect the bowel, causing illness with diarrhea and fever, especially in people who have been treated with antibiotics Antibiotics: an antibacterial substance (such as penicillin, cephalosporin, and ciprofloxacin) that is used to treat or prevent infections by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria in or on the body Probiotics: a microorganism that when consumed (as in a food or a dietary supplement) maintains or restores beneficial bacteria to the digestive tract ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Filippo, Carlotta, et al. "Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.33 (2010): 14691-14696. Gomez, Andres, et al. "Gut microbiome of coexisting BaAka pygmies and bantu reflects gradients of traditional subsistence patterns." Cell reports 14.9 (2016): 2142-2153. Hand, Timothy W., et al. "Linking the microbiota, chronic disease, and the immune system." Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 27.12 (2016): 831-843. Harmon, K. "Bugs inside: what happens when the microbes that keep us healthy disappear." Sci Amer (2009). Harrison, Christy. “Disappearance of the Human Microbiota: How We May Be Losing Our Oldest Allies.” ASM.org, American Society for Microbiology, 8 Nov. 2019, www.asm.org/Articles/2019/November/Disappearance-of-the-Gut-Microbiota-How-We-May-Be. Henson, Shandelle M., et al. "Predator–prey dynamics of bald eagles and glaucous‐winged gulls at Protection Island, Washington, USA." Ecology and evolution 9.7 (2019): 3850-3867. Jacobson, Rebecca. "Can We Save Our Body’s Ecosystem from Extinction?." PBS Newshour (2014). https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/theres-extinction-happening-stomach. Rees, Tobias, and Nils Gilman. Opinion | The Silent Microbiome Crisis. The Washington Post, 26 Feb. 2018, www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/02/26/microbes/. Sonnenburg, Erica D., and Justin L. Sonnenburg. "Starving our microbial self: the deleterious consequences of a diet deficient in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates." Cell metabolism 20.5 (2014): 779-786. Tito, Raul Y., et al. "Insights from characterizing extinct human gut microbiomes." PloS one 7.12 (2012). Trotter, Bill. Seabirds Declining as Eagles in Maine Recover. Bangor Daily News, 6 Aug. 2011, bangordailynews.com/2011/08/05/environment/seabirds-declining-as-eagles-in-maine-recover/. US Fish and Wildlife Service. "Bald eagle recovery plan (southwestern population)." US Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1982). Velasquez-Manoff, Moises. "How the Western Diet Has Derailed Our Evolution." Nautilus (2015).
MinuteEarth Explains: Stuff That...Isn’t MinuteEarth Explains: Stuff That...Isn’t
1 month ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we find out that lots of what we thought we knew about the world around us isn’t quite right. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:11 - This Is Not A Bee https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDMBykrogXs 2:23 - This is Not A Pine Tree https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-m7EuRAdBgk 5:00 - What Makes A Dinosaur? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HIbG-dUFnf4 6:46 - Our Definition For “Moon” Is Broken https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAI1N96t8Vk
MinuteEarth Explains: Cats vs Dogs MinuteEarth Explains: Cats vs Dogs
1 month ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we learn more about the planet’s two favorite pets. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:19 - Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9Dj-xf3iVo 2:02 - How Cats Became our Feline Overlords (ft. It's Okay To Be Smart) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWB0-tGwb_E 4:57 - How Different Are Different Types of Dogs? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7puPXZVsFQ 6:56 - How Your Dog Can Protect You Before You're Born https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ex5y6OVVHe0
MinuteEarth Explains: Battle of the Sexes MinuteEarth Explains: Battle of the Sexes
1 month ago En
Help support COVID-19 relief efforts every time you surf the web. Download the Tab For A Cause extension today at http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we take a look at how deep the divide between males and females actually goes. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:04 - Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c 3:24 - Males vs. Females: Sexual Conflict https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMCtE2-YsLc 6:18 - Why Bird Penises Are So Weird https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZJ_3_cTGoI 8:49 - Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE 11:27 - Why Do Female Hyenas Have Pseudo-Penises?! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Egtbs-go4Q
MinuteEarth Explains: Food MinuteEarth Explains: Food
2 months ago En
In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we examine the weird world of what we like to eat. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:14 - Why Do We Eat Spoiled Foods? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yswzITbAbA 3:26 - The Story of Frozen Food https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWZwncX_4hk 5:35 - Why Don't Americans Eat Reindeer? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owNMCTmbG9w Why Do Animals Eat Their Babies? 7:36 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xVgAULDwNE Photo Credits:
How to Work From Home as a Team How to Work From Home as a Team
2 months ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ We've worked as a team - remotely - for seven years, and we're sharing some of our favorite tips for making it work. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: We surveyed our team members and put together our favorite specific tools and tips for working from home: Video Conference Tips: -During meetings, mute yourself when you’re not speaking, especially if you’re not using headphones. The noise in the room you’re in or the feedback caused by your speakers audio can make the communication less effective. -Learn how to mute other people in meetings (and don’t take offense when you do get muted). -Figure out tech workarounds for when your wifi inevitably goes on the fritz (call people in, turn off video to reduce wifi strain, etc). File Management Tips: -Establish a naming convention with your team, so that all your shared files are consistent, searchable and organized. All of our projects have two-word codenames and numbers that make it easy to identify them regardless of the final title of the video. When making recordings or video files, we use incremental numbering (e.g. “Audio 1”, “Audio 2”, etc). NEVER use the word “final” or “last” for naming a file! -If everybody is working with a file syncing app like Dropbox, make sure to set appropriate editing rights to your files. You want at least a shared folder that anyone on your team can edit and add stuff to, but some files need to be managed by fewer people to avoid unwanted deletions. For example, we have a folder in which everyone can add/modify/delete files, but only one person is in charge of deleting and cleaning up after everything important has been archived. -If there’s a particular task that is repetitive and can be done by different people, make sure to write down the steps in detail so that nothing is missed or forgotten. Tools For Giving Feedback -Screenshots: In OSX, use command-shift-4 to take a screenshot. On Windows 10, you can use the Windows Ink Workspace right in the task bar, which lets you crop and annotate your screenshot. -CloudApp(www.getcloudapp.com): Captures and shares screenshots (and more) via shareable links -Jing (www.techsmith.com/jing-tool.html): Lets you create screenshots and auto-generates a shareable link for each one. -Epic Pen (epic-pen.com): Great free tool for PCs for drawing on your screen (esp when sharing that screen with someone else) Other Work From Home Tips: -Add things like “time to eat lunch” on your calendar if you need it, or you may end up eating lunch at 3pm. -Keep track of your time! If you don’t keep track of the amount of time you spend working, you might overwork yourself (bad) and still feel like you’re not doing enough (worse). Toggl (www.toggl.com) is a great tool for that. -Consider coworking with a group of (nonwork) friends over Skype or Discord. It can help you get into “work mode” and make you feel a little less lonely while working.
MinuteEarth Explains: Size MinuteEarth Explains: Size
2 months ago En
In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we tackle the science of size. We originally created the videos in the “MinuteEarth Explains” series for another project. But we know that lots of people right now are looking for really good online educational content - and something to take their mind off current events - so we decided to release them here as well. We’d love to know what you think, so leave us a comment below! These are the episodes featured in this compilation: 0:22 - The Biggest Organism on Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWAA-SrrFUQ 3:02 - Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-B_ZZjD2ZeU 5:52 - The One That Got Away (Size Matters) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9YOVuEQugE 8:21 - Rain's Dirty Little Secret https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87v_9Bud7vw
How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19) How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19)
2 months ago En
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 We’ve changed - and standardized - the way diseases get named because the old way was often stigmatizing and confusing. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Coronaviruses (CoV): a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as COVID-19. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): an infectious disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019 and named a pandemic in 2020. 2009 H1N1 Flu: a pandemic disease that emerged in 2009 caused by the H1N1)pdm09 virus, which was different from any other influenza strain circulating at the time. World Health Organization (WHO): an organization that directs and coordinates international health within the United Nations system. 1918 Flu: often referred to as the “Spanish flu,” the 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic in recent history and caused by an H1N1 virus. There are competing theories for its place of origin, but public health experts agree it did not actually originate in Spain. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first named “gay-related immunodeficiency disease (GRID),” despite the fact anyone, regardless of sexuality, is susceptible. Stigma: a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person. Pandemic: the worldwide spread of a new disease. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn more about social stigma associated with COVID-19: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/covid19-stigma-guide.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Ballantyne, C. "Will Egypt’s plans to kill pigs protect it from swine—sorry, H1N1 flu." Sci Am News Blog https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/will-egypts-plans-to-kill-pigs-prot-2009-05-01/ (2009). World Health Organization. "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic." http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html (2009). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The 2009 H1N1 pandemic: summary highlights, April 2009-April 2010." Official Online Article Published by the Centers for Disease Control 4 https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm (2010). Selyukh, A. "Pork industry still reeling from swine flu.” ABC News https://abcnews.go.com/Business/pork-industry-reeling-swine-flu/story?id=8840004 (2009). World Health Organization. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it" https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (2020). World Health Organization. "World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases" https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/163636/WHO_HSE_FOS_15.1_eng.pdf?sequence=1 (2015).
