Veritasium
An element of truth - videos about science, education, and anything else I find interesting.

129 videos
The Threat of AI Weapons
2 weeks ago En
Will artificial intelligence weapons cause World War III? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiJTq11kqdw This animated clip is from my friends at http://ve42.co/pindex2 New series! http://vrv.co/paradigms I'm not sure how alarmed to be about artificial intelligence. Personally I think it's really hard to predict when we'll create a machine that essentially has consciousness. That's because we don't know what consciousness is, how it works, what's required to create it etc. So It might be technologically around the corner or a hundred years away. What I do think is more predictable is the development of autonomous weapons that use AI to be the most effective killing machines of all time. That is scary. As outline by people like Musk and Hawking, this threat is clear and present so we should address it. I would like to see us agree as a species not to develop these sorts of weapons because if any one state does develop them, they would be very hard to stop.
Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To Me?!
2 months ago En
Mosquitoes are attracted to me and it's likely due to my genes. This video is sponsored by 23andMe https://23andme.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Immo Hansen and team: http://ve42.co/hansen References: Genome Wide Association Study for self-reported mosquito attractiveness: http://ve42.co/MossieGWAS The twin study showing correlated attractiveness is stronger for identical twins: http://ve42.co/MossieTwins Some things we know make mosquitoes more attracted to you: Exercising, higher metabolism, higher body temperature, more body odor, being pregnant, type O blood, infrequent bathing, lactic acid, ammonia, acetone. There are a number of folk remedies people believe protect them from mosquito bites like drinking alcohol, eating garlic, or taking vitamin B. These do not appear to provide any benefit in lab studies and in fact drinking alcohol is associated with increased mosquito activity because it causes blood vessels near the surface of the skin to dilate. And apparently some of your attractiveness to mosquitos is simply genetic. This may be mediated through your immune system, which is what a lot of the genes identified were associated with. Molecular models are microSnatoms: http://snatoms.com Filming in New Mexico by Raquel Nuno Animations by Jacqui Robertson The opinions and conclusions drawn in this video are those of Veritasium and not 23andMe.
This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry
4 months ago En
Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: http://WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: http://phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: http://www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: http://ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
World's First Car!
4 months ago En
I got to drive the world's first car (replica), patented by Benz in 1886 Check out the series on new safety features: http://ve42.co/MB This video is sponsored by Mercedes-Benz, who invited me to come to Stuttgart to see their latest cars, crash test facilities and experience the innovations they are working on. Physics is something that is directly applicable to car safety. Cars go fast, but they also sometimes collide with obstacles, which brings them to a sudden stop, subjecting the car and occupants to very high accelerations, which can cause injury or death. So the major idea to improve car safety is to reduce these accelerations and there are a number of ways to do this: Passive safety: Seat belts: keep passengers in the vehicle, preventing them from continuing with constant velocity, flying through the windshield and suffering a worse deceleration when they make contact with the road. Crumple zones: increase the distance over which deceleration occurs, thereby reducing peak magnitude of deceleration. Air bags: increase the distance over which the head decelerates, again reducing peak magnitude of deceleration of the head. Active Safety: Anti-lock braking system: rather than 'locking' the wheels as can happen if you slam on the brakes with a traditional braking system leading to the tires skidding across the road, ABS attempts to control the amount of braking so that the tires always roll with static friction in contact with the road. This increases the backward frictional force that can be applied to the tires, again increasing the distance over which deceleration occurs, and it gives the driver an opportunity to steer to avoid the collision (hence why it's referred to as an active safety system). Special thanks to Mercedes for having me visit facilities in Stuttgart. I had a lot of fun making these videos so please do check out the series on Mercedes Benz's channel: http://ve42.co/MB Filmed by Simon Schneider Edited by Hoplite Creative and Trevor Carlee
Your Amazing Molecular Machines
5 months ago Ru En
