Veritasium
An element of truth - videos about science, education, and anything else I find interesting.

182 videos
Why Robots That Bend Are Better Why Robots That Bend Are Better
1 week ago En
Robots of the future may be softer, squishier and bendier than robots today. This could make them ideal for space exploration. Check out http://kiwico.com/Veritasium50 for 50% off your first month of any subscription! On Thursday February 18th, 2021 the NASA Perseverance Rover will land on Mars. It is a wonderful robot, made out of steel and wire — but will future robots look like Perseverance? There is an emerging field of research on "soft robots", where the machines are flexible. These soft robots have many advantages over traditional robots — they're safer, lighter, more flexible and can change their shape and size. NASA is investigating the use of soft robots for space missions. For future visits to Enceladus or Europa, a lander could cut a hole in the ice and then insert a compliant robot through the hole. This robot could then grow and change shape on the other side. References: N. S. Usevitch, Z. M. Hammond, M. Schwager, A. M. Okamura, E. W. Hawkes, S. Follmer, An untethered isoperimetric soft robot. Sci. Robot. 4, https://ve42.co/Hammond2020 — paper about the truss robot https://ve42.co/Usevitch2020 — press release and video about the truss robot Electronics-free pneumatic circuits for controlling soft-legged robots Dylan Drotman1, Saurabh Jadhav, David Sharp, Christian Chan, Michael T. Tolley Sci. Robot. 6, eaay2627 (2021) https://ve42.co/Drotman — paper about the turtle robot Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Robert, fanime96, Marc Forand, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Grace O'Maille KRON x Arc iOS, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex , Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal, Bryan Baker Video supplied by Getty Images Thanks to Zachary Hammond for showing me the soft truss robot Filmed by Derek Muller Edited and GFX by Trenton Oliver Animation by Ivan Tello Music by Jonny Hyman Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci, Dan Meyer
I Asked Bill Gates What's The Next Crisis? I Asked Bill Gates What's The Next Crisis?
3 weeks ago En
I got the chance to interview Bill Gates so I asked him: Will Covid-19 be the last pandemic? How does he deal with misinformation and conspiracy theories? And what is the next disaster? The Foundation Letter is here: https://ve42.co/BG21 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Robert, fanime96, Marc Forand, Juan Benet, Robert Blum, Grace O'Maille KRON x Arc iOS, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex , Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal Thanks to Petr Lebedev for early edits and Jonny Hyman for feedback
These Ponds Help Support Half The People On Earth These Ponds Help Support Half The People On Earth
1 month ago En
What are these electric blue ponds in the middle of the Utah desert? And why do they keep changing color? Join Derek Muller (Veritasium) as he looks into the weird, bizarre, and seemingly inexplicable images found on Google Earth to discover what on Earth they actually are. It’s a travel vlog, documentary, and science show wrapped into one. It’s Pindrop.
Q&A + Giveaway for 10 Years on YouTube Q&A + Giveaway for 10 Years on YouTube
1 month ago En
Thank you so much for an amazing 10 years! The giveaway is now closed. Spanish channel: https://ve42.co/VeEs Arabic channel: https://ve42.co/VeAr Thanks to Vorso for the spinning tops https://www.vorsospin.com Huge Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Ludovic Robillard, John Bauer, james, jim buckmaster, Robert, fanime96, Marc Forand, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Grace O'Maille KRON x Arc iOS, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Laura Sanborn, Pindex , Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal I also want to say a massive thanks to all my EDUtuber colleagues. Meeting and making great friends over the last decade has been one of the best things about this career.
The Illusion Only Some Can See The Illusion Only Some Can See
1 month ago En
Ames window illusion illustrates how we don't directly perceive external reality. Special Holiday deal! Go to https://NordVPN.com/veritasium and use code VERITASIUM to get 68% off a 2 year plan plus 4 additional months free. It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! Special thanks to: Prof. Phil Kellman from UCLA Psychology https://kellmanlab.psych.ucla.edu Museum of Illusions in Los Angeles for the use of their Ames Room https://laillusions.com Curiosity Show - Video on Ames Illusion: https://youtu.be/DkVOIJAaWO0 References: Ames, A., Jr. (1951). Visual perception and the rotating trapezoidal window. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 65(7), i–32. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093600 Marcel de Heer & Thomas V. Papathomas (2017) The Ames Window Illusion and Its Variations DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0014 Oross, Stephen, Francis, Ellie, Mauk, Deborah & Fox, Robert. (1987). The Ames Window Illusion: Perception of Illusory Motion by Human Infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 13(4), 609-613. Behrens, R. (1987). The Life and Unusual Ideas of Adelbert Ames, Jr. Leonardo, 20(3), 273-279. doi:10.2307/1578173 Burnham, C., & Ono, H. (1969). Variables Altering Perception of the Rotating Trapezoidal Illusion. The American Journal of Psychology, 82(1), 86-95. doi:10.2307/1420609 Allport, G. W., & Pettigrew, T. F. (1957). Cultural influence on the perception of movement: The trapezoidal illusion among Zulus. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55(1), 104–113. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0049372 Zenhausern R. Effect of Perspective on Two Trapezoid Illusions. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1969;28(3):1003-1009. doi:10.2466/pms.1969.28.3.1003 Gehringer, W. L., & Engel, E. (1986). Effect of ecological viewing conditions on the Ames' distorted room illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12(2), 181–185. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.12.2.181 Long, G.M., Toppino, T.C. Adaptation effects and reversible figures: A comment on Horlitz and O’Leary. Perception & Psychophysics 56, 605–610 (1994). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206956 Gregory RL. Looking through the Ames window. Perception. 2009;38(12):1739-40. doi: 10.1068/p3812ed. PMID: 20192124. Jahoda, G. (1966). Geometric illusions and environment: A study in Ghana. British Journal of Psychology, 57(1-2), 193–199. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1966.tb01019.x V. Mary Stewart (1974) A Cross-Cultural Test of the “Carpentered World” Hypothesis Using The Ames Distorted Room Illusion, International Journal of Psychology, 9:2, 79-89, DOI: 10.1080/00207597408247094 Margaret Kathleen Cappone (1966) The Effect of Verbal Suggestion on the Reversal Rate of the Ames Trapezoid Illusion, The Journal of Psychology, 62:2, 211-219, DOI: 10.1080/00223980.1966.10543786 Researched and written by Petr Lebedev and Derek Muller Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno Animations, VFX, and Music by Jonny Hyman Ames Room VFX and additional Ames Window animation by Nicolas Pratt Additional Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Life in Color" "Singularity" Large Ames window construction by GW Construction Video supplied by Getty Images