Why Don't More Animals Eat Wood? Why Don't More Animals Eat Wood?
2 months ago En
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ Wood is abundant and full of energy, but outside of some insects, almost no animals eat it because the stuff it's made of is hard to break down. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Xylophagy: the eating of wood Lignin: a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and help make wood rigid. Cellulose: a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers, which is the main constituent of plant cell walls. Lignin oxidation: a depolymerization method to break bonds in lignin molecules such as ether or carbon–carbon bonds by applying an oxidant such as oxygen. Depolymerization: the process of breaking down a polymer, such as lignin, into simpler monomers Trichonympha agilis: a specialized protist that lives in the hindguts of many termite species that breaks down the cellulose in the wood they eat and may contribute to the lignin oxidation process. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about the fungi that first unlocked the secrets of breaking down lignin: https://www.energy.gov/science/articles/behind-scenes-how-fungi-make-nutrients-available-world _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "Rampant host switching shaped the termite gut microbiome." Current biology 28.4 (2018): 649-654. Martin, Michael M. "Cellulose digestion in insects." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 75.3 (1983): 313-324.Mathews, Stephanie L., et al. "Public questions spur the discovery of new bacterial species associated with lignin bioconversion of industrial waste." Royal Society open science 6.3 (2019): 180748. Chaney, William Reynolds. Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs?. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 2003. de Gonzalo, Gonzalo, et al. "Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation." Journal of Biotechnology 236 (2016): 110-119. Hosokawa, Takahiro, et al. "Strict host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria." PLoS biology 4.10 (2006). Novaes, Evandro, et al. "Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees." Plant Physiology 154.2 (2010): 555-561. Vega, Fernando E., and Richard W. Hofstetter, eds. Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Academic Press, 2014. McNab, Brian Keith. The physiological ecology of vertebrates: a view from energetics. Cornell University Press, 2002. Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "The evolutionary history of termites as inferred from 66 mitochondrial genomes." Molecular Biology and Evolution 32.2 (2014): 406-421. Morgenstern, I., Klopman, S., & Hibbett, D. S. (2008). Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 66(3), 243–257. Suman, S. K., Dhawaria, M., Tripathi, D., Raturi, V., Adhikari, D. K., & Kanaujia, P. K. (2016). Investigation of lignin biodegradation by Trabulsiella sp. isolated from termite gut. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 112, 12–17. Janusz, G., Pawlik, A., Sulej, J., Świderska-Burek, U., Jarosz-Wilkołazka, A., & Paszczyński, A. (2017). Lignin degradation: microorganisms, enzymes involved, genomes analysis and evolution. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 41(6), 941–962. Ayuso-Fernández, Iván, Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas, and Angel T. Martínez. "Evolutionary convergence in lignin-degrading enzymes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115.25 (2018): 6428-6433. Ruiz-Dueñas, F. J., & Martínez, Á. T. (2009). Microbial degradation of lignin: how a bulky recalcitrant polymer is efficiently recycled in nature and how we can take advantage of this. Microbial Biotechnology, 2(2), 164–177. Hibbing, Michael E., et al. "Bacterial competition: surviving and thriving in the microbial jungle." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.1 (2010): 15-25.
Where Does One Ocean End And Another Begin? Where Does One Ocean End And Another Begin?
3 months ago En
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Earth's ocean water is continuous. How can we divide it into sections that are more useful? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: IHO: International Hydrographic Organization ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: We had fun playing with (and transitioning between) different map projections in this video, and we came across this great - and mesmerizing! - website: https://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/3711652 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Antonello, A. (2018). The Southern Ocean. In Armitage D. (Ed.), Oceanic Histories (296-318). Cambridge University Press. Candido, M. (2011). South Atlantic. In Burnard, T. (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History, Oxford University Press. Caspers, H. (1965). Van Mieghem, J. and Van Oye, P (Eds), Biogeography and Ecology in Antarctica. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers. Lewis, M.W. (1999). “Dividing the Ocean Sea.” Geographical Review 89 (2), 188-214. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1931-0846.1999.tb00213.x International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (1953): Limits of Oceans and Seas, International Hydrographic Organization., Bremerhaven. https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/29772/ International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (2002): Limits of Oceans and Seas , International Hydrographic Organization (DRAFT), Monaco.
How This River Made Chimps Violent How This River Made Chimps Violent
3 months ago En
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan plus 1 additional month free. When a group of apes got split apart, slight differences in their new environments led to big differences in future generations. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chimpanzee: A great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Bonobo: A slightly smaller great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Speciation: A lineage-splitting event in which a population of the same species becomes two different species. Allopatric speciation: Speciation that occurs when populations of the same species get isolated geographically. Hominini: The taxonomical classification that includes humans, chimps, and bonobos. Pan: The taxonomical classification that includes chimps and bonobos. Chimpobo: A name we just made up to identify the common ancestor of the chimpanzee and bonobo. Congo river: The deepest river in the world and the second largest (behind the Amazon) in discharge volume. G-G Rubbing: A form of genital to genital contact bonobos sometimes use to form social bonds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder VHS Rewind effect based on footage by http://www.anfx.co ___________________________________________ References: Caswell, J., Mallick, S., Richter, D., Neubauer, J., Schirmer, C., Gnerre, S., Reich, D. (2008). Analysis of Chimpanzee History Based on Genome Sequence Alignments. PLoS Genetics. 4(4): e1000057. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Prufer, K. et al (2012). The Bonobo Genome Compared with the Chimpanzee and Human Genomes. Nature. 486: 527–531. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11128. Hey, J. (2010). The Divergence of Chimpanzee Species and Subspecies as Revealed in Multipopulation Isolation-with-Migration Analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27(4): 921-933. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877540/. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Stanford, C. (2019). Personal Communication. Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, University of Southern California.
The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World
4 months ago En
Get your first audiobook and two Audible Originals for free when you try Audible for 30 days visit https://www.audible.com/minuteearth or text “minuteearth” to 500-500! Bamboo is the world’s fastest growing plant thanks to the cell elongation process it shares with all grasses and its unique cell wall layering adaptation, allowing it to shoot up to 100 ft (30m) in just 8 weeks. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Rhizome: a continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and roots at intervals Vacuole: an organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid, whose main purpose in plants is to maintain pressure against the cell wall Microfibrils: fiber-like strands consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose that make up the cell wall structure Auxin: a plant hormone which causes the elongation of cells in shoots and is involved in regulating plant growth ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Fastest growing plant record - https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/fastest-growing-plant Grass: An Introduction - https://lizzieharper.co.uk/2018/06/grass-an-introduction/ Bamboo Shoot Timelapse - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77Pgqf0rTbY _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Narrator, Script Writer, and Co-Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator and Co-Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Velasquez, Silvia Melina, et al. "Auxin and cellular elongation." Plant Physiology 170.3 (2016): 1206-1215. Nonami, Hiroshi. "Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials." Journal of Plant Research 111.3 (1998): 373-382. Wei, Qiang, et al. "Cellular and molecular characterizations of a slow-growth variant provide insights into the fast growth of bamboo." Tree physiology 38.4 (2018): 641-654. Li, Long, et al. "The association of hormone signalling genes, transcription and changes in shoot anatomy during moso bamboo growth." Plant biotechnology journal 16.1 (2018): 72-85. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, Gunnar Kleist, and Richard J. Murphy. "Developmental changes in cell wall structure of phloem fibres of the bamboo Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of Botany 94.4 (2004): 497-505. Gamuyao, Rico, et al. "Hormone distribution and transcriptome profiles in bamboo shoots provide insights on bamboo stem emergence and growth." Plant and Cell Physiology 58.4 (2017): 702-716. Wysocki, William P., et al. "Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 50. Cosgrove, Daniel J. "Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening." F1000Research 5 (2016). Lodish, Harvey, et al. "Molecular cell biology 4th edition." National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bookshelf (2000). Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine. "Cellular responses to auxin: division versus expansion." Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2.5 (2010): a001446. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, and Richard J. Murphy. "Ultrastructure of fibre and parenchyma cell walls during early stages of culm development in Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of botany 95.4 (2005): 619-629. Lybeer, Bieke, et al. "Lignification and cell wall thickening in nodes of Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens and Phyllostachys nigra." Annals of botany 97.4 (2006): 529-539. Tsuyama, Taku, et al. "Lignification in developing culms of bamboo Sinobambusa tootsik." Journal of Wood Science 63.6 (2017): 551-559. Gibert, Anaïs, et al. "On the link between functional traits and growth rate: meta‐analysis shows effects change with plant size, as predicted." Journal of Ecology 104.5 (2016): 1488-1503.
