Veritasium
An element of truth - videos about science, education, and anything else I find interesting.

162 videos
Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch! Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch!
2 months ago En
I used a nitrogen membrane and Stirling cryocooler to liquefy nitrogen out of the air. For this video I partnered with Starbucks to celebrate their Nitro Cold Brew. Order one here: https://starbucks.app.link/derekmuller Making liquid nitrogen is hard - in fact up until 150 years ago scientists doubted whether it was even possible to liquefy nitrogen. In 1823, At the royal institution in London, Michael Faraday first produced liquid chlorine, kind of accidentally by putting it under high pressure. He similarly liquefied ammonia. Borrowing a mixture from Thilorier in France, a combination of dry ice, snow and ether, he reached a temperature of -110C. By 1845 he used this mixture plus a hand pump to pressurize gases to liquefy all the known gases except six, which included oxygen and nitrogen. These became known as the “permanent” gases. A French Physicist Aimé compressed oxygen and nitrogen in tanks and then lowered them into the ocean over 1.6km deep, where the pressure got up to 200 atmospheres. Still the gases didn’t liquefy. Only at the end of 1877 were the first droplets of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen produced, by Cailletet in France. He first tried oxygen by compressing it up to 300 atmospheres, cooled to -30C, but that wasn't even enough to liquefy oxygen. But when he suddenly released the pressure, the expanding gas cooled, he estimated to -200C and he saw a mist and then droplets slide down the walls of his vessel. It's amazing how far we've come in that now I can purchase a helium-based cryocooler. It compresses and expands the gas to absorb heat from the tip of the cold finger and eject it into the surroundings at ambient temperature.
First Flight on Another Planet! First Flight on Another Planet!
2 months ago En
The Mars Helicopter aims to make the first powered flight on another planet when it takes off on Mars as part of the Mars 2020 mission. I learned a lot getting to visit the drone right before it was mounted on the rover. How do you fly in 1% of Earth's atmosphere: Have large rotors (they are 1.2m in diameter) and spin them very fast, around 2500 RPM (5x the speed of a helicopter on Earth). Plus the aircraft has to be light: The Mars helicopter weighs in at 1.8kg or around the same as a laptop. Every piece had to be stripped down for weight. Instead of using aerogel for insulation, the craft makes use of CO2 gaps between components. Even aerogel was too heavy! One of the major challenges is surviving the Martian night: Temperatures plunge to -80C to -100C so two thirds of the craft's power is actually used to keep its electronics warm. Only one third is used for flying. The estimated flight time is 90 seconds. The craft can't be driven remotely, it will have to fly autonomously, using its own sensor suite to determine how to fly. The round trip 20 minute delay with Earth means steering the craft from mission control would be impossible. Huge Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Philipp Volgger, Chris Vargas, Ron Neal, Alfred Wallace, Colin Bellmore, Michael Krugman, James Knight, Donal Botkin, Sam Lutfi, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Kevin Beavers, Chuck Lauer Vose, Bryan Baker, James Wong, kkm, Manuel Zürcher, Tige Thorman, Jasper Xin, Leah Howard, Daniel Milum, Mathias Göransson, Stan Presolski, Lyvann Ferrusca, Arjun Chakroborty, June Kang, Listen Money Matters, Pindex, Joar Wandborg, DALE HORNE, Parker Linn, Roberto Rezende Jonny Hyman was a legend in editing, animation, filming, and sound design for this video.
Why the Future of Cars is Electric Why the Future of Cars is Electric
2 months ago En
Electric cars are now ready to take over thanks to advances in battery technology and their inherent benefits: torque, handling, maintenance. This video was sponsored by BMW: https://www.bmwusa.com/ Full disclosure: I drive an #electric #car. I think electric cars are the future, not mainly because they're better for the environment (which they are if you drive the car for any reasonable length of time) but because they are just better cars. The have better torque and acceleration, better handling, they're more efficient, quieter, they don't smell, they're cheaper to run and best of all you never have to visit a gas station - this appeals to me. I never have to worry about being low on gas because every morning my car is charged and ready to go - just like my phone and laptop. And if you're worried about range, don't. Almost all trips can already be done in an electric car with modest battery pack. And fast chargers along the way make it possible to do longer road trips if necessary. You have to make rest stops anyway, just time them with the charging. And consider that battery tech is getting dramatically cheaper, smaller, lighter. All these reasons are why I see the #future of cars as electric. Writing & Research Derek Muller Jonny Hyman Matthew Shribman https://ve42.co/sciencebath Editing, Animation, Audio, & Music: Jonny Hyman Camerawork: Raquel Nuno Jonny Hyman 1890s Music "National fantasie" by William Paris Chambers, archived in Library of Congress #BMWUSA #NEXTGen #BMWPartner #ad
Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site
3 months ago En
Apollo astronauts trained in nuclear bomb craters at the Nevada National Security Site. But why?Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook plus two Audible Originals free when you go to http://audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 I found this story fascinating because in a way a nuclear bomb crater is more like a meteorite impact site than an impact site itself. Consider: Barringer Crater was claimed to be a meteorite impact site but geologists dismissed it as a volcanic formation. It was only after studying nuclear bomb craters and the minerals found there that geologists concluded the energy and pressures that created Barringer Crater were too high to be from volcanic activity and therefore must have formed from a meteorite impact. Special Thanks to: Nevada National Security Site The National Atomic Testing Museum Jonny Hyman and Verse: https://youtu.be/7bUUGzi-AAY Active Galactic for footage of craters in Arizona: https://youtu.be/yhoooBpndog Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Daniel Milum, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, Illya Nayshevsky, James Knight, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Listen Money Matters, Lyvann Ferrusca, Manuel Zürcher, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, OddJosh, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Raquel Nuno Story and Editing by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Music and Animation by Jonny Hyman Produced by Casey Rentz
How a Fish Saved the Vikings How a Fish Saved the Vikings
3 months ago En
The Vikings suffered many hardships living in the north of Europe: long, cold winters and importantly a lack of sunlight. Luckily, they had cod. Check out Vitamania: https://ve42.co/cod When making a video about vitamins I thought the story would mainly be about supplement pills, whether we should or shouldn't take them and how they're made. But what I found out is vitamins have a remarkable story that affects many more aspects of our lives. For example the Vikings needed a source of vitamin D to last the dark winter months and for their children to develop strong, healthy bones, avoiding rickets. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 This video was filmed by Harry Panagiotidis Researched and written by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Editing, animation and music by Jonny Hyman Cod liver oil animation by Iván Tello Vitamania was written, directed and produced by Sonya Pemberton
I Made Myself Fireproof AND Waterproof With Aerogel I Made Myself Fireproof AND Waterproof With Aerogel
4 months ago En
Aerogel has extraordinary properties but it can be tough to work with. This video looks at modifying aerogels to take advantage of their unique characteristics. Subscribe to Veritasium: https://ve42.co/sub Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: http://www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! https://www.flir.com Aerogel’s extraordinary properties are due in large part to its structure. Aerogel is a solid but on the nanoscale it has a mesh or sponge-like structure. The struts of this structure are nanoscale, as are the pores at around 20nm across. This makes silica aerogel incredibly light (it was once the lightest solid but has now been superseded by graphene aerogel), transparent and adsorbent. An ice-cube sized piece of aerogel has an internal surface area roughly equal to half a football field. Aerogel is used in high end museum cases to regulate humidity. Plus it helps maintain the vacuum on the Mars Insight seismometers - it adsorbs moisture and other outgassed volatiles that come from the spacecraft itself. Proposed uses include as a physical insecticide by ‘drying out insects’ reducing the need for chemical and toxic pesticides. Special thanks to all my Patreon supporters especially those who contributed feedback to an earlier draft of this video: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Paul Gramaglia Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Animations by Catherine Chooljian Music from https://epidemicsound.com “Tonic Zone” “Betelgeuse” “Insidious Mice” “Seaweed” “It’s not that serious” “Platin00m - Sum It” This is an educational, scientific video.