These are the asteroids to worry about These are the asteroids to worry about
3 months ago En
Stephen Hawking thought an asteroid impact posed the greatest threat to life on Earth. Thanks to Kiwico for sponsoring this video. For 50% off your first month of any crate, go to https://kiwico.com/veritasium50 For other potential world ending catastrophes, check out Domain of Science: https://ve42.co/DoS Special thanks to: Prof. Dave Jewitt from UCLA Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences Prof. Mark Boslough from Sandia National Labs Scott Manley: https://www.youtube.com/user/szyzyg Ryan Wyatt at Morrison Planetarium Prof. Amy Mainzer Alexandr Ivanov for the opening shot of Chelyabinsk Meteor Maps of Asteroid Impacts —https://ve42.co/Map Time passing animation from Universe Sandbox - http://universesandbox.com/ Opposition Effect — https://ve42.co/Belskaya2000 Belskaya, I. N., & Shevchenko, V. G. (2000). Opposition effect of asteroids. Icarus, 147(1), 94-105. Potentially Hazardous Asteroids — https://ve42.co/Perna2013 Perna, D., Barucci, M. A., & Fulchignoni, M. (2013). The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet. The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, 21(1), 65. Survey of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids — https://ve42.co/NEOSurvey Population Vulnerability — https://ve42.co/Rumpf2017 Rumpf, C. M., Lewis, H. G., & Atkinson, P. M. (2017). Population vulnerability models for asteroid impact risk assessment. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 52(6), 1082-1102. Size distribution of NEOs — https://ve42.co/Trilling17 Trilling, D. E., Valdes, F., Allen, L., James, D., Fuentes, C., Herrera, D., ... & Rajagopal, J. (2017). The size distribution of near-earth objects larger than 10 m. The Astronomical Journal, 154(4), 170. 2020 NEOWISE Data Release — https://ve42.co/NEOWISE National Research Council Report— https://ve42.co/Defending Board, S. S., & National Research Council. (2010). Defending planet earth: Near-Earth-Object surveys and hazard mitigation strategies. National Academies Press. Tug Boat — https://ve42.co/Schweickart03 Schweickart, R. L., Lu, E. T., Hut, P., & Chapman, C. R. (2003). The asteroid tugboat. Scientific American, 289(5), 54-61. Gravity Tractor 1 — https://ve42.co/Lu05 Lu, E. T., & Love, S. G. (2005). Gravitational tractor for towing asteroids. Nature, 438(7065), 177-178. Laser Ablation — https://ve42.co/Thiry14 Thiry, N., & Vasile, M. (2014). Recent advances in laser ablation modelling for asteroid deflection methods. SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 922608-922608. Yarakovsky Effect — https://ve42.co/Yara DART Mission — https://ve42.co/DART Nuclear 1 — https://ve42.co/Ahrens92 Ahrens, T. J., & Harris, A. W. (1992). Deflection and fragmentation of near-Earth asteroids. Nature, 360(6403), 429-433. Nuclear 2 — https://ve42.co/Bradley10 Bradley, P. A., Plesko, C. S., Clement, R. R., Conlon, L. M., Weaver, R. P., Guzik, J. A., ... & Huebner, W. F. (2010, January). Challenges of deflecting an asteroid or comet nucleus with a nuclear burst. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1208, No. 1, pp. 430-437). American Institute of Physics. Researched and Written by Petr Lebedev, Jonny Hyman and Derek Muller 3D animations, VFX, SFX, Audio Mixing by Jonny Hyman 2D animation by Ivàn Tello Intro animation by Nicolas Pratt With Filming by Raquel Nuno Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Stellar Dance" "Orbit" "That Notebook" "What We Discovered" "Out of Poppies" "Handwriting" Images and video supplied by Getty Images
Why The Speed Of Light* Can't Be Measured Why The Speed Of Light* Can't Be Measured
4 months ago En
Physics students learn the speed of light, c, is the same for all inertial observers but no one has ever actually measured it in one direction. Thanks to Kiwico for sponsoring this video. For 50% off your first month of any crate, go to https://kiwico.com/veritasium50 Huge thanks to Destin from Smarter Every Day for always being open and willing to engage in new ideas. If you haven't subscribed already, what are you waiting for: https://ve42.co/SED For an overview of the one-way speed of light check out the wiki page: https://ve42.co/wiki1way The script was written in consultation with subject matter experts: Prof. Geraint Lewis, University of Sydney https://ve42.co/gfl Prof. Emeritus Allen Janis, University of Pittsburgh Prof. Clifford M. Will, University of Florida https://ve42.co/cmw The stuff that's correct is theirs. Any errors are mine. References: Einstein, A. (1905). On the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Annalen der physik, 17(10), 891-921. (English) https://ve42.co/E1905 (German) https://ve42.co/G1905 Greaves, E. D., Rodríguez, A. M., & Ruiz-Camacho, J. (2009). A one-way speed of light experiment. American Journal of Physics, 77(10), 894-896. https://ve42.co/Greaves09 Response to Greaves et al. paper — https://arxiv.org/abs/0911.3616 Finkelstein, J. (2009). One-way speed of light?. arXiv, arXiv-0911. The Philosophy of Space and Time - Reichenbach, H. (2012). Courier Corporation. Anderson, R., Vetharaniam, I., & Stedman, G. E. (1998). Conventionality of synchronisation, gauge dependence and test theories of relativity. Physics reports, 295(3-4), 93-180. https://ve42.co/Anderson98 A review article about simultaneity — Janis, Allen, "Conventionality of Simultaneity", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) https://ve42.co/janis Will, C. M. (1992). Clock synchronization and isotropy of the one-way speed of light. Physical Review D, 45(2), 403. https://ve42.co/Will92 Zhang, Y. Z. (1995). Test theories of special relativity. General Relativity and Gravitation, 27(5), 475-493. https://ve42.co/Zhang95 Mansouri, R., & Sexl, R. U. (1977). A test theory of special relativity: I. Simultaneity and clock synchronization. General relativity and Gravitation, 8(7), 497-513. https://ve42.co/Sexl Research and writing by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animations by Ivàn Tello VFX, music, and space animations by Jonny Hyman Filmed by Raquel Nuno Special thanks for reviewing earlier drafts of this video to: Dominic Walliman, Domain of Science: https://ve42.co/DoS Henry Reich, Minutephysics: https://ve42.co/MP My Patreon supporters Additional music from https://epidemicsound.com "Observations 2"
Do You Expand With The Universe? Do You Expand With The Universe?