How To Turn Poop Into Power How To Turn Poop Into Power
4 months ago En
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan and an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. We could generate a lot of usable energy from human and animal poop through greater adoption of a process for using microbes to break down poop into methane gas. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anaerobic digestion: a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen Methanogens: a methane-producing bacterium, especially an archaean which reduces carbon dioxide to methane Wastewater treatment: a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused Biogas: the mixture of gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter, primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide, which can be used as a renewable energy source ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andriani, Dian, et al. "A review of recycling of human excreta to energy through biogas generation: Indonesia case." Energy Procedia 68 (2015): 219-225. Karki, Amrit B. "Biogas as renewable energy from organic waste." Journal (2009). Hatchett, Allison N. "Bovines and Global Warming: How the Cows are Heating Things Up and What Can Be Done to Cool Them Down." Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 29 (2004): 767. Onojo, O. J., et al. "Estimation of the electric power potential of human waste using students hostel soak-away pits." American Journal of Engineering Research, 02 (9) (2013): 198-203. “RCA Issue Brief #7.” Animal Manure Management, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Dec. 1997, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211#table1. “Electricity Generation from Biogas.” Energypedia, https://energypedia.info/wiki/Electricity_Generation_from_Biogas.
You Have More Bones Than You Think You Have More Bones Than You Think
5 months ago En
Go to https://www.curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free! Because the ossification process can differ so much from human to human, we have a wide range of potential bone numbers. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cartilage: The flexible connective tissue that is turned to bone by osteoblasts. Osteoblasts: Cells that control calcium and mineral deposition to turn cartilage into bone. Sesamoids: Bones embedded in tendons or muscles. Fabella: A large sesamoid bone occasionally found behind the knee joint. Coccyx: The small set of semi-fused triangular bones at the end of the vertebral column. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Director and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Goldberg I, Nathan H. (1987). Anatomy and pathology of the sesamoid bones. The hand compared to the foot. International Orthopaedics. 11(2):141-7. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610408. Vineet K. Sarin Gregory M. Erickson Nicholas J. Giori A. Gabrielle Bergman Dennis R. Carter (2003). Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. The Anatomical Record.5: 174-180. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0185%2819991015%29257%3A5%3C174%3A%3AAID-AR6%3E3.0.CO%3B2-O. Tao Sun, Lingxiang Wang, Haitao Zhao,Wenjuan Wu,and Wenhai Hu (2016). Prevalence, morphological variation and ossification of sesamoid bones of the forefoot: a retrospective radiographic study of 8,716 Chinese subjects. 2(3): 91–96. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410651/. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. (1983). Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 65(8): 1116-1124. Retrieved from: https://www.coccyx.org/medabs/posta.htm. Meals, Roy. (2019). Personal Communication. http://www.AboutBone.com
Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market
5 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10. Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320. Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B) Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website. http://arb.umn.edu/horticultural-research-center/fruit-breeding Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. usapple.org 42 pages Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005. https://doi.org/10.20900/cbgg20190005 Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.
Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is
5 months ago En
Go to https://curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free! Experts can't agree on the definition of the term "concussion," which makes it difficult to diagnose, treat, and research this important brain injury. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes) Traumatic brain injury (TBI): a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury Subdural hematoma: a collection of blood between the layers of tissue that surround the brain Cerebral microbleeding: small chronic brain hemorrhages which are likely caused by structural abnormalities of the small vessels of the brain ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Everything we know about concussions is wrong – https://qz.com/1136683/everything-we-know-about-concussions-is-wrong/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Rasmussen, Carly, et al. "How Dangerous Are Youth Sports for the Brain: A Review of the Evidence." Berkeley J. Ent. & Sports L. 7 (2018): 67. - https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=bjesl Shen, Francis X. "Are youth sports concussion statutes working." Duq. L. Rev. 56 (2018): 7. - https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3172294 Sharp, David J., and Peter O. Jenkins. "Concussion is confusing us all." Practical neurology 15.3 (2015): 172-186. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453625/ Tator, Charles H. "Concussions and their consequences: current diagnosis, management and prevention." CMAJ 185.11 (2013): 975-979. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735746/ Whitelaw, A. S., and I. Young. "A case of perilymphatic fistula in blunt head injury." Emergency medicine journal 22.12 (2005): 921-921. - https://emj.bmj.com/content/22/12/921 Mason, Peggy. “Concussion Is a Counter-Productive Term: Let's Retire It.” The Brain Is Sooooo Cool!, 5 July 2015, https://thebrainissocool.com/2015/07/05/concussion-is-a-counter-productive-term-lets-retire-it/ Haller, Sven, et al. "Cerebral microbleeds: imaging and clinical significance." Radiology 287.1 (2018): 11-28. - https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2018170803 Goldenbaum, Ellen. “Is It Really a Concussion? Symptoms Overlap with Neck Injuries, Making Diagnosis a Tough Call.” UB News Center, 29 July 2014, http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2014/07/040.html
The Great Acceleration The Great Acceleration
6 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ We’re in the middle of a rapid, unprecedented, and world-changing increase in the intensity and scale of human activity on this planet. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: The Great Acceleration - the dramatic increase in human activity, largely since 1950, that is evident across a variety of socio-economic and biophysical measures, and that has made humans into a planetary scale force The Anthropocene - our current geological epoch (contested), beginning when humans first had significant impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems Hockey stick graph - typically refers to the Mann et al 1999 graph of Earth’s temperature, but can also refer to any trend that's roughly constant for a long duration and then has a drastic upwards shift ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Welcome to the Anthropocene film - https://vimeo.com/39048998 Animated map of last 200,000 years of human population - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUwmA3Q0_OE The history of emissions and the Great Acceleration - https://skepticalscience.com/EmmissionsAcceleration.html The Hockey Stick Controversy - https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/05/the-hockey-stick-the-most-controversial-chart-in-science-explained/275753/ An argument for 'why growth can’t be green’ - https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/12/why-growth-cant-be-green/# Can we stabilize Earth, or are we going to cross planetary thresholds? - www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1810141115 An attainable global vision for conservation and human well-being - https://www.nature.org/content/dam/tnc/nature/en/documents/TNC_AnAttainableGlobalVision_Frontiers.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Director and Illustrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hockey stick graph: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T_comp_61-90.pdf by Klaus Bittermann. Used with permission. Copper graph based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_copper#/media/File:Copper_-_world_production_trend.svg Life expectancy graph: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy CO2 graph: https://rateofchange.substack.com/p/the-rate-of-change-july-15-2019 Girl receiving oral polio vaccine: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/8190819087 No changes were made. ___________________________________________ References: Barnosky, A. D., et al. 2014. Introducing the scientific consensus on maintaining humanity’s life support systems in the 21st century: Information for policy makers. The Anthropocene Review, 1(1), 78-109. http://bit.ly/34rguHz IGPB. 2015. Great Acceleration. http://www.igbp.net/globalchange/greatacceleration.4.1b8ae20512db692f2a680001630.html Accessed Aug 2019. Hellmann, J. Aug 2019. Personal communication. Mann, M. E., et al. 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 759-762. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/1999GL900070. McNeill, J.R. Oct 2019. Personal communication. McNeill, J. R. 2001. Something new under the sun: An environmental history of the twentieth-century world (the global century series). WW Norton & Company. Roser, M. 2019. Life Expectancy. Our World In Data. https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy Accessed Sept 2019. Phillipon, D. Aug 2019. Personal communication. Polasky, S. Sept 2019. Personal communication. Steffen, W. et al. 2015. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: the great acceleration. The Anthropocene Review, 2(1), 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2053019614564785 Thompson et al. 2009. Our plastic age. 364. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0054
Can AI Help Us Identify Animals? Can AI Help Us Identify Animals?
6 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ New technology has revolutionized how we study wild animals, but it has also bogged down scientists with data...luckily, there's an *intelligent* solution. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Deep learning: a subset of machine learning in artificial intelligence that can learning from data that is unstructured or unlabeled ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Take a look at the Snapshot Serengeti colletion and try your hand at classifying species, counting animals, and determining behaviors: https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/snapshot-serengeti Learn about the whale shark project and report your sightings: https://www.whaleshark.org/ Explore underwater recordings of humpback whales and make your own discoveries: https://patternradio.withgoogle.com/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor, Video Director and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: All the photos of the savannah by the SnapshotSerengeti Project https://snapshotserengeti.org Sogod Bay Whale Shark video by Miguel Hilario https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=husPSPJv80o ___________________________________________ References: Duporge I, Isupova O, and Reece S (2019, April 4) Using Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning to Detect and Monitor Elephants. https://blog.hexagongeospatial.com/using-satellite-imagery-and-machine-learning-to-detect-and-monitor-elephants/ Norouzzadeh MS, Nguyen A, Kosmala M, Swanson A, Palmer MS, Packer C, and Clune J (2018). Automatically identifying, counting, and describing wild animals in camera-trap images with deep learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (25): E5716-E5725. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/37298550/6016780.pdf?sequence=1 Packer C, personal communication (2019, September 12). Swanson AB, Kosmala M, Lintott CJ, Simpson RJ, Smith A, Packer C (2015) Snapshot Serengeti, high-frequency annotated camera trap images of 40 mammalian species in an African savanna. Scientific Data 2: 150026. https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201526 Wildbook for Whale Sharks. https://www.whaleshark.org/
Smartphones: A New Model for Energy Efficiency? Smartphones: A New Model for Energy Efficiency?