Can You Swim in Shade Balls? Can You Swim in Shade Balls?
4 months ago En
I bought 10,000 shade balls and tried to swim in them. They appear to act like a non-Newtonian fluid: rigid under high shear stress, but they flow like a liquid under low shear. Get a signed shade ball by supporting Veritasium: https://ve42.co/patreon Receiving a shade ball: 1. Support Veritasium on any Patreon tier and enter your address https://ve42.co/patreon 2. In about a month I will send out signed shade balls 3. I will cover all shipping costs but if things get really crazy I will prioritize existing Patreon supporters and higher tiers My sense was that swimming in shade balls would be difficult but still doable. This was roughly true for the single layer of shade balls. The shade balls slide past each other so they act like a liquid, albeit a viscous one owing to their significant inertia. It's much more intense exercise and it's also annoying to be bombarded with shade balls on all sides of your body, particularly your head. With multi-layer shade balls (as exists on much of LA reservoir) things get significantly more difficult. The balls bunch together and when you try to move through them quickly, they become more rigid, providing significant resistance to motion. This has the benefit that you can lie on them and as long as they stay trapped under you, you can float on them. But a little bit of motion causes them to move around and you sink through quickly. Huge thanks to: Jordan Schnabel and Cristian Carretero for filming and swimming and providing lifeguard services. Raquel Nuno for filming and putting up with me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Dubstep Mammoth 2" "Finally Here (Instrumental)" "The Last Arrival" "Sundown Love (Instrumental)"
World's Lightest Solid! World's Lightest Solid!
4 months ago En
Aerogels are the world's lightest (least dense) solids. They are also excellent thermal insulators and have been used in numerous Mars missions and the Stardust comet particle-return mission. The focus of this video is silica aerogels, though graphene aerogels are now technically the lightest. At one point Dr. Steven Jones literally held the Guinness World Record for making the lightest aerogel and therefore lightest solid. If you're interested in learning more about aerogels, let me know in the comments as there is a potential trilogy in the works... Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: http://www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! https://www.flir.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Filming by Raquel Nuno Animations by Maria Raykova Drawings by Mariel Solsberg Music From http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Swagger Stagger"
My Video Went Viral. Here's Why My Video Went Viral. Here's Why
5 months ago En
My hypothesis is that the algorithm, rather than viewer preference, drives views on the site. As the algorithm shifts, various YouTubers experience burnout (as what used to work no longer works) and right now click-through rate is the key metric. So clickable titles and thumbnails are the only way to get a lot of impressions and hence views - they are the only way to go viral. This leads me to wonder which audiences will become most prevalent on the site and if there will even be a place for educational content. In the long-term, hopefully YouTube is able to measure satisfaction through surveys and other metrics to ensure an optimal experience for everyone on the site. Flipchart artwork by Maria Raykova Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci
Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir? Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?
5 months ago En
I took a boat through 96 million black plastic balls on the Los Angeles reservoir to find out why they're there. The first time I heard about shade balls the claim was they reduce evaporation. But it turns out this isn't the reason they were introduced. Huge thanks to LADWP for arranging this special tour for me. Next time let's put the GoPro on the submersible! The balls are made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) which is less dense than water so they float on the surface of the reservoir even if they break apart. They are 10cm (4 inches) in diameter and contain about 210ml of water. So the main reason they are on the reservoir is to block sunlight from entering the water and triggering a chemical reaction that turns harmless bromide into carcinogenic bromate. This effect occurs with prolonged exposure to bromate so regulators insist that levels be kept below 10 microgram per liter on average over a 12 month period. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Thanks to: Las Virgenes Reservoir for footage of initial shade ball dump Euro-Matic for bird into jet-engine footage Researched and Produced by Casey Rentz Animations by Maria Raykova Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Colorful Animation 4" "Seaweed" And from Kevin MacLeod "Marty Gots a Plan" This is an educational video about the science of water quality.