These are the molecular machines inside your body that make cell division possible. Animation by Drew Berry at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. http://wehi.tv Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Joshua Abenir, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Every day in an adult human roughly 50-70 billion of your cells die. They may be damaged, stressed, or just plain old - this is normal, in fact it’s called programmed cell death. To make up for that loss, right now, inside your body, billions of cells are dividing, creating new cells. And cell division, also called mitosis, requires an army of tiny molecular machines.DNA is a good place to start - the double helix molecule that we always talk about. This is a scientifically accurate depiction of DNA. If you unwind the two strands you can see that each has a sugar phosphate backbone connected to the sequence of nucleic acid base pairs, known by the letters A,T,G, and C. Now the strands run in opposite directions, which is important when you go to copy DNA. Copying DNA is one of the first steps in cell division. Here the two strands of DNA are being unwound and separated by the tiny blue molecular machine called helicase. It literally spins as fast as a jet engine! The strand of DNA on the right has its complimentary strand assembled continuously but the other strand is more complicated because it runs in the opposite direction. So it must be looped out with its compliment strand assembled in reverse, section by section. At the end of this process you have two identical DNA molecules, each one a few centimeters long but just a couple nanometers wide. To prevent the DNA from becoming a tangled mess, it is wrapped around proteins called a histones, forming a nucleosome. These nucleosomes are bundled together into a fiber known as chromatin, which is further looped and coiled to form a chromosome, one of the largest molecular structures in your body. You can actually see chromosomes under a microscope in dividing cells - only then do they take on their characteristic shape. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals. This footage is from a time lapse. You can see how the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell. When everything is right they are pulled apart into the two new daughter cells, each one containing an identical copy of DNA. As simple as it looks, this process is incredibly complicated and requires even more fascinating molecular machines to accomplish it. Let’s look at a single chromosome. One chromosome consists of two sausage-shaped chromatids - containing the identical copies of DNA made earlier. Each chromatid is attached to microtubule fibers, which guide and help align them in the correct position. The microtubules are connected to the chromatid at the kinetochore, here colored red. The kinetochore consists of hundreds of proteins working together to achieve multiple objectives - it’s one of the most sophisticated molecular mechanisms inside your body. The kinetochore is central to the successful separation of the chromatids. It creates a dynamic connection between the chromosome and the microtubules. For a reason no one’s yet been able to figure out, the microtubules are constantly being built at one end and deconstructed at the other. While the chromosome is still getting ready, the kinetochore sends out a chemical stop signal to the rest of the cell, shown here by the red molecules, basically saying this chromosome is not yet ready to divide The kinetochore also mechanically senses tension. When the tension is just right and the position and attachment are correct all the proteins get ready, shown here by turning green. At this point the stop signal broadcasting system is not switched off. Instead it is literally carried away from the kinetochore down the microtubules by a dynein motor. This is really what it looks like. It has long ‘legs’ so it can avoid obstacles and step over the kinesins, molecular motors walking the other direction. Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays
6 months ago Ru En
The merging of two neutron stars was detected by gravitational waves and then by telescopes in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a historic detection as it demonstrates: - the first gravitational waves detected from inspiraling neutron stars - the first joint observation by gravitational wave and electromagnetic wave astronomy - identification of a gamma ray burst in conjunction with merging neutron stars - how gravitational waves and gamma rays can be used together to locate their source All evidence so far indicates that the data support General Relativity. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Graphics from: Jets and Debris from a Neutron Star Collision This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue). Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab Virgo Helps Localize Gravitational-Wave Signals Sky localizations of gravitational-wave signals detected by LIGO beginning in 2015 (GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, GW170104), and, more recently, by the LIGO-Virgo network (GW170814, GW170817). After Virgo came online in August 2017, scientists were better able to localize the gravitational-wave signals. The background is an optical image of the Milky Way. The localizations of GW150914, LVT151012, and GW170104 wrap around the celestial sphere, so the sky map is shown with a translucent dome. Credit: LIGO/Virgo/NASA/Leo Singer (Milky Way image: Axel Mellinger) Variety of Gravitational Waves and a Chirp The signal measured by LIGO and Virgo from the neutron star merger GW170817 is compared here to previously detected binary black hole mergers. All signals are shown starting at 30 Hertz, and the progression of GW170817 is shown in real time, accompanied by its conversion to audio heard at the end of the movie. GW170817 was observable for more than 30 times longer than any previous gravitational-wave signal. Credit: LIGO/University of Oregon/Ben Farr LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists and some 100 institutions from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian collaboration OzGrav. Additional partners are listed at http://ligo.org/partners.php The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.
Schlieren Imaging in Color!