6 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The way smartphones made many devices nonessential is a model for a new way to think about improving energy efficiency. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Dematerialization - using less (or no) material to deliver the same service Energy conservation - using less energy by adjusting behavior (turning down your heat) Energy efficiency - using less energy by using technology that requires less energy to perform the same function (insulating your house to keep warm while using less energy) Energy intensity - energy consumption per unit of GDP (reduced by increasing energy efficiency) Energy services - the useful functions you're able to perform by using energy (what we refer to as ‘function’) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Phones are great for the environment https://www.wired.com/story/iphone-environment-consumption/ Nope, phones are bad for the environment https://theconversation.com/how-smartphones-are-heating-up-the-planet-92793 Amory Lovins on ‘integrative design’ (watch the video abstract) - https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aad965/meta The US would use 85% more energy if it weren’t for efficiency efforts since the 1970s https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/energy-environment/308170-cheap-clean-and-easily-accessible-an-energy-resource US energy intensity has halved since 1970 https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=10191 This chart shows just how much energy the US is wasting https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/05/visualizing-u-s-energy-consumption-in-one-chart _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Belkhir, L., & Elmeligi, A. 2018. Assessing ICT global emissions footprint: Trends to 2040 & recommendations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 448-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.239 Bento, N. 2016. Calling for change? Innovation, diffusion, and the energy impacts of global mobile telephony. Energy Research & Social Science, 21, 84-100. https://repositorio.iscte-iul.pt/bitstream/10071/12732/5/Accepted_manuscript_Jun16.pdf Cullen, J. M., Allwood, J. M., & Borgstein, E. H. 2011. Reducing energy demand: what are the practical limits?. Environmental science & technology, 45(4), 1711-1718. dx.doi.org/10.1021/es102641n Fell, M. J. 2017. Energy services: A conceptual review. Energy research & social science, 27, 129-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2017.02.010 Grubler, A., et al. 2018. A low energy demand scenario for meeting the 1.5 C target and sustainable development goals without negative emission technologies. Nature Energy, 3(6), 515. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0172-6 Lovins, A. B. 2018. How big is the energy efficiency resource?. Environmental Research Letters, 13(9), 090401. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aad965/meta Popovich, N. March 8, 2019. America’s Light Bulb Revolution. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/03/08/climate/light-bulb-efficiency.html Suckling, J., & Lee, J. 2015. Redefining scope: the true environmental impact of smartphones?. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20(8), 1181-1196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-015-0909-4 Visitor’s Guide. August 2007. Rocky Mountain Institute. https://d231jw5ce53gcq.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Locations_LovinsHome_Visitors_Guide_2007.pdf
The Best Dragon (According to Science) The Best Dragon (According to Science)
7 months ago En
Check out Extra Credits' video: The Origin of Dragons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rL8qSfXIo4M We ranked dragons based on how biologically and evolutionarily plausible they are. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Tetrapods: four-limbed (with a few exceptions, such as snakes which have vestigial limbs) animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: What Happened to Smaug's Other Legs? 'Hobbit' FX Expert Explains http://www.mtv.com/news/1719502/smaug-hobbit-fx-explained/ How to fly your dragon, Journal of Physics Special topics https://journals.le.ac.uk/ojs1/index.php/pst/article/view/870/802 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Tennekes, H. (2009). The simple science of flight: from insects to jumbo jets. MIT press. Azuma, A., Azuma, S., Watanabe, I., & Furuta, T. (1985). Flight mechanics of a dragonfly. Journal of experimental biology, 116(1), 79-107. Habib, M. (2013). Constraining the air giants: limits on size in flying animals as an example of constraint-based biomechanical theories of form. Biological Theory, 8(3), 245-252.
How Much Air Can A Tree Hold? #TeamTrees How Much Air Can A Tree Hold? #TeamTrees
7 months ago En
🌲🌲🌲 Go to https://teamtrees.org 🌲🌲🌲 Let's plant some trees! #TeamTrees Trees can take an astounding amount of carbon out of the air, which is good, because we need to do that times a trillion. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: carbon: element that makes up half of tree wood by weight ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexreich) and Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Le Quéré, C et al. Global Carbon Budget 2018. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194, 2018 JF Bastin, JF et al.The global tree restoration potential. Science 365 (6448), 76-79 Pillsbury NH; ML Kirkley. 1984. Equations for total, wood, and saw-log volume for thirteen California hardwoods. Res. Note PNW-RN-414. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p B. W. Griscom et al. 2017. Natural Climate Solutions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 11645–11650. Roe S et al. 2019. Contributon of the land sector to a 1.5C world. Nature Climate Change (in press)
Why Are Adults Bad At New Languages? Why Are Adults Bad At New Languages?
7 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Learning a new language as an adult is harder than doing so as a child because adults usually aren’t as invested and often use the wrong strategies. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Second-Language Acquisition: The process of a language that’s not the speaker’s native language. Bilingualism: The ability to speak and understand two languages. Monitor Model: A group of hypotheses that propose that linguistic competence is only advanced when language is subconsciously acquired. Sociolinguistics: The study of language in relation to all sorts of social factors. Linguistic Investment: A motivation to learn a language based on the understanding that the speaker will acquire a wider range of symbolic and material resources, which will in turn increase the value of their cultural capital and social power. Hyperpolyglot: A person who can speak and understand more than six languages. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Editor and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hartshorne, J., Tenenbaum, J., and Pinker, S. (2018). A critical period for second language acquisition: Evidence from 2/3 million English speakers. Cognition. 177: 263-277. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027718300994 Bigelow, M., and Tarone, E. (2004). The Role of Literacy Level in Second Language Acquisition: Doesn't Who We Study Determine What We Know? TESOL Quarterly. 38(4): 689-700. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3588285?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Darvin, R. and Norton, B. (2015). Identity and a Model of Investment in Applied Linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 35: 36-56. Retrieved from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics/article/identity-and-a-model-of-investment-in-applied-linguistics/91EE4C7572272B233A16286768E0E5B8. Pierce, B. (2015). Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning. TESOL Quarterly. 29(1): 9-31. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3587803?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents. Derakshan, A. (2015). The Interference of First Language and Second Language Acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 5(10):2112-211. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283524046_The_Interference_of_First_Language_and_Second_Language_Acquisition. Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472. Bigelow, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Department of Curriculum and Instruction. University of Minnesota. Paesani, K. (2019). Personal Communication. The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. University of Minnesota.
How The Modern World Tricks Our Bodies Into Hurting Themselves How The Modern World Tricks Our Bodies Into Hurting Themselves
7 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The same enzyme that used to save us is now killing us because the body reactions it catalyzes now cause more harm than good. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cyclooxygenase: An enzyme responsible for the production of thromboxane and prostaglandins. Thromboxane: A lipid that acts as a platelet aggregator. Platelets: Special non-nucleic blood cells that clump together to cause blood clots. Prostaglandins: A lipid that causes vasodilation and inflammation. Aspirin: A form of acetylsalicylic acid that acts as an NSAID. NSAIDs: Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs that inhibit COX, and thus inflammation and clotting. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer and Narrator: David Goldenberg Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman Video Directors: David Goldenberg and Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich and Julián Gómez Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fitzpatrick, F. (2004). Cyclooxygenase Enzymes: Regulation and Function.Current Pharmaceutical Design. 10:577-588. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965321. Dubois, R., Abramson, S., Crofford, L., Gupta, R., Simon, L., Van De Putte, L., Lipsky, P. (1998). Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. The FASEB Journal 212(12):1063-73. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9737710. Havird, J., Kocot, K., Brannock, P., Cannon, J., Waits, D., Weese, D., Santos, S., Halanych, K. (2015). Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity. 80(3-4):193-208. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25758350. Ricciotti, E. and FitzGerald, G. (2011).Prostaglandins and Inflammation. ATVB In Focs. 31(5): 986–1000. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081099/. Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472. Van't Hof, J., Duval, S., Misialek, J., Oldenburg, N., Jones, C., Eder, M., Luepker, R. (2019). Aspirin Use for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in an African American Population: Prevalence and Associations with Health Behavior Beliefs. Journal of Community Health. 44(3):561-568. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30895416. Leupker, R. (2019). Personal Communication. Minnesota Heart Health Program. University of Minnesota. Chipman, J. (2019). Personal Communication. Department of Surgery. University of Minnesota.