Magnetic Micro-Robots Magnetic Micro-Robots
6 months ago En
Tiny robots activated by magnetic fields may be used in future biomedical procedures. Start listening to Audible with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook, plus two Audible Originals free when you go to http://audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 Huge thanks to: Dr. Eric Diller, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Toronto http://microrobotics.mie.utoronto.ca Research Referenced in this video: "Millimeter-Scale Flexible Robots with Programmable Three-Dimensional Magnetization and Motions," by T. Xu; J. Zhang; M. Salehizadeh; O. Onaizah; E. Diller http://robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav4494 "Reconfigurable magnetic microrobot swarm: multi-mode transformation, locomotion and manipulation," by H. Xie; M. Sun; X. Fan; Z. Lin; W. Chen; L. Wang; Q. He http://robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav8006 "Catalytic antimicrobial robots for biofilm eradication," by G. Hwang; A.J. Paula; E.E. Hunter; Y.Liu; A. Babeer; B. Karabucak; K. Stebe; V. Kumar; E. Steager; H. Koo http://robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aaw2388 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Music by Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "March of the Spoons"
$250,000 for a High School Science Student $250,000 for a High School Science Student
6 months ago En
The story of three impressive high school science projects. Can you guess which student won $250,000 in the #RegeneronSTS? Applications open June 1: http://bit.ly/2HkLXT1 This video was sponsored by Regeneron. The Science Talent Search was founded and produced by the Society for Science and the Public. Huge thanks to the students: Ronak Roy, Ana Humphrey, and Anjali Chadha. It was great getting to meet all of you and learn about your original scientific research. Special thanks to Assistant Professor Konstantin Batygin for discussing Ana's research and Planet 9 with me. More is coming on the Planet 9 front. Ronak came up with a new design for the phoropter, the device used to determine eye-glass prescriptions. It's basically been unchanged for 200 years. Using a liquid lens, he miniaturized the device and wrote an algorithm to determine your prescription. Ana used math and physics to search for hidden exoplanets. There are a number of reasons why the transit method and Kepler telescope may have missed them: they're too small, too inclined, or take too long to orbit and so were not seen. By considering which planetary systems have additional space for more planets, Ana came up with 560 locations where we may look again for planets in future. Anjali developed an internet enabled device for measuring arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The device performs several chemical reactions to release the arsenic into a measurable state. It then reacts the arsenic with a test strip to produce a color output. This color is sampled by a camera and processed to determine the concentration of arsenic in the water sample. This has significant potential applications around the world helping reduce exposure to arsenic and potentially other contaminants. Filming by Raquel Nuno
First Images of Black Holes! First Images of Black Holes!
6 months ago En
The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration observed the supermassive black holes at the center of M87 and our Milky Way galaxy (SgrA*) finding the dark central shadow in accordance with General Relativity, further demonstrating the power of this 100 year-old theory. To understand more about why the shadows look the way they do, check out: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUyH3XhpLTo I will continue updating this description with more links. Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: https://ve42.co/EHT Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/jvftAadCFRI Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/meOKmzhTcIY Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) https://youtu.be/VnsZj9RvhFU Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/Ame7fzBuFnk Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/XmvpKFSvB7A Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Scale animation by Maria Raykova
How to Understand the Image of a Black Hole How to Understand the Image of a Black Hole
6 months ago En
We are about to see the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of the Milky Way galaxy or maybe the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 https://ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney https://ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech https://ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: https://ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: https://ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova
How Was Video Invented? How Was Video Invented?
6 months ago En
I always wanted to know why film looked better than video. Moving electronic images have as long a history but were invented for a different purpose. This video was sponsored by B&H Photo: https://www.bhphotovideo.com Huge thanks to: Richard Diehl, Video Labguy https://www.youtube.com/user/videolabguy https://www.labguysworld.com Branch Education for awesome animations https://ve42.co/BranchEd Minutephysics for mechanical TV animations https://www.youtube.com/minutephysics Mark Schubin Engineer and explainer, SMPTE Life Fellow https://www.smpte.org This is a video I've long wanted to make, about what makes video look like video and, up until 10 years ago or so, not as appealing as film. I grew up with the two technologies (film and video) in parallel and to me they always seemed like two ways of achieving the same ends: recording and replaying moving images. But their histories are quite distinct. Film was always a way to capture moving images for later replaying. Video started out as a way to transfer images from one place to another instantaneously. This dates back to the first fax machine, mechanical TV, live broadcast tv and ultimately videotapes. This history focuses on the early decades of video and not the more recent switches to chip cameras and solid state storage. Maybe that's a story for another day. Additional resources and references: The Dawn of Tape: Transmission Device as Preservation Medium https://ve42.co/dawnoftape What Sparked Video Research in 1877? The Overlooked Role of the Siemens Artificial Eye https://ve42.co/sparkvideo Video Preservation Website: http://videopreservation.conservation-us.org Image Orthicon Tube: http://interiorcommunicationselectrician.tpub.com/14120/141200335.htm Film vs Digital https://stephenfollows.com/film-vs-digital/ Eyes of a Generation: http://eyesofageneration.com Television in the US: http://www3.northern.edu/wild/th100/tv.htm http://www.classictvinfo.com Music from https://www.epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Capture a Picture 1" "Colorful Animation 4"
Do Humans Have an Internal Compass? Do Humans Have an Internal Compass?
7 months ago En
Research has found human brains can pick up on rotations of geomagnetic-strength fields as evidenced by drops in alpha wave power following stimulus. For more, see https://ve42.co/magneto Huge thanks to: Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo, Connie Wang, and Isaac Hilburn, plus Prof. Joe Kirschvink. Their lab: https://ve42.co/maglab Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Additional filming by Whitney Clavin
How Flexible Machines Could Save The World How Flexible Machines Could Save The World
7 months ago En
Compliant mechanisms have lots of advantages over traditional devices. SimpliSafe is awesome security. It's really effective, easy to use, and the price is great. Check out SimpliSafe here: https://simplisafe.com/veritasium I visited the Compliant Mechanisms Research group at Brigham Young University and spoke to Professor Larry Howell: https://www.compliantmechanisms.byu.edu At the above link, you can download 3D-print files to make some of the objects in the video, plus learn more about compliant mechanisms. What I learned about compliant mechanisms I summarize in the 8 P's of compliant mechanisms: 1. Part count (reduced by having flexible parts instead of springs, hinges) 2. Productions processes (many, new, different enabled by compliant designs) 3. Price (reduced by fewer parts and different production processes) 4. Precise Motion (no backlash, less wear, friction) 5. Performance (no outgassing, doesn't require lubricant) 6. Proportions (reduced through different production processes) 7. Portability (lightweight due to simpler, reduced part count designs) 8. Predictability (devices are reliable over a long period of time) Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animation by Alan Chamberlain
Can You Recover Sound From Images? Can You Recover Sound From Images?