6 months ago Ru En
How Schlieren imaging works in color, black and white and slow-mo. Get a free audiobook with a 30 day free trial at http://www.audible.com/veritasium Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Filming by Raquel Nuno Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit
ECLIPSE 2017
8 months ago En
The total solar eclipse from Madras, Oregon on August 21, 2017. As the moon passed in front of the sun turning day to night and revealing the sun's corona, apparently all I could think to say was 'Oh my goodness!' Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Ron Neal, Zach Mueller, Jeff Straathof, Curational, Tony Fadell Everyone says not to photograph your first solar eclipse and I think they might be right. I was focused on getting the exposure right for Bailey's beads and the diamond ring, plus making sure to get the corona and solar flares. This was a bit stressful but I'm delighted with the results. This video originally included more info but since I'm uploading from Madras where the internet is sluggish, I cut out three minutes so the upload would happen before I had to leave for my flight. Special thanks also to Dr. Teagan Wall for sharing this experience with me and Raquel Nuno for inspiring me to come to Oregon. Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Spinning Earth 2" and Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Big Mojo"
How We're Redefining the kg
9 months ago En
In 2018 the kg will be defined by Planck's constant, not a hunk of metal. Try a free book from Audible for 30 days http://ve42.co/audible Special thanks to the staff at NIST who made this possible: Darine Haddad, Jon Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, and Ben Stein. Additional footage and animations by Sean Kelley, Jennifer Lauren Lee, and Frank Seifert. I have been obsessed with measurement for a long time and I'm not sure quite how it happened. The world's roundest object played a role in this. I guess I'm just fascinated by how difficult it is to pin down a quantity like a kilogram. A physical object seemed like a good idea until the mass of the international prototype kilogram wasn't as constant as expected. These methods of the Kibble balance and silicon sphere have shown better precision than 20 parts per billion, making them superior to the old method. The agreement between Avogadro approaches Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Interferometer video by TSG Physics: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-u3IEgcTiQ Music from http://epidemicsound.com "ExperiMental1" by Gunnar Johnsén Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Hydrodynamic Levitation!
9 months ago Ru En
On a stream of water you can levitate light balls of all sizes and even disks and cylinders. The mechanism is not the Bernoulli effect... Want to make this at home? https://youtu.be/BppcHF2EdAY My friend Blake from InnoVinci emailed me with a cool idea for a video and footage of levitating balls in water streams. Initially it was tough to explain the physics of what was going on. The standard Bernoulli effect relies on the object being completely immersed in the upward-flowing fluid. But in this case the water seems to form a single stream around the object and it's deflected away and down from the stream. By Newton's third law, the force on the water by the ball is equal and opposite to the force of the water back on the ball, pushing it up into the stream. There is a stable equilibrium position because if the ball moves into the stream, it "cuts off" the water going over the ball so it drifts out. If it drifts out too far, then lots of water passes over the ball, pushing it back into the stream. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops http://hollywoodspecialops.com Music from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Colored Spirals 3" "Magnified X 3" "In Orbit 2" "ExperiMental 1"
Seeing the Invisible: Schlieren Imaging in SLOW MOTION
10 months ago Ru En
This is what the world would look like if you could see invisible air currents, temperature gradients, and differences in pressure or composition of the air. Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I first saw a Schlieren imaging setup around ten years ago in Melbourne. I was immediately fascinated by the way I could see the warm air coming off my hand. I hadn't expected the currents to be moving that fast or to be so visible. This was a tricky setup to get right because alignment is very important and here I'm just working with what I had lying around the house mostly (plus the mirror). For the best Schlieren photography, making sure the mirror is stable is essential. I want to improve my setup so the mirror doesn't wobble back and forth too much creating the pulsing light and dark sections of this video. The relationship between index of refraction of air and temperature, pressure, humidity and wavelength is complicated. This website will calculate it for you: http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Ciddor.asp Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops: http://www.hollywoodspecialops.com Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit: http://www.ashellinthepit.com Filmed by Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Blake Nichols for assistance
Sandwich Bag Fire Starter
10 months ago En
Grant Thompson - the King of Random - teaches me how to start a fire with a Sandwich bag. And we tried to melt glass in my backyard: https://goo.gl/zb0uE0 Check out his channel: http://ve42.co/KoR The intensity of sunlight on Earth is about 1300 Watts per square meter. When you focus the sun's rays using a magnifying glass (or in this case sphere of water) you can increase the intensity roughly ten thousand fold. This increases the temperature of wood to its autoignition point starting the reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere. By protecting the hot embers and adding more energy and fuel, you can get these hot coals to start a roaring fire. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon
NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!