Why Exercise Is Hard Why Exercise Is Hard
8 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Because exercise isn't essential for short-term survival, we don't exercise enough, so we need to reincorporate purposeful physical activity into our lives. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Physical activity - any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level Exercise - a form of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and performed (primarily) with the goal of improving health or fitness Recommended levels of physical activity (USA) - 150 minutes moderate-intensity or 75 minutes vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination, and muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days / week Evolutionary medicine - a field that uses evolutionary theory & data to better understand (the origins of) health & disease Mismatch conditions - health conditions that are more prevalent or severe today than in the past because the body is inadequately or insufficiently adapted to modern environmental conditions (likely including: cavities, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Forget Exercise. For Better Health, We Need Better Cities - https://qz.com/quartzy/1615436/the-solution-to-make-america-physically-active/ Magazine article about why exercise is hard - https://harvardmagazine.com/2016/09/born-to-rest On an individual level, psychology is involved, too: https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/maybe-youd-exercise-more-if-it-didnt-feel-so-crappy/ Americans aren’t getting the message about exercising more & sitting less - https://time.com/5635730/exercise-sitting-data/ What healthy living and fixing climate change have in common - https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2019/05/planetary-health-and-12-years-to-act/ The wonder drug that's free - https://bit.ly/2lHAjsI How to live to be 100+ (TED Talk) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ff40YiMmVkU _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Booth, F. W., et al. 2017. Role of inactivity in chronic diseases: evolutionary insight and pathophysiological mechanisms. Physiological reviews, 97(4), 1351-1402. https://bit.ly/2kEl4Ay Ding, D., et al. 2016. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases. The Lancet, 388(10051), 1311-1324. https://bit.ly/2kfGVy8 Hoed, M. D., et al. 2013. Heritability of objectively assessed daily physical activity and sedentary behavior. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 98(5), 1317-1325. https://bit.ly/2lNxeHk Lee, I. M., et al. 2012. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219-229. https://bit.ly/2ER2cT4 Lee, H. H., et al. 2016. The exercise–affect–adherence pathway: an evolutionary perspective. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1285. https://bit.ly/2maYy2E Lewis, B. A., personal communication. May 2019. Lewis, B. A., et al. 2014. A randomized trial examining a physical activity intervention for the prevention of postpartum depression: the healthy mom trial. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7(1), 42-49. https://bit.ly/2m9Xa0e Lieberman, D. E. 2015. Is exercise really medicine? An evolutionary perspective. Current sports medicine reports, 14(4), 313-319. https://bit.ly/2xuQtFU Rhodes, R. E., et al. 2018. Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://bit.ly/2kaPBpk US Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2Q1eF09 US Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. 2018 Physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2FmVa9p WHO. 2019. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity. Accessed May 2019. https://bit.ly/2TLLSuw
The Secret Global Sewer System The Secret Global Sewer System
9 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Ditches and drain pipes help crops survive but can negatively impact the broader landscape. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. __________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Waterlog - to saturate (a field) with water; a problem for most crops Drainage - the removal of liquid (water) from an area Ditch - a narrow channel dug in the ground, typically used for drainage alongside a road or the edge of a field Drain tile - a pipe buried (beneath a field) for drainage. Originally made of ceramic tiles, now typically of corrugated plastic Precision agriculture - putting corn seed + small dose of fertilizer/pesticides in hole in ground Controlled drainage - the use of a water control structure to raise the depth of a drain tile outlet to hold water in the field when drainage isn't needed Wood chip bioreactor - an underground trench filled with wood chips that provide carbon for bacteria that denitrify the water flowing through it Saturated buffer - a strip on the edge of a field filled with plants & bacteria that can remove some nitrogen from the water flowing onto it from drain tiles Denitrification - the removal of nitrogen from a substance (soil, air, or water) by chemical reduction, typically via bacteria Wetland - an area of land where water covers the soil year-round or at certain times of year Ecosystem services - the free benefits humans get from natural ecosystems ________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why plant roots need oxygen: https://bit.ly/2kgD0Be Restored wetlands don’t recover their original ecosystem functions: https://bit.ly/2VrccKK A guide to agricultural drainage: https://bit.ly/2jX1ChZ ________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Aerial view of treatment wetlands - Photo by David Hansen ________________________________________ References: Christianson, L.E. & Helmers, M.J., 2011. Woodchip Bioreactors for Nitrate in Agricultural Drainage. Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications. 85. https://bit.ly/2kdXPx7 Davidson, N. C. 2014. How much wetland has the world lost? Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. Marine and Freshwater Research, 65(10), 934-941. https://bit.ly/2lwLUKW Davidson, N. C., Fluet-Chouinard, E., & Finlayson, C. M. 2018. Global extent and distribution of wetlands: trends and issues. Marine and Freshwater Research, 69(4), 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17019 Discovery Farms MN. November 2016. Controlling Nutrient Loss in Tile Systems. https://bit.ly/2lTi8QI Dolph, C. Pers. comm. June 2019 Erb, K. H., et al. 2017. Land management: data availability and process understanding for global change studies. Global change biology, 23(2), 512-533. https://bit.ly/2kgs7zn Feick, S., Siebert, S., & Döll, P. 2005. A digital global map of artificially drained agricultural areas. https://bit.ly/2ksM3if Finlay, J. Pers. comm. June 2019 Foufoula‐Georgiou, E., et al. 2015. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions. Water Resources Research, 51(8), 6649-6671. https://bit.ly/2lu6Su7 Hansen, A. T., Dolph, C. L., Foufoula-Georgiou, E., & Finlay, J. C. 2018. Contribution of wetlands to nitrate removal at the watershed scale. Nature Geoscience, 11(2), 127. https://bit.ly/2lQe9nY IPBES. 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. S. Díaz, et al. (eds.). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. Pg 11-12. https://bit.ly/2WX4c4U Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2QYNd0v Mustroph, A. 2018. Improving flooding tolerance of crop plants. Agronomy, 8(9), 160. https://bit.ly/2k1jzfu
The Optimal Way To Browse The Internet The Optimal Way To Browse The Internet
9 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The decisions we make while we browse the internet are suprisingly similar to the ones animals make as they forage for food...here's why. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Optimality models: tools used to evaluate the costs and benefits of different organismal features, traits, and characteristics, including behavior, in the natural world. Optimal foraging theory: a behavioral ecology model that helps predict how an animal behaves when searching for food. Marginal value theorem: an optimality model that describes the strategy that maximizes gain per unit time in systems where resources, and thus rate of returns, decrease with time. Central place foraging: a model for analyzing how an organism traveling from a home base to a distant foraging location can maximize foraging rates. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Narrator, & Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chi, EH, Pirolli, P, and Pitkow, J. (2000) The scent of a site: A system for analyzing and predicting information scent, usage, and usability of a web site. In: ACM CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.42.7499&rep=rep1&type=pdf Fu, W and Pirolli, P. (2007) SNIF-ACT: a cognitive model of user navigation on the world wide web. Human-Computer Interactions 22(4), 355-412. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0d96/d03cf822ea1584b468389b3f4bc39164d85f.pdf Hayden, BY (2018) Economic choice: The foraging perspective. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 24: 1–6. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/economic-choice-the-foraging-perspective Hayden, BY, Pearson, JM, and Platt, ML. (2011) Neuronal basis of sequential foraging decisions in a patchy environment. Nature Neuroscience 14: 933-939 https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.2856 Hall-McMaster, S and Luyckx F. (2019) Revisiting foraging approaches in neuroscience. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 19 (2): 225-230. https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13415-018-00682-z Pyke, G and Stephens, DW. (2019) Optimal foraging theory: application and inspiration in human endeavors outside biology. In JC Choe (ed.), Encyclopedia of animal behavior . 2nd edn, vol. 2, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 217-222. https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/optimal-foraging-theory-application-and-inspiration-in-human-ende Van Koppen, PJ and Jansen, RWJ. (1998) The road to robbery: Travel patterns in commercial robberies . British Journal of Criminology 38: 230-246. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Koppen/publication/270802169_The_road_to_the_robbery_Travel_patterns_in_commercial_robberies/links/569e080008ae950bd7a81fc2/The-road-to-the-robbery-Travel-patterns-in-commercial-robberies.pdf
Our Best View Of Bacteria Is...From Space?! Our Best View Of Bacteria Is...From Space?!
9 months ago En Ru
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Observing the effects of microbes using satellites can give us all sorts of useful information about life on Earth ... and other planets too. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. And thanks to researchers from the University of Wisconsin and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln who help generate airborne data used in Professor Jeannine Cavender-Bares' studies. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Microbe - an organism (such as a bacterium or protozoan) of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size. Remote sensing - the scanning of the earth , especially by satellite or high-flying aircraft, in order to obtain information about it. Pathogen - a bacterium, virus, or other microbe that can cause disease. Chlorophyll - a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Phytoplankton - photosynthesizing microscopic biotic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. Cholera - an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Evaporite - a natural salt or mineral deposit left after the evaporation of a body of water. Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) - primary sedimentary structures formed by the interaction of microbes with sediment and physical agents of erosion, deposition, and transportation. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) Video Director: Julián Gómez, David Goldenberg Video Narrator: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Mirik M, Jones DC, Price JA, Workneh F, Ansley RJ, Rush CM. Satellite remote sensing of wheat infected by wheat streak mosaic virus. Plant Disease. 2011 Jan;95(1):4-12. Lowe A, Harrison N, French AP. Hyperspectral image analysis techniques for the detection and classification of the early onset of plant disease and stress. Plant methods. 2017 Dec;13(1):80. Lobitz B, Beck L, Huq A, Wood B, Fuchs G, Faruque AS, Colwell R. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2000 Feb 15;97(4):1438-43. de Magny GC, Mozumder PK, Grim CJ, Hasan NA, Naser MN, Alam M, Sack RB, Huq A, Colwell RR. Role of zooplankton diversity in Vibrio cholerae population dynamics and in the incidence of cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 2011 Sep 1;77(17):6125-32. Colwell RR. Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science. 1996 Dec 20;274(5295):2025-31. Lausch A, Erasmi S, King D, Magdon P, Heurich M. Understanding forest health with remote sensing-part II—a review of approaches and data models. Remote Sensing. 2017 Feb 5;9(2):129. Meng J, Li S, Wang W, Liu Q, Xie S, Ma W. Mapping forest health using spectral and textural information extracted from spot-5 satellite images. Remote Sensing. 2016 Aug 31;8(9):719. Baldridge AM, Farmer JD, Moersch JE. Mars remote‐sensing analog studies in the Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 2004 Dec;109(E12). Barbieri R, Stivaletta N. Continental evaporites and the search for evidence of life on Mars. Geological Journal. 2011 Nov;46(6):513-24. Crowley JK, Hook SJ. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 1996 Jan 10;101(B1):643-60. Noffke N. Ancient sedimentary structures in the [less than] 3.7 Ga Gillespie Lake Member, Mars, that resemble macroscopic morphology, spatial associations, and temporal succession in terrestrial microbialites. Astrobiology. 2015 Feb 1;15(2):169-92. Landis GA. Searching for life: the case for Halobacteria on Mars. InAIP Conference Proceedings 2001 Feb 2 (Vol. 552, No. 1, pp. 25-28). AIP.