7 months ago En
Is it possible to reconstruct sound from high-speed video images? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass: http://bit.ly/2SmRQkk Special thanks to Dr. Abe Davis for revisiting his research with me: http://abedavis.com This video was based on research by Dr. Abe Davis and colleagues. I found out about this work years ago and was fascinated by the way he was able to capture vibration information in image-only video. I always imagined the motions of objects would be visible as when recording a tuning fork in slow motion - so deriving sound from high speed images seemed a feasible task. But the reality is much more difficult. Sound vibrations only cause objects to wiggle by about a micrometer. This is much smaller than a pixel, so the algorithm must understand the characteristics of the image. A move in one direction should cause some pixels to lighten slightly, while others darken - and this behavior is correlated along the edges of the image. So noise can be reduced because it's random over the image and there are enough places to sample that you can get it to cancel out. Something I'm wondering now is - would it be possible to capture sound in a single image? I'm thinking it would have to be an image of a large object or space because the wavelengths of typical sounds are quite long. Maybe a high frequency sound could be imaged in a suitable medium... Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma
8 months ago En
A bisected grape in the microwave makes plasma. But how does it work? A grape is the right size and refractive index to trap microwaves inside it. When you place two (or two halves) close together the fields interact with each other creating a maximum of electromagnetic energy where they touch. This creates heating, sparks, and plasma, which is further fed with energy directly by the microwaves. Huge thanks to Hamza Khattak, Prof. Pablo Bianucci and Prof. Aaron Slepkov (unavailable for the call) for chatting to me and helping me understand the physics of this cool phenomenon. Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers https://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1818350116 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks also to Steve Bosi, my original plasma collaborator. Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
Are Negative Ions Good For You? Are Negative Ions Good For You?
8 months ago En
Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: http://bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: http://www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp http://beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"
The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect
9 months ago En
Droplets levitate on a bath of liquid nitrogen and are spontaneously self-propelled. Thanks Audible! Start a 30-day trial and your first audiobook is free. Go to https://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500. Special thanks to Dr. Anaïs Gauthier Physics of Fluids: https://pof.tnw.utwente.nl/ Self-propulsion of inverse Leidenfrost drops on a cryogenic bath Anaïs Gauthier, Christian Diddens, Rémi Proville, Detlef Lohse, and Devaraj van der Meer PNAS January 22, 2019 116 (4) 1174-1179; published ahead of print January 22, 2019 https://www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1174 For a detailed description of the setup: http://www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/Langmuir2016.pdf And self-propulsion is also seen: http://www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/InvLeidenfrost.avi Other recent (hot) Leidenfrost experiments that might be interesting: * Leidenfrost wheels: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glRGl-eYuXo * Leidenfrost maze: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=174&v=vPZ7sx3EwUY * Leidenfrost explosions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0sp3AjgUy4 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks to Prof. Kevin McKeegan at UCLA for the liquid nitrogen Filming by Raquel Nuno Additional animations by Alan Chamberlain
Spinning Black Holes Spinning Black Holes
9 months ago En
A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span? Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham. A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole https://ve42.co/pasham Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA
The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites) The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)
10 months ago En
A launch mishap led to the best experimental confirmation of gravitational redshift. Get a free audiobook with a 30-day trial of Audible: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Huge thanks to Dr. Pacome Delva: https://ve42.co/pacome Dr. Sven Herrmann: https://ve42.co/sven Gravitational Redshift Test Using Eccentric Galileo Satellites: https://ve42.co/GRtest Disclaimer: It is arguable what is THE best test of general relativity because there are different ways to test the theory. This is the best confirmation of gravitational redshift, which is one of the three original tests proposed by Einstein. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Subtle Substitutes 2" "A sound Foundation 1" "Cell Research 1" "Particle Attraction 1"
Non-Invasive Brain Surgery Non-Invasive Brain Surgery
10 months ago En
Scientists have combined ultrasound, viruses and synthetic drugs to control regions of the brain. Check out Skillshare: https://skl.sh/veritasium (first 500 get 2 months free) Special thanks to Prof. Mikhail Shapiro and Dr. Jerzy Szablowski: http://shapirolab.caltech.edu Human brains are complicated - the most complicated thing in the known universe, many people say. So far we understand little - just that certain regions of the brain appear to be involved in certain activities and certain disorders. In extreme cases this has led to the practice of removing sections of the brain, or using electrodes or optical fibers to control activation rates. What is unique about this approach is it offers a way to turn on and off specific brain regions without invasive surgery. It has promise because it combines existing technologies: micro-bubbles, ultrasound, synthetic viruses, and synthetic drugs to achieve this goal. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
The kg is dead, long live the kg The kg is dead, long live the kg
11 months ago En
The kilogram, mole, kelvin, and ampere will be redefined by physical constants. For a limited time, get 3 months of Audible for just $6.95 a month: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Will this be the last video I make about SI units? Quite possibly. There's something about being so precise and defining the systems within which science works. When we can more accurately and routinely measure a kilogram, a mole, a kelvin and an ampere, then we can make better observations, we can better detect anomalies and improve our theories. That is why this is so important to me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, James M Nicholson, Terrance Shepherd, Stan Presolski Special thanks to NIST: http://nist.gov Additional graphics by Ignat Berbeci Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
ZERO-G Challenges of a Trip to Mars! ZERO-G Challenges of a Trip to Mars!