4 months ago En
As the universe expands, #expanding #space is said to "stretch" photons. But if it stretches photons, does it also stretch molecules, galaxies and you? A portion of this video was sponsored by Salesforce. Go to https://salesforce.com/veritasium to learn more. Special thanks to Geraint Lewis - this video was based on his paper "On the relativity of redshifts" https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.08634 Check out his YouTube channel: https://ve42.co/gfl and books: https://ve42.co/GFLbooks References: Expanding Space: the Root of all Evil? Matthew J. Francis, Luke A. Barnes, J. Berian James, Geraint F. Lewis https://arxiv.org/abs/0707.0380 Editing and VFX by Trenton Oliver Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Music from https://epidemicsound.com #SMB #smallbiz #startups #SalesforceEssentials
How One Supernova Measured The Universe How One Supernova Measured The Universe
4 months ago En
In 2015 astronomers successfully predicted the appearance of a supernova within a couple weeks. How did they do it? Win your Ultimate Tech Bundle by entering Fasthosts’ Techie Test here: https://fasthosts.com/veritasium (Competition now closed) This video was sponsored by Fasthosts. Special thanks to Geraint Lewis for consulting on gravitational lensing. Check out his YouTube channel: https://ve42.co/gfl and books: https://ve42.co/GFLbooks The supernova image in the thumbnail is from my documentary, Uranium: Twisting The Dragon's Tail. Check it out here: https://genepoolproductions.com/uranium-project References: DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN: THE REAPPEARANCE OF SUPERNOVA REFSDAL P. L. Kelly et al. https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.04654 Predicted properties of multiple images of the strongly lensed supernova SN Refsdal Masamune Oguri. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Volume 449, Issue 1, 01 May 2015, Pages L86–L89, https://arxiv.org/abs/1411.6443 Multiple Images of a Highly Magnified Supernova Formed by an Early-Type Cluster Galaxy Lens Patrick L. Kelly et al. https://arxiv.org/abs/1411.6009 "Refsdal" meets Popper: comparing predictions of the re-appearance of the multiply imaged supernova behind MACSJ1149.5+2223. T. Treu et al. https://arxiv.org/abs/1510.05750 Irwin I. Shapiro (1964). "Fourth Test of General Relativity". Physical Review Letters. 13 (26): 789–791. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.789 Irwin I. Shapiro; Gordon H. Pettengill; Michael E. Ash; Melvin L. Stone; et al. (1968). "Fourth Test of General Relativity: Preliminary Results". Physical Review Letters. 20 (22): 1265–1269. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.20.1265 Research & Writing by Stephanie Hamilton, Ralph Crewe, Petr Lebedev, Derek Muller, and Jonny Hyman Animations & VFX by Jonny Hyman & Ivàn Tello Thanks to Jaime Portsmouth for his gravitational lensing simulator and help enabling it to render simulations. Supernova simulations courtesy of Adam Burrows Numerous hubble images by Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA/ESA/STScI Numerous images by ESO / NASA
Why Gravity is NOT a Force Why Gravity is NOT a Force
4 months ago En
The General Theory of Relativity tells us gravity is not a force, gravitational fields don't exist. Objects tend to move on straight paths through curved spacetime. Thanks to Caséta by Lutron for sponsoring this video. Find out more at: https://www.lutron.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis for hours of consulting on this video so I could get these ideas straight in my own brain. Check out his YouTube channel: https://ve42.co/gfl or his books: https://ve42.co/GFLbooks Amazing VFX, compositing, and editing by Jonny Hyman 2D animations by Ivàn Tello Filmed by Steven Warren and Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Petr Lebedev for reviews and script consultation Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com Rocket made by Goodnight and Co. Screen images in rocket by Geoff Barrett Slow motion rocket exhaust footage from Joe Barnard at BPS.Space https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCILl8ozWuxnFYXIe2svjHhg
The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats
5 months ago En
Simples rules of geometry meant that 5-fold symmetry was impossible as were crystals without a periodic structure. This turns out to be wrong. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring a portion of this video. Click here to start using LastPass: https://ve42.co/LPs Huge thanks to Prof. Paul Steinhardt for the interview on this topic. Check out his book ‘The Second Kind of Impossible’ If you'd like to learn more about Penrose tilings, go check out "Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers" by Martin Gardener, which helped my research for this video. Filmed by Gene Nagata (Potato Jet on YouTube) Animations by Iván Tello and Jonny Hyman Editing, Coloring, Music & Audio mastering by Jonny Hyman Prague scenes filmed in 2012. Special thanks to Raquel Nuno for helping with the tilings! Additional Music from Epidemic Sound
Is Success Luck or Hard Work? Is Success Luck or Hard Work?
6 months ago En
In a competitive world, tiny advantages can make all the difference. Get 10% off Snatoms with code 'giveluck' in the US: https://ve42.co/USA or International: https://snatoms.com If you would like to receive Snatoms, submit the form here: https://ve42.co/getluck Snatoms are also available on Amazon Prime in the US but with no discount code: https://ve42.co/Asnatoms Huge thanks to Gene and Sam from Potato Jet for filming with me: https://ve42.co/potatojet This video was inspired by and draws examples from the book "Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy" by Robert H. Frank Special thanks to Patreon supporters (and to everyone who commented on an earlier version of this video): Marc Forand, Robert Dickerson, Christian Stauffer, LoadTooSlow, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, DALE HORNE, Alfred Wallace, Kevin Beavers, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Donal Botkin Animations by Iván Tello
Half the universe was missing... until now Half the universe was missing... until now
7 months ago En
Half of the ordinary baryonic matter has been tough to find but Fast Radio Bursts made it possible to detect the WHIM. Thanks to Kiwico for sponsoring this video! For 20% off go to https://kiwico.com/veritasium or use code VERITASIUM at checkout. Special thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis https://ve42.co/gfl Nature paper: A census of baryons in the Universe from localized fast radio bursts https://ve42.co/whim Research and Writing by Max Levy, Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Editing, Animations, Audio Mix & Mastering by Jonny Hyman Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Music from Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com
Turbulent Flow is MORE Awesome Than Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow is MORE Awesome Than Laminar Flow
8 months ago En
Everyone loves laminar flow but turbulent flow is the real MVP. A portion of this video was sponsored by Cottonelle. Purchase Cottonelle Flushable Wipes and try them for yourself: https://bit.ly/2WJm9Hq Special thanks to: Prof. Beverley McKeon and team https://www.mckeon.caltech.edu Destin from Smarter Every Day https://www.youtube.com/smartereveryday Nicole Sharp from FYFD https://ve42.co/fyfd Pavol Dobryakov turbulent simulations: https://paveldogreat.github.io/WebGL-Fluid-Simulation/ I got into turbulent flow via chaos. The transition to turbulence sometimes involves a period doubling. Turbulence itself is chaotic motion, it is unpredictable and sensitively dependent on initial conditions. What surprised me is all the ways turbulent flow is useful to us. It is diffusive, meaning it causes mixing. This is useful in jet engines or rocket nozzles (which Destin studies) and is important to achieve in microfluidic devices, which are so small that turbulent flow is actually difficult to achieve. Turbulent flow can energize a boundary layer, which is important to maintain flow attachment over a wing, maintaining lift and delaying stall. Similarly a turbulent boundary layer over a golf ball reduces pressure drag allowing golf balls to fly further. This is the reason for the dimples on golf balls. Flow transitioning to turbulence in the wake of a bluff body can create periodic vortex shedding. This beautiful phenomenon can be seen in the von Kàrmàn vortex street in clouds viewed from space. Turbulence is everywhere, in the air currents in a room, in your aorta, in the breaths you exhale, in oil pipelines and water pipes, in the flow over cars and ships and planes. Animals have evolved for it (like dead fish swimming up stream) and we have engineered our environment, our planes and golf balls for it. Laminar flow may be nice to look at (which is why we use it in decorative fountains) but turbulent flow does the real lifting. Animations by: Jonny Hyman (Sun, Jupiter, Reynolds, airfoil, Earth time-lapse) Research and writing: AJ Fillo and Derek Muller. AJ also created the wind tunnel golf ball shots Filmed by: Daniel Bydlowski and Derek Muller Additional footage: Images of Jupiter courtesy of NASA Turbulence in air currents by the Physics Girl, Dan Walsh, and Grant Sanderson https://youtu.be/N7d_RWyOv20 https://youtu.be/_UoTTq651dE Music: illBird "Shaffuru" https://youtu.be/5rkt53fNMgc From EpidemicSound https://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Colorful Animation 4" Kevin MacLeod https://incompetech.com "Sneaky Adventure"