10 months ago En
Scientists have JUST published this new observation. On January 4th, 2017 they detected the merger of two black holes 3 billion light-years away. This marks the furthest detection they've been able to make and increases confidence that these events will be seen with increasing frequency as the LIGO interferometers become more sensitive to low amplitude gravitational waves (as sources of noise are eliminated). Special thanks to: Prof. Rana Adhikari Prof. David Reitze Resources by: Binary Neutron Star merger: Relastro @ ITP - Goethe University, Frankfurt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nOTXC4FG9gU Numerical simulation of black hole merger: S. Ossokine/A. Buonanno/T. Dietrich (MPI for Gravitational Physics)/R. Haas (NCSA)/SXS project Artist's impression of merger and chart: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet) Simulation of black hole merger: SXS Collaboration Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Sound Recording by Raquel Nuno
World's Heaviest Weight
11 months ago En
How do you measure big forces accurately? By calibrating your force transducer on the world's biggest weight - 1,000,000 pounds of force. This machine ensures planes don't break apart, jets provide required thrust, and rockets make it to their destination. Thanks to the people at NIST for showing me around: Rick Seifarth and Ben Stein. Animations here are by Sean Kelley and additional footage by Jennifer Lauren Lee. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Before visiting NIST in Washington DC I had no idea machines like this existed. Surely there's an accurate way to measure forces without creating such a huge known force?! Nope. This appears to be the best way, with a stack of 20 x 50,000 lb masses creating a maximum force of 4.45 MN or 1,000,000 pounds of force. I also wouldn't have thought about all the corrections that need applying - for example buoyancy subtracts about 125 pounds from the weight of the stack. Plus the local gravitational field strength must be taken into account. And, the gravitational field varies below grade. All of this must be taken into account in order to limit uncertainty to just five parts per million (.0005%) Music from The Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
The Next Mission to Mars: Mars 2020
11 months ago En
In 2020, NASA will send a new rover to the Martian surface with one of its objectives to search for evidence of ancient life on the planet. I made this clip as a correspondent for Bill Nye Saves the World on Netflix. Touring the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in Pasadena was an awesome experience. I didn't think we were going to get into the control room but we got lucky. Some of the greatest moments in the history of space exploration have taken place there. They have a giant vacuum chamber where they can take the rover down to the atmospheric pressure on Mars (roughly .01x Earth's atmosphere) and test all of the devices to make sure there are no electrical discharges due to the reduced pressure. I also enjoyed seeing how the rocks will be cored and stored in tubes and deposited on the Martian surface awaiting pickup by the following mission. Images courtesy of NASA. Filmed by Raquel Nuno from 3:30 onwards. Music: http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
The American Kilogram
11 months ago En
The US signed the metre convention and bases all customary units on SI standards. As an aside, the Utah constitution from 1895 required the metric system to be taught in schools. This requirement was repealed in 1987. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Huge thanks to NIST, Ben Stein and Patrick Abbott. https://www.nist.gov/ https://www.nist.gov/pml/weights-and-measures/si-units-mass Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Back in 1875 The US signed the Metre Convention, which basically committed the country to use the metric system. In return, French scientists sent two platinum-iridium cylinders that weigh 1kg to the US in 1889 (known by their designations K4 and K20 from a set of 40 identical objects that were produced and sent around the world). So even though everything you see and buy in the US is usually reported in pounds, all weights are traceable back to the K20 kilogram (by applying a conversion factor to get to pounds). When I was in DC a few weeks ago, I visited the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and got up close with K20, which is still kept there and used to calibrate all mass standards in this country. I thought it was pretty cool. Edited by Bill Connor
Fire in ZERO-G!!