11 months ago En
A trip to #Mars involves radiation, muscle and bone loss, intermediate axis theorem and liquids. Check out Mars on National Geographic, Monday Nov 12 at 9/8c #sponsored When I got offered the chance to fly in another #zeroG plane, I jumped at the chance. Do you know how hard it is when you are thrust into low-gravity, like the 37% of Earth's gravity of Mars, and you have to remember what you were going to say in a 30 second window as blood floods your head? It's pretty hard. It would be even harder to actually travel to Mars. It would take about 8 months in microgravity during which time your muscles and bones would weaken substantially, even if you exercise for hours a day like the astronauts on the space station. And your heart is a muscle too so it weakens as well. Before I contemplated these rates of muscle and bone loss, I thought the major challenge with a round trip journey to Mars would be the logistics of spacecraft and having enough fuel to get back. But with the weakening of the human body, it's an open question whether anyone would really want to come back. Filmed by Steve Boxall Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com
The Fungus on Your Head The Fungus on Your Head
12 months ago En
This fungus lives on your scalp and may affect the genes you express. Check out Head & Shoulders research on getting rid of dandruff: https://ve42.co/HS Animation by Pindex: https://ve42.co/pindex When I started this project, I wasn't sure what caused dandruff and I also didn't think much science would go into making a shampoo like Head & Shoulders. So what I learned really surprised me: There are hundreds of scientists working on this shampoo. They run crazy-sounding experiments like hanging hair near Tokyo highways to understand how real-world environments deposit dirt on hair. They use sophisticated scientific techniques like electron microscopes, nuclear magnetic resonance and gene sequencing to study dandruff on the molecular level. In fact they sequenced the entire genome of Malassezia globosa in 2002, one year after the human genome project. Their findings are published in international refereed journals. What they have found is that the Malassezia fungi create free fatty acids as byproducts of their digestion, which for some people create irritation and lead to hyper-proliferation of skin cells, flaking, histamines, inflammatory cytokines, and blood proteins reaching the surface of the skin. These findings indicate the unhealthiness of dandruff scalp and suggest a possible remedy - controlling the metabolism of the Malassezia fungi. This is achieved using different active ingredients in different products and different parts of the world, including zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, and piroctone olamine. With the reduction of irritants, the scalp actually expresses different genes, producing a signature more similar to a non-dandruff baseline scalp. Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com Music also by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com
The Scientific Benefits of Boredom The Scientific Benefits of Boredom
2 years ago En
Boredom makes you more creative, altruistic, introspective, and helps with autobiographical planning. This video was sponsored by LastPass: http://bit.ly/2wAsdUu I feel like this video might come across as condescending but the person I'm really talking to is myself. Despite the fact that I know how useful it can be to be bored, I still find myself trying to fill every last moment with stimulus. Boredom is unpleasant - the open, unstructured thinking that can take place can also feel pointless. But now I'm made this video to remind myself how important boredom is so hopefully I'll make more time to be bored. More resources: The boredom leads people to shock themselves study: Just Think: The challenges of the disengaged mind https://wjh-www.harvard.edu/~dtg/WILSON%20ET%20AL%202014.pdf Boredom leads people to consider their future and set goals study: Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810011001978 On boredom and altruism: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ca72/0f959d3c9c31187ac30b28ecfec430bc98cc.pdf Does boredom make us more creative? https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10400419.2014.901073 Amazing filming by Raquel Nuno Music from http://epidemicsound.com "I Think I Was There" "Critical Thinking 2" "Wide Open" "Seaweed" "A Sound Foundation 1" Music also by Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Fig Leaf Rag"
How UV Causes Cancer and Aging How UV Causes Cancer and Aging
2 years ago En
UV at ground level is non-ionizing but it damages DNA and causes photoaging - how? Also, it turns out glass doesn't block all UV (specifically UVA passes through). This is something I learned filming with the UV camera inside. Special thanks to Dr. Hayley Golbach, @hayleysgold on twitter https://twitter.com/hayleysgold Ultraviolet light causes damage to DNA, leads to cancer and photoaging: age spots and wrinkles. I was curious about this because UV is technically non-ionizing. A photon of UV doesn't have enough energy to strip an electron off atoms or molecules. However it does have enough energy to trigger photo-chemical reactions. For example, it causes pyrimidine dimers - the unauthorized covalent bonding of adjacent thymine or cytosine bases in our DNA. If these spots are not properly repaired, they may lead to mutations and cancer. Photoaging is typically the result of degradation of collagen and elastin fibers - scaffolding that supports the skin. This leads to wrinkles and saggy-looking skin. Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski, James M Nicholson, KIMoFy Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Music from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious? Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?
2 years ago En
The nutrient content of food is declining. Is it because of soil depletion, selective breeding, or... something else? Watch my new documentary, VITAMANIA: http://ve42.co/vita I came across this story as I was making the film Vitamania. When you ask sellers of vitamins why you should take vitamin supplements even if you eat a healthy diet, they will say because our food doesn't contain all the nutrients it once did. This is supposedly due to soil depletion, cold storage, food ripening off the vine, and global transport of out-of-season foods. And to an extent this is true. Foods contain the greatest amount of nutrients if they are eaten soon after they are harvested. An unexpected source of nutrient decline is the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes plants to grow faster and bulk up on carbs but at the expense of other nutrients, so in percentage terms the amount of nutrients are actually declining. For now this decline is modest so supplementing with vitamin pills is probably unnecessary for most people with a healthy diet but it may be a concern in future. Thanks to Kate Pappas & Chris Kamen for writing, producing and filming this video with me Edited by Lucy McCallum Sound mix by Wayne Hyett Fact Checking by Calvin Lee and Claire Smith Thanks to the Collingwood Children’s Farm and Glenn Fitzgerald from the University of Melbourne & Agriculture Victoria Further Reading: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215/?ncbi_mmode=std http://soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/ https://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-24/scientists-warning-rice-may-become-less-nutritious/9792822
Can You Overdose on Vitamins? Can You Overdose on Vitamins?
2 years ago En
Vitamins are 13 molecules essential for life that our bodies can't make themselves. Watch Vitamania here: https://ve42.co/vita Now available worldwide, except France and Germany where it will be broadcast on ARTE soon. Subscribe on the Vitamania website for updates. Use #vitamania to join the conversation on Twitter and Facebook. Vitamania is a Genepool Productions feature documentary for SBS Australia, CuriosityStream, and ARTE France. Principal production investment from Screen Australia, in association with Film Victoria.