Why Most Resolutions Fail & How To Succeed Why Most Resolutions Fail & How To Succeed
2 years ago En
Common pitfalls of New Year's resolutions and how I plan to avoid them. Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook plus two Audible Originals free when you go to https://audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500. Thanks to Simone Giertz for sending me and Every Day Calendar! Get notified when they're available to order here: http://www.simonegiertz.com/every-day-calendar Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Chuck Lauer Vose, Dale Horne, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Noel Braganza, Ron Neal, Tige Thorman
How to Slow Aging (and even reverse it) How to Slow Aging (and even reverse it)
2 years ago En Ru
Scientists like Prof Sinclair have evidence of speeding up, slowing, and even reversing aging. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring this video. Click here to start using LastPass: https://ve42.co/VeLP What causes aging? According to Professor David Sinclair, it is a loss of information in our epigenome, the system of proteins like histones and chemical markers like methylation that turn on and off genes. Epigenetics allow different cell types to perform their specific functions - they are what differentiate a brain cell from a skin cell. Our DNA is constantly getting broken, by cosmic rays, UV radiation, free radicals, x-rays and regular cell division etc. When our cells repair that damage, the epigenome is not perfectly reset. And hence over time, noise accumulates in our epigenome. Our cells no longer perform their functions well. To counter this decline, we can activate the body's own defenses against aging by stressing the body. Eat less, eat less protein, engage in intense exercise, experience uncomfortable cold. When the body senses existential threats it triggers longevity genes, which attempt to maintain the body to ensure its survival until good times return. This may be the evolutionary legacy of early bacteria, which established these two modes of living (repair and protect vs grow and reproduce). Scientists are uncovering ways to mimic stresses on the body without the discomfort of fasting. Molecules like NMN also trigger sirtuins to monitor and repair the epigenome. This may slow aging. Reversing aging requires an epigenetic reset, which may be possible using Yamanaka factors. These four factors can revert an adult cell into a pluripotent stem cell. Prof. Sinclair used three of the four factors to reverse aging in the retinal cells of old mice. He found they could see again after the treatment. Special thanks to: Professor David Sinclair, check out his book "Lifespan: Why We Age & Why We Don't Have To" Assistant Professor David Gold Noemie Sierra (for polyp images) Genepool Productions for telomere animations from Immortal: https://ve42.co/immortal Epigenetics animations (DNA, histones, methylation etc) courtesy of: http://wehi.tv Animation: Etsuko Uno Art and Technical Direction: Drew Berry Sound Design: Francois Tetaz & Emma Bortignon Scientific Consultation: Marnie Blewitt Courtesy of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research Filming, editing and animation by Jonny Hyman and Derek Muller Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Clearer Views" "Innovations" "A Sound Foundation" "Seaweed" Additional music by Kevin MacLeod from https://incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan"
The Science Behind the Butterfly Effect The Science Behind the Butterfly Effect
2 years ago En Ru
Chaos theory means deterministic systems can be unpredictable. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring this video. Click here to start using LastPass: https://ve42.co/VeLP Animations by Prof. Robert Ghrist: https://ve42.co/Ghrist Want to know more about chaos theory and non-linear dynamical systems? Check out: https://ve42.co/chaos-math Butterfly footage courtesy of Phil Torres and The Jungle Diaries: https://ve42.co/monarch Solar system, 3-body and printout animations by Jonny Hyman Some animations made with Universe Sandbox: https://universesandbox.com/ Special thanks to Prof. Mason Porter at UCLA who I interviewed for this video. I have long wanted to make a video about chaos, ever since reading James Gleick's fantastic book, Chaos. I hope this video gives an idea of phase space - a picture of dynamical systems in which each point completely represents the state of the system. For a pendulum, phase space is only 2-dimensional and you can get orbits (in the case of an undamped pendulum) or an inward spiral (in the case of a pendulum with friction). For the Lorenz equations we need three dimensions to show the phase space. The attractor you find for these equations is said to be strange and chaotic because there is no loop, only infinite curves that never intersect. This explains why the motion is so unpredictable - two different initial conditions that are very close together can end up arbitrarily far apart. Music from https://epidemicsound.com "The Longest Rest" "A Sound Foundation" "Seaweed"
The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained
2 years ago En
Spinning objects have strange instabilities known as The Dzhanibekov Effect or Tennis Racket Theorem - this video offers an intuitive explanation. Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: https://ve42.co/LP References: Prof. Terry Tao's Math Overflow Explanation: https://ve42.co/Tao The Twisting Tennis Racket Ashbaugh, M.S., Chicone, C.C. & Cushman, R.H. J Dyn Diff Equat (1991) 3: 67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01049489 Janibekov’s effect and the laws of mechanics Petrov, A.G. & Volodin, S.E. Dokl. Phys. (2013) 58: 349. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1028335813080041 Tumbling Asteroids Prave et al. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.021 The Exact Computation of the Free Rigid Body Motion and Its Use in Splitting Methods SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 30(4), 2084–2112 E. Celledoni, F. Fassò, N. Säfström, and A. Zanna https://doi.org/10.1137/070704393 Animations by Iván Tello and Isaac Frame Special thanks to people who discussed this video with me: Astronaut Don Pettit Henry Reich of MinutePhysics Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown Vert Dider (Russian YouTube channel) Below is a further discussion by Henry Reich that I think helps summarize why axes 1 and 3 are generally stable while axis 2 is not: In general, you might imagine that because the object can rotate in a bunch of different directions, the components of energy and momentum could be free to change while keeping the total momentum constant. However, in the case of axis 1, the kinetic energy is the highest possible for a given angular momentum, and in the case of axis 3, the kinetic energy is the lowest possible for a given angular momentum (which can be easily shown from conservation of energy and momentum equations, and is also fairly intuitive from the fact that kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared, while momentum is proportional to velocity - so in the case of axis 1, the smaller masses will have to be spinning faster for a given momentum, and will thus have more energy, and vice versa for axis 3 where all the masses are spinning: the energy will be lowest). In fact, this is a strict inequality - if the energy is highest possible, there are no other possible combinations of momenta other than L2=L3=0, and vice versa for if the energy is the lowest possible. Because of this, in the case of axis 1 the energy is so high that there simply aren't any other possible combinations of angular momentum components L1, L2 and L3 - the object would have to lose energy in order to spin differently. And in the case of axis 3, the energy is so low that there likewise is no way for the object to be rotating other than purely around axis 3 - it would have to gain energy. However, there's no such constraint for axis 2, since the energy is somewhere in between the min and max possible. This, together with the centrifugal effects, means that the components of momentum DO change.
Does Planet 9 Exist? Does Planet 9 Exist?
2 years ago En
A planet has been predicted to orbit the sun with a period of 10,000 years, a mass 5x that of Earth on a highly elliptical and inclined orbit. What evidence supports the existence of such a strange object at the edge of our solar system? Huge thanks to: Prof. Konstantin Batygin, Caltech Prof. David Jewitt, UCLA I had heard about Planet 9 for a long time but I wondered what sort of evidence could support the bold claim: a planet at the very limits of our ability to detect one, so far out that its period is over 60 times that of Neptune. The planet 9 hypothesis helps explain clustering of orbits of distant Kuiper belt objects. It also explains how some of these objects have highly inclined orbits - up to 90 degrees relative to the plane of the solar system. Some are orbiting in reverse. Plus their orbits are removed from the orbit of Neptune, the logical option for a body that could have ejected them out so far. The fact that the perihelion is so far out suggests another source of gravity was essential for their peculiar orbits. Special Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, DALE HORNE, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Noel Braganza, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Observations - From Now On" "Magnified XY"
Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch! Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch!