The Bacteria That Made Life Possible Are Now Killing Us The Bacteria That Made Life Possible Are Now Killing Us
10 months ago En
Aquatic cyanobacteria first oxygenated earth’s air, making human life possible; now, due to our actions, cyanobacteria are madly blooming once more, poisoning our coasts in the process Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cyanobacteria: aquatic photosynthesizing bacteria often erroneously call blue-green algae Blue-green algae: incorrect name often used for cyanobacteria because they are blue-green in appearance and can be confused with algae Dead zone: coastal area where cyanobacteria blooms lead to anaerobic conditions, killing fish and other organisms Mycrosystins: a class of toxic compounds released by certain cyanobacteria ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bargu S et al. Mississippi River diversions and phytoplankton dynamics in deltaic Gulf of Mexico estuaries: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 221:39-52 (2019). Berman-Frank I, Lundgren P, Falkowski P. Nitrogen fixation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution in cyanobacteria. Research in Microbiology 154, 157–164 (2003) Carey CC et al. Eco-physiological adaptations that favour freshwater cyanobacteria in a changing climate. Water Research 46, 1394-1407 (2012) Garcia AK et al. Reconstructed ancestral enzymes suggest long-term cooling of Earth’s photic zone since the Archean. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:4619-4624 (2017) Glass JB, Wolfe-Simon F, Anbar AD. Coevolution of metal availability and nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria and algae. Geobiology 7, 100-123 (2009). Lyons TW, CT Reinhard, NJ Planavsky. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere Nature 506, 307–315 (2014). Planavsky NJ et al. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. Nature 467, 1088-1090 (2010) Soo RM et al. On the origins of oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration in Cyanobacteria. Science 355, 1436–1440 (2017) Tromas N et al. Characterising and predicting cyanobacterial blooms in an 8-year amplicon sequencing time course. ISME J 11:1746-1763 (2017)
The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning
10 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The technology we use to keep cool is heating the world in a vicious feedback cycle, so we need to improve it and use it less. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with this keyword: Refrigerant - a substance used in air conditioners & refrigerators for its ability to change phases and transfer heat ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: How AC changed the world: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-39735802 People use AC to make their homes feel like Africa: http://bit.ly/2Y9fOH3 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Video Narrator: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: European Commission. Climate-friendly alternatives to HFCs. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/alternatives_en Accessed May 2019. Gunawardena, K. R., et al. 2017. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity. Science of the Total Environment, 584, 1040-1055. http://bit.ly/2GbBuHY Graves, R. Pers. comm. May 2019. International Energy Agency. 2017. Space cooling: More access, more comfort, less energy. https://www.iea.org International Energy Agency. 2018. The Future of Cooling: Opportunities for energy- efficient air conditioning. https://www.iea.org/futureofcooling/ International Institute of Refrigeration. Nov 2017. The impact of the refrigeration sector on climate change. http://bit.ly/30A56Xh Keeler, B. L., et al. 2019. Social-ecological and technological factors moderate the value of urban nature. Nature Sustainability, 2(1), 29. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-018-0202-1 Ministry of the Environment, Japan. 2016. Recovery, Recycling & Destruction of CFC, HCFC, & HFC. https://www.env.go.jp/en/earth/ozone/leaf2016/04.pdf Pakbaznia, E., & Pedram, M. 2009. Minimizing data center cooling and server power costs. In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM/IEEE international symposium on Low power electronics and design (pp. 145-150). http://bit.ly/2JDL5bN Reardon, C. & Clarke, R. 2013. Passive cooling. Australian Government: Your Home. http://bit.ly/2LNMmj7 Sachar, S., et al. 2018. Solving the Global Cooling Challenge: How to Counter the Climate Threat from Room Air Conditioners. Rocky Mountain Institute. www.rmi.org/insight/solving_the_global_cooling_challenge Sadineni, S. B., et al. 2011. Passive building energy savings: A review of building envelope components. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 15(8), 3617-3631. http://bit.ly/2G9uGec Sivak, M. 2013. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami. ERL, 8(1), 014050. http://bit.ly/2SbyOix Zhang, X., & Caldeira, K. 2015. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. GRL, 42(11), 4548-4555. http://bit.ly/2LS8id0 Zhao, L., et al. 2015. Reduction of potential greenhouse gas emissions of room air-conditioner refrigerants: a life cycle carbon footprint analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 100, 262-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.063
Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage
11 months ago En
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth to get 75% off a 3 year plan and use code MINUTEEARTH for an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. Basic research can seem wasteful, but it's actually a great economic investment. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Evoniuk, G, Kuhn, and C Schanberg, SM. (1979) The effect of tactile stimulation on serum growth hormone and tissue ornithine decarboxylase activity during maternal deprivation in rat pups. Communications in Psychopharmacology 3:363–370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/548216 Field T, Diego M, and M Hernandez-Reif (2010) Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review. Infant Behavioral Development 33: 115-124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844909/ Jones, CI, and JC Williams (1998) Measuring the Social Return to R&D. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(5): 1119-1135. https://academic.oup.com/qje/article-abstract/113/4/1119/1916988?redirectedFrom=fulltext Press, WH. (2013) What's So Special about Science (And How Much Should We Spend on It?), Science 342: 817-822. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/817.full Salter, AJ and BR Martin. (2001) The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: a critical review. Research Policy 30:509-532. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048733300000913 Schanberg SM, Evoniuk G and CM Kuhn. (1984) Tactile and nutritional aspects of maternal care. specific regulators of neuroendocrine function and cellular development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 175, 135–146. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-175-41779?journalCode=ebma
How to Turn Cancer Against Itself How to Turn Cancer Against Itself
11 months ago En
This video was made in partnership with the Swiss National Science Foundation. To see more videos about the importance of basic research, go to https://www.youtube.com/SNSFinfo ↓↓↓ Or watch the THREE OTHER VIDEOS we made with SNSF↓↓↓ What’s intelligent about artificial intelligence? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR6j9TLZdAw Why kids skip school (& what to do about it) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-MwcsyMk2k Why you should abandon some of your dreams - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Qy8pBaugRY Cancer has proven hard to beat, but a promising new type of treatment can use the disease's own powers against it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monoclonal antibodies: antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell Hybridoma: a hybrid cell used as the basis for the production of antibodies in large amounts for diagnostic or therapeutic use ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder __________________________________________ References: Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. B Cells and Antibodies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884/ Ecker DM, Jones SD, Levine HL (2015). The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market. MAbs 7(1): 9-14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4622599/ Kohler, G. and Milstein, C. (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495-497. https://www.nature.com/articles/256495a0
This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants
11 months ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Morocco has 3/4 of the world’s known reserves of rock phosphate, our main source of phosphorus, so Morocco may be key to our long-term ability to grow food. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Phosphorus - a chemical element used in explosives, matches, and fertilizers (as it is a key nutrient for plant growth) Phosphate rock - a sedimentary rock containing high amounts of phosphate minerals - the main source of agricultural P fertilizer Phosphate - a salt or ester of phosphoric acid, containing PO4 -3 or a related anion or a group 4 Rs of Nutrient Management - Right fertilizer source, at the Right rate, at the Right time, and in the Right place Reserve - the part of a resource that could be economically extracted or produced at the moment Resource - a concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the concentration is currently or potentially feasible ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Article about conflict in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2ZjYjQW Radio about Phosphorus mines in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2IFv8kC Magazine about 350th Anniv of Phosphorus Discovery - http://bit.ly/2wLw0i3 ________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor (@jessika_arts) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Amundson, R., et al 2015. Soil and human security in the 21st century. Science, 348(6235), 1261071. http://bit.ly/2R0dRXe Bailey, J. Pers. comm. Feb 2019 Chowdhury, R. B., et al. 2017. Key sustainability challenges for the global phosphorus resource, their implications for global food security, and options for mitigation. J. of Cleaner Prod., 140, 945-963. http://agri.ckcest.cn/ass/NK001-20170130004.pdf CIA. The World Factbook. Country Comparison: Crude Oil - Proved Reserves. Accessed January 2019. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2244rank.html Cooper, J., et al. 2011. The future distribution and production of global phosphate rock reserves. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 57, 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.09.009 Cordell, D., et al. 2009. The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Global env change, 19(2), 292-305. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2014. Life's bottleneck: sustaining the world's phosphorus for a food secure future. Ann Rev of Env & Res, 39, 161-188. 10.1146/annurev-environ-010213-113300 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2015. Tracking phosphorus security: indicators of phosphorus vulnerability in the global food system. Food Sec, 7(2), 337-350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0442-0 Elser, J., & Bennett, E. 2011. Phosphorus cycle: a broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature, 478(7367), 29. http://bit.ly/2WvUark Filippelli, G. M. 2011. Phosphate rock formation and marine phosphorus geochemistry: the deep time perspective. Chemosphere, 84(6), 759-766. http://bit.ly/2X0mTcf MacDonald, G. K., et al. 2011. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands. PNAS, 108(7), 3086-3091. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/108/7/3086.full.pdf Peterson, H. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Rosen, C. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Sattari, S. Z., et al. 2012. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle. PNAS, 109(16), 6348-6353. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/109/16/6348.full.pdf Statista.com. Rare earth reserves worldwide by country 2018. Accessed January 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/277268/rare-earth-reserves-by-country/ Tilman, D., et al. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418(6898), 671. http://bit.ly/2KCL3To NOTE: Venezuela actually has 18% and Saudi Arabia has 16% of global oil reserves, not the other way around