The Truth About Veritasium The Truth About Veritasium
2 years ago En
The truth, with photons. I hope I've articulated everything clearly in this video. If not, I'll clarify in comments. Thanks to everyone who appears in this video and thanks to everyone who watches this video! Veritasium is of course a combination of the latin 'veritas' meaning truth, and the common element ending 'ium'. I guess this is my version of the 'draw my life' craze that rolled through YouTube many years ago. Except I wanted to tell my story with the actual moments, the photons, the stored magnetic states. There's something about that which is so important to me (because I think the alternative involves fooling yourself) which is why I'm so fascinated by film and video. One of my inspirations for the name Veritasium came from the end of the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, in which he writes: "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,—that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski Music from http://epidemicsound.com Magnified X1 - Gunnar Johnsen Fluorescent Lights - Martin Gauffin Dissolving Patterns - Ebb & Flod Luna - Ebb & Flod Additional music by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com Sneaky Snitch
How Neutrons Changed Everything How Neutrons Changed Everything
2 years ago En
Without neutrons, harnessing nuclear energy would be impossible. Try Audible free for 30 days: http://audible.com/veritasium I have a new documentary coming out in a few months - sign up here to be notified and see a sneak preview: http://vitamaniathemovie.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow A few years ago I made a documentary about uranium, radioactivity and radiation. I always thought of the characters in our story as the scientists and maybe the uranium nucleus itself. It was only through making the documentary that I realized the real hero of the story is the neutron. Without a neutral nuclear particle, it would be virtually impossible to release the energy from the nucleus. But with it, and the idea of a chain reaction, nuclear energy went from science fiction to reality. That is something I had not grasped as clearly before and it motivated me to make this video. Filmed by Raquel Nuno.
The Threat of AI Weapons The Threat of AI Weapons
2 years ago En
Will artificial intelligence weapons cause World War III? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiJTq11kqdw This animated clip is from my friends at http://ve42.co/pindex2 New series! http://vrv.co/paradigms I'm not sure how alarmed to be about artificial intelligence. Personally I think it's really hard to predict when we'll create a machine that essentially has consciousness. That's because we don't know what consciousness is, how it works, what's required to create it etc. So It might be technologically around the corner or a hundred years away. What I do think is more predictable is the development of autonomous weapons that use AI to be the most effective killing machines of all time. That is scary. As outline by people like Musk and Hawking, this threat is clear and present so we should address it. I would like to see us agree as a species not to develop these sorts of weapons because if any one state does develop them, they would be very hard to stop.
Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To Me?! Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To Me?!
2 years ago En
Mosquitoes are attracted to me and it's likely due to my genes. This video is sponsored by 23andMe https://23andme.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Immo Hansen and team: http://ve42.co/hansen References: Genome Wide Association Study for self-reported mosquito attractiveness: http://ve42.co/MossieGWAS The twin study showing correlated attractiveness is stronger for identical twins: http://ve42.co/MossieTwins Some things we know make mosquitoes more attracted to you: Exercising, higher metabolism, higher body temperature, more body odor, being pregnant, type O blood, infrequent bathing, lactic acid, ammonia, acetone. There are a number of folk remedies people believe protect them from mosquito bites like drinking alcohol, eating garlic, or taking vitamin B. These do not appear to provide any benefit in lab studies and in fact drinking alcohol is associated with increased mosquito activity because it causes blood vessels near the surface of the skin to dilate. And apparently some of your attractiveness to mosquitos is simply genetic. This may be mediated through your immune system, which is what a lot of the genes identified were associated with. Molecular models are microSnatoms: http://snatoms.com Filming in New Mexico by Raquel Nuno Animations by Jacqui Robertson The opinions and conclusions drawn in this video are those of Veritasium and not 23andMe.
This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry
2 years ago En
Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: http://WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: http://phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: http://www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: http://ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
World's First Car! World's First Car!
2 years ago En
I got to drive the world's first car (replica), patented by Benz in 1886 Check out the series on new safety features: http://ve42.co/MB This video is sponsored by Mercedes-Benz, who invited me to come to Stuttgart to see their latest cars, crash test facilities and experience the innovations they are working on. Physics is something that is directly applicable to car safety. Cars go fast, but they also sometimes collide with obstacles, which brings them to a sudden stop, subjecting the car and occupants to very high accelerations, which can cause injury or death. So the major idea to improve car safety is to reduce these accelerations and there are a number of ways to do this: Passive safety: Seat belts: keep passengers in the vehicle, preventing them from continuing with constant velocity, flying through the windshield and suffering a worse deceleration when they make contact with the road. Crumple zones: increase the distance over which deceleration occurs, thereby reducing peak magnitude of deceleration. Air bags: increase the distance over which the head decelerates, again reducing peak magnitude of deceleration of the head. Active Safety: Anti-lock braking system: rather than 'locking' the wheels as can happen if you slam on the brakes with a traditional braking system leading to the tires skidding across the road, ABS attempts to control the amount of braking so that the tires always roll with static friction in contact with the road. This increases the backward frictional force that can be applied to the tires, again increasing the distance over which deceleration occurs, and it gives the driver an opportunity to steer to avoid the collision (hence why it's referred to as an active safety system). Special thanks to Mercedes for having me visit facilities in Stuttgart. I had a lot of fun making these videos so please do check out the series on Mercedes Benz's channel: http://ve42.co/MB Filmed by Simon Schneider Edited by Hoplite Creative and Trevor Carlee
Your Amazing Molecular Machines Your Amazing Molecular Machines
2 years ago Ru En