2 years ago En
I used a nitrogen membrane and Stirling cryocooler to liquefy nitrogen out of the air. For this video I partnered with Starbucks to celebrate their Nitro Cold Brew. Order one here: https://starbucks.app.link/derekmuller Making liquid nitrogen is hard - in fact up until 150 years ago scientists doubted whether it was even possible to liquefy nitrogen. In 1823, At the royal institution in London, Michael Faraday first produced liquid chlorine, kind of accidentally by putting it under high pressure. He similarly liquefied ammonia. Borrowing a mixture from Thilorier in France, a combination of dry ice, snow and ether, he reached a temperature of -110C. By 1845 he used this mixture plus a hand pump to pressurize gases to liquefy all the known gases except six, which included oxygen and nitrogen. These became known as the “permanent” gases. A French Physicist Aimé compressed oxygen and nitrogen in tanks and then lowered them into the ocean over 1.6km deep, where the pressure got up to 200 atmospheres. Still the gases didn’t liquefy. Only at the end of 1877 were the first droplets of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen produced, by Cailletet in France. He first tried oxygen by compressing it up to 300 atmospheres, cooled to -30C, but that wasn't even enough to liquefy oxygen. But when he suddenly released the pressure, the expanding gas cooled, he estimated to -200C and he saw a mist and then droplets slide down the walls of his vessel. It's amazing how far we've come in that now I can purchase a helium-based cryocooler. It compresses and expands the gas to absorb heat from the tip of the cold finger and eject it into the surroundings at ambient temperature.
First Flight on Another Planet! First Flight on Another Planet!
2 years ago En
The Mars Helicopter aims to make the first powered flight on another planet when it takes off on Mars as part of the Mars 2020 mission. I learned a lot getting to visit the drone right before it was mounted on the rover. How do you fly in 1% of Earth's atmosphere: Have large rotors (they are 1.2m in diameter) and spin them very fast, around 2500 RPM (5x the speed of a helicopter on Earth). Plus the aircraft has to be light: The Mars helicopter weighs in at 1.8kg or around the same as a laptop. Every piece had to be stripped down for weight. Instead of using aerogel for insulation, the craft makes use of CO2 gaps between components. Even aerogel was too heavy! One of the major challenges is surviving the Martian night: Temperatures plunge to -80C to -100C so two thirds of the craft's power is actually used to keep its electronics warm. Only one third is used for flying. The estimated flight time is 90 seconds. The craft can't be driven remotely, it will have to fly autonomously, using its own sensor suite to determine how to fly. The round trip 20 minute delay with Earth means steering the craft from mission control would be impossible. Huge Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Philipp Volgger, Chris Vargas, Ron Neal, Alfred Wallace, Colin Bellmore, Michael Krugman, James Knight, Donal Botkin, Sam Lutfi, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Kevin Beavers, Chuck Lauer Vose, Bryan Baker, James Wong, kkm, Manuel Zürcher, Tige Thorman, Jasper Xin, Leah Howard, Daniel Milum, Mathias Göransson, Stan Presolski, Lyvann Ferrusca, Arjun Chakroborty, June Kang, Listen Money Matters, Pindex, Joar Wandborg, DALE HORNE, Parker Linn, Roberto Rezende Jonny Hyman was a legend in editing, animation, filming, and sound design for this video.
Why the Future of Cars is Electric Why the Future of Cars is Electric
2 years ago En
Electric cars are now ready to take over thanks to advances in battery technology and their inherent benefits: torque, handling, maintenance. This video was sponsored by BMW: https://www.bmwusa.com/ Full disclosure: I drive an #electric #car. I think electric cars are the future, not mainly because they're better for the environment (which they are if you drive the car for any reasonable length of time) but because they are just better cars. The have better torque and acceleration, better handling, they're more efficient, quieter, they don't smell, they're cheaper to run and best of all you never have to visit a gas station - this appeals to me. I never have to worry about being low on gas because every morning my car is charged and ready to go - just like my phone and laptop. And if you're worried about range, don't. Almost all trips can already be done in an electric car with modest battery pack. And fast chargers along the way make it possible to do longer road trips if necessary. You have to make rest stops anyway, just time them with the charging. And consider that battery tech is getting dramatically cheaper, smaller, lighter. All these reasons are why I see the #future of cars as electric. Writing & Research Derek Muller Jonny Hyman Matthew Shribman https://ve42.co/sciencebath Editing, Animation, Audio, & Music: Jonny Hyman Camerawork: Raquel Nuno Jonny Hyman 1890s Music "National fantasie" by William Paris Chambers, archived in Library of Congress #BMWUSA #NEXTGen #BMWPartner #ad
Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site
2 years ago En
Apollo astronauts trained in nuclear bomb craters at the Nevada National Security Site. But why?Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook plus two Audible Originals free when you go to http://audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 I found this story fascinating because in a way a nuclear bomb crater is more like a meteorite impact site than an impact site itself. Consider: Barringer Crater was claimed to be a meteorite impact site but geologists dismissed it as a volcanic formation. It was only after studying nuclear bomb craters and the minerals found there that geologists concluded the energy and pressures that created Barringer Crater were too high to be from volcanic activity and therefore must have formed from a meteorite impact. Special Thanks to: Nevada National Security Site The National Atomic Testing Museum Jonny Hyman and Verse: https://youtu.be/7bUUGzi-AAY Active Galactic for footage of craters in Arizona: https://youtu.be/yhoooBpndog Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Daniel Milum, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, Illya Nayshevsky, James Knight, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Listen Money Matters, Lyvann Ferrusca, Manuel Zürcher, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, OddJosh, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Raquel Nuno Story and Editing by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Music and Animation by Jonny Hyman Produced by Casey Rentz
How a Fish Saved the Vikings How a Fish Saved the Vikings
2 years ago En
The Vikings suffered many hardships living in the north of Europe: long, cold winters and importantly a lack of sunlight. Luckily, they had cod. Check out Vitamania: https://ve42.co/cod When making a video about vitamins I thought the story would mainly be about supplement pills, whether we should or shouldn't take them and how they're made. But what I found out is vitamins have a remarkable story that affects many more aspects of our lives. For example the Vikings needed a source of vitamin D to last the dark winter months and for their children to develop strong, healthy bones, avoiding rickets. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 This video was filmed by Harry Panagiotidis Researched and written by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Editing, animation and music by Jonny Hyman Cod liver oil animation by Iván Tello Vitamania was written, directed and produced by Sonya Pemberton
I Made Myself Fireproof AND Waterproof With Aerogel I Made Myself Fireproof AND Waterproof With Aerogel
2 years ago En
Aerogel has extraordinary properties but it can be tough to work with. This video looks at modifying aerogels to take advantage of their unique characteristics. Subscribe to Veritasium: https://ve42.co/sub Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: http://www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! https://www.flir.com Aerogel’s extraordinary properties are due in large part to its structure. Aerogel is a solid but on the nanoscale it has a mesh or sponge-like structure. The struts of this structure are nanoscale, as are the pores at around 20nm across. This makes silica aerogel incredibly light (it was once the lightest solid but has now been superseded by graphene aerogel), transparent and adsorbent. An ice-cube sized piece of aerogel has an internal surface area roughly equal to half a football field. Aerogel is used in high end museum cases to regulate humidity. Plus it helps maintain the vacuum on the Mars Insight seismometers - it adsorbs moisture and other outgassed volatiles that come from the spacecraft itself. Proposed uses include as a physical insecticide by ‘drying out insects’ reducing the need for chemical and toxic pesticides. Special thanks to all my Patreon supporters especially those who contributed feedback to an earlier draft of this video: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Paul Gramaglia Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Animations by Catherine Chooljian Music from https://epidemicsound.com “Tonic Zone” “Betelgeuse” “Insidious Mice” “Seaweed” “It’s not that serious” “Platin00m - Sum It” This is an educational, scientific video.