The Secrets of Extreme Breath Holding The Secrets of Extreme Breath Holding
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days here: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. And use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off a yearly membership. Humans can hold our breath longer than we think by taking advantage of our body’s innate survival instincts - and then ignoring them. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Static Apnea: Holding your breath without swimming or moving. Apneist: Someone who competes in apnea-related contests. Fight or Flight Response: A set of physiological responses to a perceived mortal threat. Mammalian Dive Reflex: A set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes. Diaphragm: A strip of skeletal muscles underneath the lungs that contracts and flattens when you inhale. It starts spasming as part of involuntary breathing movements when the body starts to run out of oxygen. Spleen: An organ that primarily acts as a blood filter that can deflate to return blood to the circulatory system. Carbon Dioxide Tension: The increase in CO2 pressure in the blood as oxygen levels fall. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Mike Boyd learns how to hold his breath for 4 minutes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6iyDEWG1CU _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius, Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bain, A., Drvis, I., Dujic, Z., MacLeod, D., Ainslie, P. (2018). Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists. Experimental Physiology. 103 (635-651). Retrieved from: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP086269. Hutchinson, A. (2018). Pushing the Limits of Extreme Breath-Holding. New Yorker. Retrieved from: https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/pushing-the-limits-of-extreme-breath-holding. Panneton, W. M. (2013). The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life? Physiology. 28(5): 284–297. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768097/. Petrović, Branko (2019). Personal Communication. Schagatay E, van Kampen M, Emanuelsson S, Holm B. (2000). Effects of physical and apnea training on apneic time and the diving response in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 82(3) : 161-9. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10929209. Schagatay, Erika (2019). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University
Why Is Lyme Disease Getting Worse? Why Is Lyme Disease Getting Worse?
2 years ago En
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! https://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Lyme disease is spreading like wildfire around the world: here's why. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brunner, J. L., LoGiudice, K., & Ostfeld, R. S. 2008. Estimating reservoir competence of Borrelia burgdorferi hosts: prevalence and infectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. Journal of medical entomology, 45(1), 139-147. http://bit.ly/2ZmxIDP Keesing, F., et al. 2009. Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Bological Sciences, 276(1675), 3911-3919. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rspb.2009.1159 Kilpatrick, A. M. et al. 2017 Lyme disease ecology in a changing world: consensus, uncertainty and critical gaps for improving control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372: 20160117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0117 Magnaval, J. F., et al. 2016. A serological survey about zoonoses in the verkhoyansk area, northeastern siberia (sakha republic, Russian federation). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 16(2), 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1828 Ostfeld, R. S., et al. 2014. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107387. Ostfeld, R. S., Levi, T. , Keesing, F. , Oggenfuss, K. and Canham, C. D. (2018), Tick‐borne disease risk in a forest food web. Ecology, 99: 1562-1573. doi:10.1002/ecy.2386 Robinson, S. J., et al. 2015. Disease risk in a dynamic environment: the spread of tick-borne pathogens in Minnesota, USA. EcoHealth, 12(1), 152-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10393-014-0979-y Scott, J. D. et al. 2017. Lyme disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, detected in multiple tick species at Kenora, Ontario, Canada. J. Bact. Parasitol, 8. http://bit.ly/2ZjOXWd Vandenesch, A., et al. 2014. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(34), 20883. http://bit.ly/2Dn693Q Wu, X. B., et al. 2013. Distribution of tick-borne diseases in China. Parasites & Vectors, 6(1), 119. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-119
Why Can't We Get Power From Waves? Why Can't We Get Power From Waves?
2 years ago En
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ Wave power hasn’t yet made a splash because it’s hard to use waves to spin turbines, and because the sea is a harsh place to build things. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Wave energy converter - a device for turning the mechanical energy of ocean waves into mechanical energy (flow of a substance) or electrical energy Oscillating water column - an open-bottomed chamber filled with air and water, whose wave action moves the water column up and down like a piston, forcing the air out past a turbine Attenuator - a long multisegment floating structure oriented parallel to the direction waves travel, where differing heights of waves along the length of the device flex the connections driving hydraulic pumps that can be connected to turbines Oscillating body - a floating buoy that oscillates with waves, generating electricity within the buoy or by pulling on a generator or by pumping water through a turbine Overtopping device - a reservoir filled by waves to a height higher the average nearby ocean, into which reservoir water is released, spinning a turbine Biofouling - undesirable growth of organisms like barnacles and algae on underwater surfaces Ocean wave - energy passing through water and causing it to move in a circular motion Turbine - a machine for producing continuous power in which a wheel with blades gets hit by a fast-moving flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other fluid, and spins (often connected to a magnet that spins) Induction - the production of an electric current in a wire by movement of a nearby magnetic field ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why Wave Power Has Lagged Far Behind as Energy Source https://e360.yale.edu/features/why_wave_power_has_lagged_far_behind_as_energy_source _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Aderinto, T., & Li, H. 2018. Ocean wave energy converters: Status and challenges. Energies, 11(5), 1250. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/5/1250/pdf Khan, N., Kalair, A., Abas, N., & Haider, A. 2017. Review of ocean tidal, wave and thermal energy technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 590-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.079 Lewis, A., et al. 2011. Ocean Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, et al (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/Chapter-6-Ocean-Energy-1.pdf Pérez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D., & Iglesias, G. 2015. A review of combined wave and offshore wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42, 141-153. 10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.032 Shintake, T. 2016. Harnessing the Power of Breaking Waves. In Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (AWTEC2016) (Vol. 174, pp. 9-13). http://bit.ly/2U0tt1I Shintake, T. March 2019. Personal communication. Tollefson, J. 2014. Power from the oceans: Blue energy. Nature News, 508(7496), 302. https://www.nature.com/articles/508302a Uihlein, A., & Magagna, D. 2016. Wave and tidal current energy–A review of the current state of research beyond technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58, 1070-1081. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115016676 US Department of the Interior. May 2006. Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. https://www.boem.gov/Wave-Energy-White-Paper-2006/ Wang, Z. L. 2017. New wave power. Nature, 542(7640), 159-160. http://bit.ly/2HYE2v5
You Are A Fish You Are A Fish
2 years ago En
We built the Tree of Life Explorer! Check it out here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/Tree-of-Life-Explorer/ And watch our video about why we made it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eE2fCLay-Q With our current understanding of evolutionary history and our strategy of cladistic naming, if we wanted to have both goldfish and sharks under a single group called "fish", then mammals must also be called fish. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: - Phylogenetic tree: a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species - Cladogram: a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms - Monophyletic group (or clade): a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor - Paraphyletic group: all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups - Similarity trap: people can name different species the same thing, only to find out they aren’t even closely related. We made a video about this phenomana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flVK-rbeT4g ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Jasper Palfree Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman Video Director: Ever Salazar Video Narrator: Ever Salazar & Jasper Palfree With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Weinstein, Bret (2016). On Being a Fish. Inference, Volume 2, Issue 3 September. https://inference-review.com/article/on-being-a-fish Lahti, David (2016). An Ambivalent Amphibian (In response to "On Being a Fish"). Volume 2, Issue 4 December. https://inference-review.com/letter/an-ambivalent-amphibian Podani, János (2013). Tree thinking, time and topology: Comments on the interpretation of tree diagrams in evolutionary/phylogenetic systematics. Cladistics Volume 29, Issue 3. May http://real.mtak.hu/9727/1/PodaniOnTreesFINAL.pdf
The Problem With Concrete The Problem With Concrete
2 years ago En