These are the molecular machines inside your body that make cell division possible. Animation by Drew Berry at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. http://wehi.tv Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Joshua Abenir, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Every day in an adult human roughly 50-70 billion of your cells die. They may be damaged, stressed, or just plain old - this is normal, in fact it’s called programmed cell death. To make up for that loss, right now, inside your body, billions of cells are dividing, creating new cells. And cell division, also called mitosis, requires an army of tiny molecular machines.DNA is a good place to start - the double helix molecule that we always talk about. This is a scientifically accurate depiction of DNA. If you unwind the two strands you can see that each has a sugar phosphate backbone connected to the sequence of nucleic acid base pairs, known by the letters A,T,G, and C. Now the strands run in opposite directions, which is important when you go to copy DNA. Copying DNA is one of the first steps in cell division. Here the two strands of DNA are being unwound and separated by the tiny blue molecular machine called helicase. It literally spins as fast as a jet engine! The strand of DNA on the right has its complimentary strand assembled continuously but the other strand is more complicated because it runs in the opposite direction. So it must be looped out with its compliment strand assembled in reverse, section by section. At the end of this process you have two identical DNA molecules, each one a few centimeters long but just a couple nanometers wide. To prevent the DNA from becoming a tangled mess, it is wrapped around proteins called a histones, forming a nucleosome. These nucleosomes are bundled together into a fiber known as chromatin, which is further looped and coiled to form a chromosome, one of the largest molecular structures in your body. You can actually see chromosomes under a microscope in dividing cells - only then do they take on their characteristic shape. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals. This footage is from a time lapse. You can see how the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell. When everything is right they are pulled apart into the two new daughter cells, each one containing an identical copy of DNA. As simple as it looks, this process is incredibly complicated and requires even more fascinating molecular machines to accomplish it. Let’s look at a single chromosome. One chromosome consists of two sausage-shaped chromatids - containing the identical copies of DNA made earlier. Each chromatid is attached to microtubule fibers, which guide and help align them in the correct position. The microtubules are connected to the chromatid at the kinetochore, here colored red. The kinetochore consists of hundreds of proteins working together to achieve multiple objectives - it’s one of the most sophisticated molecular mechanisms inside your body. The kinetochore is central to the successful separation of the chromatids. It creates a dynamic connection between the chromosome and the microtubules. For a reason no one’s yet been able to figure out, the microtubules are constantly being built at one end and deconstructed at the other. While the chromosome is still getting ready, the kinetochore sends out a chemical stop signal to the rest of the cell, shown here by the red molecules, basically saying this chromosome is not yet ready to divide The kinetochore also mechanically senses tension. When the tension is just right and the position and attachment are correct all the proteins get ready, shown here by turning green. At this point the stop signal broadcasting system is not switched off. Instead it is literally carried away from the kinetochore down the microtubules by a dynein motor. This is really what it looks like. It has long ‘legs’ so it can avoid obstacles and step over the kinesins, molecular motors walking the other direction. Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays
3 years ago Ru En
The merging of two neutron stars was detected by gravitational waves and then by telescopes in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a historic detection as it demonstrates: - the first gravitational waves detected from inspiraling neutron stars - the first joint observation by gravitational wave and electromagnetic wave astronomy - identification of a gamma ray burst in conjunction with merging neutron stars - how gravitational waves and gamma rays can be used together to locate their source All evidence so far indicates that the data support General Relativity. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Graphics from: Jets and Debris from a Neutron Star Collision This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue). Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab Virgo Helps Localize Gravitational-Wave Signals Sky localizations of gravitational-wave signals detected by LIGO beginning in 2015 (GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, GW170104), and, more recently, by the LIGO-Virgo network (GW170814, GW170817). After Virgo came online in August 2017, scientists were better able to localize the gravitational-wave signals. The background is an optical image of the Milky Way. The localizations of GW150914, LVT151012, and GW170104 wrap around the celestial sphere, so the sky map is shown with a translucent dome. Credit: LIGO/Virgo/NASA/Leo Singer (Milky Way image: Axel Mellinger) Variety of Gravitational Waves and a Chirp The signal measured by LIGO and Virgo from the neutron star merger GW170817 is compared here to previously detected binary black hole mergers. All signals are shown starting at 30 Hertz, and the progression of GW170817 is shown in real time, accompanied by its conversion to audio heard at the end of the movie. GW170817 was observable for more than 30 times longer than any previous gravitational-wave signal. Credit: LIGO/University of Oregon/Ben Farr LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists and some 100 institutions from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian collaboration OzGrav. Additional partners are listed at http://ligo.org/partners.php The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.
Schlieren Imaging in Color! Schlieren Imaging in Color!
3 years ago Ru En
How Schlieren imaging works in color, black and white and slow-mo. Get a free audiobook with a 30 day free trial at http://www.audible.com/veritasium Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Filming by Raquel Nuno Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit
ECLIPSE 2017 ECLIPSE 2017
3 years ago En
The total solar eclipse from Madras, Oregon on August 21, 2017. As the moon passed in front of the sun turning day to night and revealing the sun's corona, apparently all I could think to say was 'Oh my goodness!' Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Ron Neal, Zach Mueller, Jeff Straathof, Curational, Tony Fadell Everyone says not to photograph your first solar eclipse and I think they might be right. I was focused on getting the exposure right for Bailey's beads and the diamond ring, plus making sure to get the corona and solar flares. This was a bit stressful but I'm delighted with the results. This video originally included more info but since I'm uploading from Madras where the internet is sluggish, I cut out three minutes so the upload would happen before I had to leave for my flight. Special thanks also to Dr. Teagan Wall for sharing this experience with me and Raquel Nuno for inspiring me to come to Oregon. Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Spinning Earth 2" and Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Big Mojo"
How We're Redefining the kg How We're Redefining the kg
3 years ago En
In 2018 the kg will be defined by Planck's constant, not a hunk of metal. Try a free book from Audible for 30 days http://ve42.co/audible Special thanks to the staff at NIST who made this possible: Darine Haddad, Jon Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, and Ben Stein. Additional footage and animations by Sean Kelley, Jennifer Lauren Lee, and Frank Seifert. I have been obsessed with measurement for a long time and I'm not sure quite how it happened. The world's roundest object played a role in this. I guess I'm just fascinated by how difficult it is to pin down a quantity like a kilogram. A physical object seemed like a good idea until the mass of the international prototype kilogram wasn't as constant as expected. These methods of the Kibble balance and silicon sphere have shown better precision than 20 parts per billion, making them superior to the old method. The agreement between Avogadro approaches Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Interferometer video by TSG Physics: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-u3IEgcTiQ Music from http://epidemicsound.com "ExperiMental1" by Gunnar Johnsén Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Hydrodynamic Levitation! Hydrodynamic Levitation!