Can You Swim in Shade Balls? Can You Swim in Shade Balls?
2 years ago En
I bought 10,000 shade balls and tried to swim in them. They appear to act like a non-Newtonian fluid: rigid under high shear stress, but they flow like a liquid under low shear. Get a signed shade ball by supporting Veritasium: https://ve42.co/patreon Receiving a shade ball: 1. Support Veritasium on any Patreon tier and enter your address https://ve42.co/patreon 2. In about a month I will send out signed shade balls 3. I will cover all shipping costs but if things get really crazy I will prioritize existing Patreon supporters and higher tiers My sense was that swimming in shade balls would be difficult but still doable. This was roughly true for the single layer of shade balls. The shade balls slide past each other so they act like a liquid, albeit a viscous one owing to their significant inertia. It's much more intense exercise and it's also annoying to be bombarded with shade balls on all sides of your body, particularly your head. With multi-layer shade balls (as exists on much of LA reservoir) things get significantly more difficult. The balls bunch together and when you try to move through them quickly, they become more rigid, providing significant resistance to motion. This has the benefit that you can lie on them and as long as they stay trapped under you, you can float on them. But a little bit of motion causes them to move around and you sink through quickly. Huge thanks to: Jordan Schnabel and Cristian Carretero for filming and swimming and providing lifeguard services. Raquel Nuno for filming and putting up with me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Dubstep Mammoth 2" "Finally Here (Instrumental)" "The Last Arrival" "Sundown Love (Instrumental)"
World's Lightest Solid! World's Lightest Solid!
2 years ago En
Aerogels are the world's lightest (least dense) solids. They are also excellent thermal insulators and have been used in numerous Mars missions and the Stardust comet particle-return mission. The focus of this video is silica aerogels, though graphene aerogels are now technically the lightest. At one point Dr. Steven Jones literally held the Guinness World Record for making the lightest aerogel and therefore lightest solid. If you're interested in learning more about aerogels, let me know in the comments as there is a potential trilogy in the works... Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: http://www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! https://www.flir.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Filming by Raquel Nuno Animations by Maria Raykova Drawings by Mariel Solsberg Music From http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Swagger Stagger"
My Video Went Viral. Here's Why My Video Went Viral. Here's Why
2 years ago En
My hypothesis is that the algorithm, rather than viewer preference, drives views on the site. As the algorithm shifts, various YouTubers experience burnout (as what used to work no longer works) and right now click-through rate is the key metric. So clickable titles and thumbnails are the only way to get a lot of impressions and hence views - they are the only way to go viral. This leads me to wonder which audiences will become most prevalent on the site and if there will even be a place for educational content. In the long-term, hopefully YouTube is able to measure satisfaction through surveys and other metrics to ensure an optimal experience for everyone on the site. Flipchart artwork by Maria Raykova Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci
Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir? Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?
2 years ago En
I took a boat through 96 million black plastic balls on the Los Angeles reservoir to find out why they're there. The first time I heard about shade balls the claim was they reduce evaporation. But it turns out this isn't the reason they were introduced. Huge thanks to LADWP for arranging this special tour for me. Next time let's put the GoPro on the submersible! The balls are made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) which is less dense than water so they float on the surface of the reservoir even if they break apart. They are 10cm (4 inches) in diameter and contain about 210ml of water. So the main reason they are on the reservoir is to block sunlight from entering the water and triggering a chemical reaction that turns harmless bromide into carcinogenic bromate. This effect occurs with prolonged exposure to bromate so regulators insist that levels be kept below 10 microgram per liter on average over a 12 month period. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Thanks to: Las Virgenes Reservoir for footage of initial shade ball dump Euro-Matic for bird into jet-engine footage Researched and Produced by Casey Rentz Animations by Maria Raykova Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Colorful Animation 4" "Seaweed" And from Kevin MacLeod "Marty Gots a Plan" This is an educational video about the science of water quality.
Magnetic Micro-Robots Magnetic Micro-Robots
2 years ago En
Tiny robots activated by magnetic fields may be used in future biomedical procedures. Start listening to Audible with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook, plus two Audible Originals free when you go to http://audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 Huge thanks to: Dr. Eric Diller, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Toronto http://microrobotics.mie.utoronto.ca Research Referenced in this video: "Millimeter-Scale Flexible Robots with Programmable Three-Dimensional Magnetization and Motions," by T. Xu; J. Zhang; M. Salehizadeh; O. Onaizah; E. Diller http://robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav4494 "Reconfigurable magnetic microrobot swarm: multi-mode transformation, locomotion and manipulation," by H. Xie; M. Sun; X. Fan; Z. Lin; W. Chen; L. Wang; Q. He http://robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav8006 "Catalytic antimicrobial robots for biofilm eradication," by G. Hwang; A.J. Paula; E.E. Hunter; Y.Liu; A. Babeer; B. Karabucak; K. Stebe; V. Kumar; E. Steager; H. Koo http://robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aaw2388 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Music by Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "March of the Spoons"
$250,000 for a High School Science Student $250,000 for a High School Science Student
2 years ago En
The story of three impressive high school science projects. Can you guess which student won $250,000 in the #RegeneronSTS? Applications open June 1: http://bit.ly/2HkLXT1 This video was sponsored by Regeneron. The Science Talent Search was founded and produced by the Society for Science and the Public. Huge thanks to the students: Ronak Roy, Ana Humphrey, and Anjali Chadha. It was great getting to meet all of you and learn about your original scientific research. Special thanks to Assistant Professor Konstantin Batygin for discussing Ana's research and Planet 9 with me. More is coming on the Planet 9 front. Ronak came up with a new design for the phoropter, the device used to determine eye-glass prescriptions. It's basically been unchanged for 200 years. Using a liquid lens, he miniaturized the device and wrote an algorithm to determine your prescription. Ana used math and physics to search for hidden exoplanets. There are a number of reasons why the transit method and Kepler telescope may have missed them: they're too small, too inclined, or take too long to orbit and so were not seen. By considering which planetary systems have additional space for more planets, Ana came up with 560 locations where we may look again for planets in future. Anjali developed an internet enabled device for measuring arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The device performs several chemical reactions to release the arsenic into a measurable state. It then reacts the arsenic with a test strip to produce a color output. This color is sampled by a camera and processed to determine the concentration of arsenic in the water sample. This has significant potential applications around the world helping reduce exposure to arsenic and potentially other contaminants. Filming by Raquel Nuno
First Images of Black Holes! First Images of Black Holes!
2 years ago En
The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration observed the supermassive black holes at the center of M87 and our Milky Way galaxy (SgrA*) finding the dark central shadow in accordance with General Relativity, further demonstrating the power of this 100 year-old theory. To understand more about why the shadows look the way they do, check out: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUyH3XhpLTo I will continue updating this description with more links. Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: https://ve42.co/EHT Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/jvftAadCFRI Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/meOKmzhTcIY Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) https://youtu.be/VnsZj9RvhFU Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/Ame7fzBuFnk Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/XmvpKFSvB7A Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Scale animation by Maria Raykova
How to Understand the Image of a Black Hole How to Understand the Image of a Black Hole
2 years ago En
We are about to see the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of the Milky Way galaxy or maybe the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 https://ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney https://ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech https://ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: https://ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: https://ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova
How Was Video Invented? How Was Video Invented?