This video is in partnership with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: https://b-gat.es/2GxIwba Concrete is responsible for 8% of humanity’s carbon emissions because making its key ingredient - cement - chemically releases CO2, and because we burn fossil fuels to make it happen. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Portland cement - the most common type of cement used worldwide, made with limestone Limestone - a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate (which is also in shells & eggs) Cement - a powder used in construction that’s made by grinding clinker with other minerals and mixing with water to form a paste that sticks to sand, gravel or crushed stone to make concrete Concrete - a building material made by mixing cement with water to form a paste that gains body through fillers like sand and gravel Clinker - an intermediate marble-sized product in cement production created by sintering limestone with clay and other things Sinter - to turn a powdery solid into a single mass by heating it without liquefaction Mortar - another building material (used to adhere bricks or stones together) made by mixing cement with water and sand Calcination - the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting point, so it thermally decomposes (like limestone into lime & CO2) Process emissions - the name for the CO2 that comes from limestone when it thermally decomposes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Adam Thompson Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andrew, R. M. 2018. Global CO2 emissions from cement production. Earth System Science Data, 10(1), 195. https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/10/195/2018/essd-10-195-2018.pdf Benhelal, E., et al. 2013. Global strategies and potentials to curb CO2 emissions in cement industry. Journal of cleaner production, 51, 142-161. http://www.academia.edu/download/39977040/1-s2.0-S0959652612006129-main.pdf Beyond Zero Emissions. August 2017. Zero Carbon Industry Plan: Rethinking Cement. Available for download at http://bze.org.au Davis, S.J., et al. 2018. Net-zero emissions energy systems. Science, 360(6396), eaas9793. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt16109441/qt16109441.pdf Lehne, J., & Preston., F. June 2018. Making Concrete Change: Innovation in Low-carbon Cement and Concrete. Chatham House Report. http://bit.ly/2Vlb3oC Timperley, J. September 13 2018. Q&A: Why cement emissions matter for climate change. https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-why-cement-emissions-matter-for-climate-change World Bank. 2019. World Development Indicators: Urban population. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL
Why Earthquakes Are So Hard To Predict Why Earthquakes Are So Hard To Predict
2 years ago En
Scientists are trying to figure out if they can predict big earthquakes by simulating small quakes in labs and studying big quakes under the ocean. Thanks to the University of Rhode Island for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Earthquake: A violent shaking of the earth, usually due to movements of tectonic plates under the earth’s crust. Seismometer: An instrument that detects changes in the up-down motion of the earth. Seismic body waves: Higher frequency waves released by earthquakes that can move through solid rock. Seismic surface waves: Lower frequency waves released by earthquakes that move along the ground and cause most damage. Earthquake Early Warning System: A network of strategically placed seismometers that trigger emergency warning systems in particular areas when they detect large seismic body waves. Evacuation Clearance Time: The time needed to evacuate a particular population to safety. Earthquake Precursor: An anomalous event that gives an effective warning of an impending earthquake. Transform Faults: Faults where two tectonic plates slide past each other. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor, Video Director & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 1654416. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. ___________________________________________ References: Geller, R. (1997). Earthquake Prediction: A Critical Review. Geophysical Journal International. 131 (425-450). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/131/3/425/2138719 Wei, M. (2018). Seismic Behavior on Oceanic Transform Faults at the East Pacific Rise. Transform Plate Boundaries and Fracture Zones. Elsevier. Retrieved from: https://www.elsevier.com/books/transform-plate-boundaries-and-fracture-zones/duarte/978-0-12-812064-4 Hsu, Y., and Peeta, S. (2015). Clearance Time Estimation for Incorporating Evacuation Risk in Routing Strategies for Evacuation Operation. Networks and Spatial Economics. 15 (743-764). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11067-013-9195-5 Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Wei, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Graduate School of Oceanography. University of Rhode Island.
How Chaos Makes Your Fingerprints Unique How Chaos Makes Your Fingerprints Unique
2 years ago En
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. Use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off Dashlane Premium. Because of the chaotic way fingerprints develop and the multiplying effect of compound probability, it's basically impossible for any two fingers to have matching prints. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Fingerprint: The markings on the skin on the last joint of the thumb or finger. Fingerprint Ridges: The raised lines on the fingerprint. Fingerprint Pattern: The main design in the middle of the fingerprint; usually a loop, whorl, or arch. Volar Pad: The mass of stem cells that grows under the fingers during a particular time during fetal development that is responsible for determining the pattern of the fingerprint. Fingerprint Minutiae: The various tiny points in each fingertip where the ridgelines get blocked or split. Compound Probability: The likelihood that independent events will occur simultaneously. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Kucken, M. (2007). Models for Fingerprint Pattern Formation. Forensic Science International. 171 (85-96). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17459625. Kucken, Michael (2018). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Wertheim, K. (2011). Fingerprint Sourcebook: Embryology and Morphology of the Friction Skin Ridge. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=247303
The Bird Poop That Changed The World The Bird Poop That Changed The World
2 years ago En
Thanks to my grandmother for inspiring this story, and to my mother for helping make it. If you like our videos, please consider supporting MinuteEarth on Patreon! - Alex Bird poop was the gateway fertilizer that turned humanity onto the imported-chemical-based farming system of modern agriculture. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Guano: seabird (or bat) poop. From the indigenous Peruvian word “wanu”, meaning “manure that’s good for fertilizer" Manure: animal poop used as fertilizer (typically cow or pig poop) Fertilizer: a chemical-containing substance added to soil to provide nutrients to plants Nitrate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element nitrogen (sodium nitrate) Phosphate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element phosphorus Haber-Bosch process: the major industrial method to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to ammonia ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Our fertilizer is killing us. Here's a fix: https://grist.org/article/billionaires-and-bacteria-are-racing-to-save-us-from-death-by-fertilizer/ Why bird poop is white: https://www.audubon.org/news/what-makes-bird-poop-white In 1856 US Congress enabled US citizens to take over unclaimed islands with guano on them: http://americanhistory.si.edu/norie-atlas/guano-islands-act Guano is in demand again today: https://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/30/world/americas/30peru.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr ___________________________________________ References: Canby, T.Y. 2002. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. VI. Introduction: Pg. 26-27. Sandy Spring Museum. Cushman, G.T. 2013. Guano and the opening of the Pacific World: A global ecological history. Cambridge University Press. Cushman, G.T., personal communication, October 2018. Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr Lorimor, J., Powers, W., Sutton, A. 2004. Manure Characteristics. MWPS-18, Section 1. Second Edition. Table 6. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. http://msue.anr.msu.edu/uploads/files/ManureCharacteristicsMWPS-18_1.pdf Robinson, M.B. April 26, 2007. In Once-Rural Montgomery, a Rich History. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/25/AR2007042501342.html S. Sands & Son. 1875. The American Farmer: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture and Rural Life. Vol. 4, Issue 12, pg. 417-418. Baltimore. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=ul1TAAAAYAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA417 Stabler, H.O. 1950. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. V, Pg. 43. American Publishing Company. Szpak, P., et al. 2012. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of seabird guano fertilization: results from growth chamber studies with Maize (Zea mays). PloS one, 7(3), e33741. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033741 Thanks also to the Sandy Spring Museum.
These Names Can Kill Animals These Names Can Kill Animals
2 years ago En
To get your free 30-day trial of CuriosityStream, go to https://curiositystream.com/minute and use the code "minute". Just like the names of products and companies, animals' names can affect how we feel about them...and changing the name of a species might actually help us save it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hong Kong's Golden Beach Dolphin Plaza by Wikimedia user WiNg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HK_Golden_Beach_Dolphin_Plaza.jpg African Wild Dog by Mathias Appel https://www.flickr.com/photos/mathiasappel/25233930273 Family Dog by Richard Elzey https://www.flickr.com/photos/elzey/6307525340/ Sloth by Régis Leroy https://www.flickr.com/photos/regilero/8727491349 Racoon Just Checking the Trash by Julie Corsi https://www.flickr.com/photos/corsinet/2967516964/ Scorpion by Steve Slater https://www.flickr.com/photos/wildlife_encounters/11026569913/ Snake by Photo by Jessica Bolser/USFWS https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmidwest/11193222776/ ___________________________________________ References: Jacquet, J. L. and Pauly, D. (2008) Trade secrets: renaming and mislabeling of seafood. Marine Policy 32: 309-318. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X07000760 Karaffa, P.T., M.M. Draheim, and Parsons, E.C.M. (2012) What’s in a name? Do species’ names impact student support for conservation? Human Dimensions of Wildlife 17: 308-310. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10871209.2012.676708?journalCode=uhdw20 Parsons, E.C.M., personal communication, October 2018. Rasmussen, G.S.A. (1999) Livestock predation by the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in a cattle ranching region of Zimbabwe: a case study. Biological Conservation 88: 133–139. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320798000068?via%3Dihub Sarasa M., Alasaad S., and Pérez J.M. (2012) Common names of species, the curious case of Capra pyrenaica and the concomitant steps towards the 'wild-to-domestic' transformation of a flagship species and its vernacular names. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:1–12. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-011-0172-3 Scott, C. (2015) Otter social science research: An evaluation of the general public’s knowledge of otter species. (Master’s thesis) George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Retrieved from digilib.gmu.edu/ xmlui/handle/1920/10282 Wright, A., Veríssimo, D., Pilfold, K., Parsons, E. C. M., Ventre, K., Cousins, J., et al. (2015). Competitive outreach in the 21st Century: why we need conservation marketing. Ocean & Coastal Management 115: 41–48. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115001829
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