3 years ago Ru En
On a stream of water you can levitate light balls of all sizes and even disks and cylinders. The mechanism is not the Bernoulli effect... Want to make this at home? https://youtu.be/BppcHF2EdAY My friend Blake from InnoVinci emailed me with a cool idea for a video and footage of levitating balls in water streams. Initially it was tough to explain the physics of what was going on. The standard Bernoulli effect relies on the object being completely immersed in the upward-flowing fluid. But in this case the water seems to form a single stream around the object and it's deflected away and down from the stream. By Newton's third law, the force on the water by the ball is equal and opposite to the force of the water back on the ball, pushing it up into the stream. There is a stable equilibrium position because if the ball moves into the stream, it "cuts off" the water going over the ball so it drifts out. If it drifts out too far, then lots of water passes over the ball, pushing it back into the stream. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops http://hollywoodspecialops.com Music from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Colored Spirals 3" "Magnified X 3" "In Orbit 2" "ExperiMental 1"
Seeing the Invisible: Schlieren Imaging in SLOW MOTION Seeing the Invisible: Schlieren Imaging in SLOW MOTION
3 years ago Ru En
This is what the world would look like if you could see invisible air currents, temperature gradients, and differences in pressure or composition of the air. Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I first saw a Schlieren imaging setup around ten years ago in Melbourne. I was immediately fascinated by the way I could see the warm air coming off my hand. I hadn't expected the currents to be moving that fast or to be so visible. This was a tricky setup to get right because alignment is very important and here I'm just working with what I had lying around the house mostly (plus the mirror). For the best Schlieren photography, making sure the mirror is stable is essential. I want to improve my setup so the mirror doesn't wobble back and forth too much creating the pulsing light and dark sections of this video. The relationship between index of refraction of air and temperature, pressure, humidity and wavelength is complicated. This website will calculate it for you: http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Ciddor.asp Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops: http://www.hollywoodspecialops.com Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit: http://www.ashellinthepit.com Filmed by Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Blake Nichols for assistance
Sandwich Bag Fire Starter Sandwich Bag Fire Starter
3 years ago En
Grant Thompson - the King of Random - teaches me how to start a fire with a Sandwich bag. And we tried to melt glass in my backyard: https://goo.gl/zb0uE0 Check out his channel: http://ve42.co/KoR The intensity of sunlight on Earth is about 1300 Watts per square meter. When you focus the sun's rays using a magnifying glass (or in this case sphere of water) you can increase the intensity roughly ten thousand fold. This increases the temperature of wood to its autoignition point starting the reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere. By protecting the hot embers and adding more energy and fuel, you can get these hot coals to start a roaring fire. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon
NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery! NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!
3 years ago En
Scientists have JUST published this new observation. On January 4th, 2017 they detected the merger of two black holes 3 billion light-years away. This marks the furthest detection they've been able to make and increases confidence that these events will be seen with increasing frequency as the LIGO interferometers become more sensitive to low amplitude gravitational waves (as sources of noise are eliminated). Special thanks to: Prof. Rana Adhikari Prof. David Reitze Resources by: Binary Neutron Star merger: Relastro @ ITP - Goethe University, Frankfurt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nOTXC4FG9gU Numerical simulation of black hole merger: S. Ossokine/A. Buonanno/T. Dietrich (MPI for Gravitational Physics)/R. Haas (NCSA)/SXS project Artist's impression of merger and chart: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet) Simulation of black hole merger: SXS Collaboration Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Sound Recording by Raquel Nuno
World's Heaviest Weight World's Heaviest Weight
3 years ago En
How do you measure big forces accurately? By calibrating your force transducer on the world's biggest weight - 1,000,000 pounds of force. This machine ensures planes don't break apart, jets provide required thrust, and rockets make it to their destination. Thanks to the people at NIST for showing me around: Rick Seifarth and Ben Stein. Animations here are by Sean Kelley and additional footage by Jennifer Lauren Lee. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Before visiting NIST in Washington DC I had no idea machines like this existed. Surely there's an accurate way to measure forces without creating such a huge known force?! Nope. This appears to be the best way, with a stack of 20 x 50,000 lb masses creating a maximum force of 4.45 MN or 1,000,000 pounds of force. I also wouldn't have thought about all the corrections that need applying - for example buoyancy subtracts about 125 pounds from the weight of the stack. Plus the local gravitational field strength must be taken into account. And, the gravitational field varies below grade. All of this must be taken into account in order to limit uncertainty to just five parts per million (.0005%) Music from The Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
The Next Mission to Mars: Mars 2020 The Next Mission to Mars: Mars 2020
3 years ago En
In 2020, NASA will send a new rover to the Martian surface with one of its objectives to search for evidence of ancient life on the planet. I made this clip as a correspondent for Bill Nye Saves the World on Netflix. Touring the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in Pasadena was an awesome experience. I didn't think we were going to get into the control room but we got lucky. Some of the greatest moments in the history of space exploration have taken place there. They have a giant vacuum chamber where they can take the rover down to the atmospheric pressure on Mars (roughly .01x Earth's atmosphere) and test all of the devices to make sure there are no electrical discharges due to the reduced pressure. I also enjoyed seeing how the rocks will be cored and stored in tubes and deposited on the Martian surface awaiting pickup by the following mission. Images courtesy of NASA. Filmed by Raquel Nuno from 3:30 onwards. Music: http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
The American Kilogram The American Kilogram
3 years ago En
The US signed the metre convention and bases all customary units on SI standards. As an aside, the Utah constitution from 1895 required the metric system to be taught in schools. This requirement was repealed in 1987. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Huge thanks to NIST, Ben Stein and Patrick Abbott. https://www.nist.gov/ https://www.nist.gov/pml/weights-and-measures/si-units-mass Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Back in 1875 The US signed the Metre Convention, which basically committed the country to use the metric system. In return, French scientists sent two platinum-iridium cylinders that weigh 1kg to the US in 1889 (known by their designations K4 and K20 from a set of 40 identical objects that were produced and sent around the world). So even though everything you see and buy in the US is usually reported in pounds, all weights are traceable back to the K20 kilogram (by applying a conversion factor to get to pounds). When I was in DC a few weeks ago, I visited the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and got up close with K20, which is still kept there and used to calibrate all mass standards in this country. I thought it was pretty cool. Edited by Bill Connor
Fire in ZERO-G!! Fire in ZERO-G!!
3 years ago En
In a zero-g plane I experimented with flames and slinkies with surprising results. Check out e-penser's video: http://ve42.co/EPzeroG Check out Physicsgirl's video: http://ve42.co/PGzeroG Thanks to Novespace: http://ve42.co/novespace Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Nick Luchsinger, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen The zero-g plane allows for a lot of experiments to be conducted without the expense of getting equipment into orbit. Apparently 80% of microgravity research can be performed in a zero-gravity plane, which is much cheaper than going to space. The flame from the lighter seemed much lazier in zero-g because without weight there is no buoyant force and therefore no convection. This makes the process of combustion more challenging because it's difficult for oxygen to reach the fuel. Music from the Epidemic Sound: http://ve42.co/epidemic "Serene Story 2" "In Orbit 2"
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