2 years ago En
I always wanted to know why film looked better than video. Moving electronic images have as long a history but were invented for a different purpose. This video was sponsored by B&H Photo: https://www.bhphotovideo.com Huge thanks to: Richard Diehl, Video Labguy https://www.youtube.com/user/videolabguy https://www.labguysworld.com Branch Education for awesome animations https://ve42.co/BranchEd Minutephysics for mechanical TV animations https://www.youtube.com/minutephysics Mark Schubin Engineer and explainer, SMPTE Life Fellow https://www.smpte.org This is a video I've long wanted to make, about what makes video look like video and, up until 10 years ago or so, not as appealing as film. I grew up with the two technologies (film and video) in parallel and to me they always seemed like two ways of achieving the same ends: recording and replaying moving images. But their histories are quite distinct. Film was always a way to capture moving images for later replaying. Video started out as a way to transfer images from one place to another instantaneously. This dates back to the first fax machine, mechanical TV, live broadcast tv and ultimately videotapes. This history focuses on the early decades of video and not the more recent switches to chip cameras and solid state storage. Maybe that's a story for another day. Additional resources and references: The Dawn of Tape: Transmission Device as Preservation Medium https://ve42.co/dawnoftape What Sparked Video Research in 1877? The Overlooked Role of the Siemens Artificial Eye https://ve42.co/sparkvideo Video Preservation Website: http://videopreservation.conservation-us.org Image Orthicon Tube: http://interiorcommunicationselectrician.tpub.com/14120/141200335.htm Film vs Digital https://stephenfollows.com/film-vs-digital/ Eyes of a Generation: http://eyesofageneration.com Television in the US: http://www3.northern.edu/wild/th100/tv.htm http://www.classictvinfo.com Music from https://www.epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Capture a Picture 1" "Colorful Animation 4"
Do Humans Have an Internal Compass? Do Humans Have an Internal Compass?
2 years ago En
Research has found human brains can pick up on rotations of geomagnetic-strength fields as evidenced by drops in alpha wave power following stimulus. For more, see https://ve42.co/magneto Huge thanks to: Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo, Connie Wang, and Isaac Hilburn, plus Prof. Joe Kirschvink. Their lab: https://ve42.co/maglab Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Additional filming by Whitney Clavin
How Flexible Machines Could Save The World How Flexible Machines Could Save The World
2 years ago En
Compliant mechanisms have lots of advantages over traditional devices. SimpliSafe is awesome security. It's really effective, easy to use, and the price is great. Check out SimpliSafe here: https://simplisafe.com/veritasium I visited the Compliant Mechanisms Research group at Brigham Young University and spoke to Professor Larry Howell: https://www.compliantmechanisms.byu.edu At the above link, you can download 3D-print files to make some of the objects in the video, plus learn more about compliant mechanisms. What I learned about compliant mechanisms I summarize in the 8 P's of compliant mechanisms: 1. Part count (reduced by having flexible parts instead of springs, hinges) 2. Productions processes (many, new, different enabled by compliant designs) 3. Price (reduced by fewer parts and different production processes) 4. Precise Motion (no backlash, less wear, friction) 5. Performance (no outgassing, doesn't require lubricant) 6. Proportions (reduced through different production processes) 7. Portability (lightweight due to simpler, reduced part count designs) 8. Predictability (devices are reliable over a long period of time) Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animation by Alan Chamberlain
Can You Recover Sound From Images? Can You Recover Sound From Images?
3 years ago En
Is it possible to reconstruct sound from high-speed video images? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass: http://bit.ly/2SmRQkk Special thanks to Dr. Abe Davis for revisiting his research with me: http://abedavis.com This video was based on research by Dr. Abe Davis and colleagues. I found out about this work years ago and was fascinated by the way he was able to capture vibration information in image-only video. I always imagined the motions of objects would be visible as when recording a tuning fork in slow motion - so deriving sound from high speed images seemed a feasible task. But the reality is much more difficult. Sound vibrations only cause objects to wiggle by about a micrometer. This is much smaller than a pixel, so the algorithm must understand the characteristics of the image. A move in one direction should cause some pixels to lighten slightly, while others darken - and this behavior is correlated along the edges of the image. So noise can be reduced because it's random over the image and there are enough places to sample that you can get it to cancel out. Something I'm wondering now is - would it be possible to capture sound in a single image? I'm thinking it would have to be an image of a large object or space because the wavelengths of typical sounds are quite long. Maybe a high frequency sound could be imaged in a suitable medium... Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma
3 years ago En
A bisected grape in the microwave makes plasma. But how does it work? A grape is the right size and refractive index to trap microwaves inside it. When you place two (or two halves) close together the fields interact with each other creating a maximum of electromagnetic energy where they touch. This creates heating, sparks, and plasma, which is further fed with energy directly by the microwaves. Huge thanks to Hamza Khattak, Prof. Pablo Bianucci and Prof. Aaron Slepkov (unavailable for the call) for chatting to me and helping me understand the physics of this cool phenomenon. Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers https://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1818350116 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks also to Steve Bosi, my original plasma collaborator. Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
Are Negative Ions Good For You? Are Negative Ions Good For You?
3 years ago En
Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: http://bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: http://www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp http://beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"
The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect
3 years ago En
Droplets levitate on a bath of liquid nitrogen and are spontaneously self-propelled. Thanks Audible! Start a 30-day trial and your first audiobook is free. Go to https://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500. Special thanks to Dr. Anaïs Gauthier Physics of Fluids: https://pof.tnw.utwente.nl/ Self-propulsion of inverse Leidenfrost drops on a cryogenic bath Anaïs Gauthier, Christian Diddens, Rémi Proville, Detlef Lohse, and Devaraj van der Meer PNAS January 22, 2019 116 (4) 1174-1179; published ahead of print January 22, 2019 https://www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1174 For a detailed description of the setup: http://www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/Langmuir2016.pdf And self-propulsion is also seen: http://www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/InvLeidenfrost.avi Other recent (hot) Leidenfrost experiments that might be interesting: * Leidenfrost wheels: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glRGl-eYuXo * Leidenfrost maze: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=174&v=vPZ7sx3EwUY * Leidenfrost explosions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0sp3AjgUy4 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks to Prof. Kevin McKeegan at UCLA for the liquid nitrogen Filming by Raquel Nuno Additional animations by Alan Chamberlain
Spinning Black Holes Spinning Black Holes
3 years ago En
A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span? Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham. A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole https://ve42.co/pasham Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA
The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites) The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)
3 years ago En
A launch mishap led to the best experimental confirmation of gravitational redshift. Get a free audiobook with a 30-day trial of Audible: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Huge thanks to Dr. Pacome Delva: https://ve42.co/pacome Dr. Sven Herrmann: https://ve42.co/sven Gravitational Redshift Test Using Eccentric Galileo Satellites: https://ve42.co/GRtest Disclaimer: It is arguable what is THE best test of general relativity because there are different ways to test the theory. This is the best confirmation of gravitational redshift, which is one of the three original tests proposed by Einstein. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Subtle Substitutes 2" "A sound Foundation 1" "Cell Research 1" "Particle Attraction 1"
Non-Invasive Brain Surgery Non-Invasive Brain Surgery
3 years ago En
Scientists have combined ultrasound, viruses and synthetic drugs to control regions of the brain. Check out Skillshare: https://skl.sh/veritasium (first 500 get 2 months free) Special thanks to Prof. Mikhail Shapiro and Dr. Jerzy Szablowski: http://shapirolab.caltech.edu Human brains are complicated - the most complicated thing in the known universe, many people say. So far we understand little - just that certain regions of the brain appear to be involved in certain activities and certain disorders. In extreme cases this has led to the practice of removing sections of the brain, or using electrodes or optical fibers to control activation rates. What is unique about this approach is it offers a way to turn on and off specific brain regions without invasive surgery. It has promise because it combines existing technologies: micro-bubbles, ultrasound, synthetic viruses, and synthetic drugs to achieve this goal. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
The kg is dead, long live the kg The kg is dead, long live the kg
3 years ago En
The kilogram, mole, kelvin, and ampere will be redefined by physical constants. For a limited time, get 3 months of Audible for just $6.95 a month: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Will this be the last video I make about SI units? Quite possibly. There's something about being so precise and defining the systems within which science works. When we can more accurately and routinely measure a kilogram, a mole, a kelvin and an ampere, then we can make better observations, we can better detect anomalies and improve our theories. That is why this is so important to me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, James M Nicholson, Terrance Shepherd, Stan Presolski Special thanks to NIST: http://nist.gov Additional graphics by Ignat Berbeci Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
ZERO-G Challenges of a Trip to Mars! ZERO-G Challenges of a Trip to Mars!
3 years ago En
A trip to #Mars involves radiation, muscle and bone loss, intermediate axis theorem and liquids. Check out Mars on National Geographic, Monday Nov 12 at 9/8c #sponsored When I got offered the chance to fly in another #zeroG plane, I jumped at the chance. Do you know how hard it is when you are thrust into low-gravity, like the 37% of Earth's gravity of Mars, and you have to remember what you were going to say in a 30 second window as blood floods your head? It's pretty hard. It would be even harder to actually travel to Mars. It would take about 8 months in microgravity during which time your muscles and bones would weaken substantially, even if you exercise for hours a day like the astronauts on the space station. And your heart is a muscle too so it weakens as well. Before I contemplated these rates of muscle and bone loss, I thought the major challenge with a round trip journey to Mars would be the logistics of spacecraft and having enough fuel to get back. But with the weakening of the human body, it's an open question whether anyone would really want to come back. Filmed by Steve Boxall Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com
The Fungus on Your Head The Fungus on Your Head
3 years ago En
This fungus lives on your scalp and may affect the genes you express. Check out Head & Shoulders research on getting rid of dandruff: https://ve42.co/HS Animation by Pindex: https://ve42.co/pindex When I started this project, I wasn't sure what caused dandruff and I also didn't think much science would go into making a shampoo like Head & Shoulders. So what I learned really surprised me: There are hundreds of scientists working on this shampoo. They run crazy-sounding experiments like hanging hair near Tokyo highways to understand how real-world environments deposit dirt on hair. They use sophisticated scientific techniques like electron microscopes, nuclear magnetic resonance and gene sequencing to study dandruff on the molecular level. In fact they sequenced the entire genome of Malassezia globosa in 2002, one year after the human genome project. Their findings are published in international refereed journals. What they have found is that the Malassezia fungi create free fatty acids as byproducts of their digestion, which for some people create irritation and lead to hyper-proliferation of skin cells, flaking, histamines, inflammatory cytokines, and blood proteins reaching the surface of the skin. These findings indicate the unhealthiness of dandruff scalp and suggest a possible remedy - controlling the metabolism of the Malassezia fungi. This is achieved using different active ingredients in different products and different parts of the world, including zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, and piroctone olamine. With the reduction of irritants, the scalp actually expresses different genes, producing a signature more similar to a non-dandruff baseline scalp. Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com Music also by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com
The Scientific Benefits of Boredom The Scientific Benefits of Boredom
3 years ago En
Boredom makes you more creative, altruistic, introspective, and helps with autobiographical planning. This video was sponsored by LastPass: http://bit.ly/2wAsdUu I feel like this video might come across as condescending but the person I'm really talking to is myself. Despite the fact that I know how useful it can be to be bored, I still find myself trying to fill every last moment with stimulus. Boredom is unpleasant - the open, unstructured thinking that can take place can also feel pointless. But now I'm made this video to remind myself how important boredom is so hopefully I'll make more time to be bored. More resources: The boredom leads people to shock themselves study: Just Think: The challenges of the disengaged mind https://wjh-www.harvard.edu/~dtg/WILSON%20ET%20AL%202014.pdf Boredom leads people to consider their future and set goals study: Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810011001978 On boredom and altruism: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ca72/0f959d3c9c31187ac30b28ecfec430bc98cc.pdf Does boredom make us more creative? https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10400419.2014.901073 Amazing filming by Raquel Nuno Music from http://epidemicsound.com "I Think I Was There" "Critical Thinking 2" "Wide Open" "Seaweed" "A Sound Foundation 1" Music also by Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Fig Leaf Rag"
How UV Causes Cancer and Aging How UV Causes Cancer and Aging
3 years ago En
UV at ground level is non-ionizing but it damages DNA and causes photoaging - how? Also, it turns out glass doesn't block all UV (specifically UVA passes through). This is something I learned filming with the UV camera inside. Special thanks to Dr. Hayley Golbach, @hayleysgold on twitter https://twitter.com/hayleysgold Ultraviolet light causes damage to DNA, leads to cancer and photoaging: age spots and wrinkles. I was curious about this because UV is technically non-ionizing. A photon of UV doesn't have enough energy to strip an electron off atoms or molecules. However it does have enough energy to trigger photo-chemical reactions. For example, it causes pyrimidine dimers - the unauthorized covalent bonding of adjacent thymine or cytosine bases in our DNA. If these spots are not properly repaired, they may lead to mutations and cancer. Photoaging is typically the result of degradation of collagen and elastin fibers - scaffolding that supports the skin. This leads to wrinkles and saggy-looking skin. Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski, James M Nicholson, KIMoFy Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Music from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious? Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?
3 years ago En
The nutrient content of food is declining. Is it because of soil depletion, selective breeding, or... something else? Watch my new documentary, VITAMANIA: http://ve42.co/vita I came across this story as I was making the film Vitamania. When you ask sellers of vitamins why you should take vitamin supplements even if you eat a healthy diet, they will say because our food doesn't contain all the nutrients it once did. This is supposedly due to soil depletion, cold storage, food ripening off the vine, and global transport of out-of-season foods. And to an extent this is true. Foods contain the greatest amount of nutrients if they are eaten soon after they are harvested. An unexpected source of nutrient decline is the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes plants to grow faster and bulk up on carbs but at the expense of other nutrients, so in percentage terms the amount of nutrients are actually declining. For now this decline is modest so supplementing with vitamin pills is probably unnecessary for most people with a healthy diet but it may be a concern in future. Thanks to Kate Pappas & Chris Kamen for writing, producing and filming this video with me Edited by Lucy McCallum Sound mix by Wayne Hyett Fact Checking by Calvin Lee and Claire Smith Thanks to the Collingwood Children’s Farm and Glenn Fitzgerald from the University of Melbourne & Agriculture Victoria Further Reading: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215/?ncbi_mmode=std http://soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/ https://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-24/scientists-warning-rice-may-become-less-nutritious/9792822
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