11 months ago En
In a zero-g plane I experimented with flames and slinkies with surprising results. Check out e-penser's video: http://ve42.co/EPzeroG Check out Physicsgirl's video: http://ve42.co/PGzeroG Thanks to Novespace: http://ve42.co/novespace Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Nick Luchsinger, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen The zero-g plane allows for a lot of experiments to be conducted without the expense of getting equipment into orbit. Apparently 80% of microgravity research can be performed in a zero-gravity plane, which is much cheaper than going to space. The flame from the lighter seemed much lazier in zero-g because without weight there is no buoyant force and therefore no convection. This makes the process of combustion more challenging because it's difficult for oxygen to reach the fuel. Music from the Epidemic Sound: http://ve42.co/epidemic "Serene Story 2" "In Orbit 2"
The Sun Sneeze Gene
11 months ago En
I have the photic sneeze reflex so I sneeze when I look at bright light. Check out 23andMe: http://ve42.co/23andme *So technically the single nucleotide swap (C instead of T) is not actually in a gene per se but in an intergenic region on chromosome 2. It's also not clear exactly how this affects physiology or causes the sun sneeze but there is correlative evidence that every copy of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with a 1.3x increase in likelihood of having the photic sneeze reflex. I have wanted to make a video about sun-sneezing for a long time. It is something I've experienced my whole life. When I go from a dark room indoors into full sunlight I invariably sneeze. I thought everyone did it. So my original question was why do people sneeze when they see bright light? That led me to consider what possible evolutionary advantages there could be to sneezing in sunlight. The obvious advantage to me is that sunlight kills pathogens of which there may be many in your snot or mucus. So sneezing in sunshine is a much better idea than sneezing inside a dark, damp cave where you may be living. For more info, check out: Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000993 Filmed by Raquel Nuno
4 Revolutionary Riddles Resolved!
2 years ago En
The solution to 4 rotation-related riddles, including the mystery cylinder, bike pedal pulling puzzle, track problem, and train part going backwards. Thank you to everyone who responded, liked, shared, or made a video response. Please fill out this short survey for research: http://ve42.co/Rresearch Special thanks to: Mathematician George Hart: http://georgehart.com/ For allowing me to use excerpts from his pedal pulling puzzle solution: http://ve42.co/ppp Petr Lebedev for combing through thousands of comments and providing the stats I gave in this video. Video responses I used in this video (or watched): everWonder? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ub2Cuclh1M A Random Nerdy Channel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9RB9TrZGps The Physics DoJo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pns0LCGLu9k Oblivious Jim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12WZIMEPi1A Armchair Explorers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1yX_LTqtms MrEngineeringGuy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRF82Rx9_YI Professor Cubers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOd5orH-jfM Scoop Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzLO6GqmfhI A few notes on the puzzle: 1. A half-full container of honey does pretty well in reproducing the behaviour of the mystery cylinder. I wonder if the motion is a little smoother or more periodic with the ping-pong balls because they move as organized objects - also the delays between motion seemed to be longer with them than without ping pong balls. 2. For the average speed track problem, every time I said velocity I meant speed. Sorry to the pedants out there who are perhaps looking for some trick answer due to displacement being zero when you run around a track. 3. Although a lot of people identified it was something about a train's wheels that move backwards, fewer identified that specifically it was the part of the flange below the rail. Some simply said the bottom half of the wheel. 4. The bicycle question is perhaps the most complex of these riddles. If you tried it with a bike you likely found that it went backwards. But what happens if you sit on the bike and only push backwards on the bottom pedal. The answer might surprise you so give it a shot!
4 Revolutionary Riddles
2 years ago Ru En
Can you solve these four rotation-related riddles? Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Test yourself playlist: http://ve42.co/testurself Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I came across these four physics puzzles over the years in discussions with Neil deGrasse Tyson (riddle 4: which part(s) of a moving train are going backwards with respect to the ground?), Simon Pampena (riddle 2: run around a track twice, the first time slowly, the second time much faster so that the average for the two laps is twice the speed of the first lap). Someone tweeted me a video of the mystery cylinder rolling down the ramp in riddle 1 (sorry I'm not sure who it was). Riddle three about a bicycle going forward or backward when it's bottom peddle is pulled back was brought to me by a number of people and I appreciate all of their help! Filmed by Raquel Nuno. Thanks to everyone at the Palais de la Decouverte! I've had this footage for five years and am only finally releasing it now. I wanted to talk about the way grass grows on a spinning turntable but I couldn't locate the footage...
The Bayesian Trap
2 years ago Ru En
Bayes' theorem explained with examples and implications for life. Check out Audible: http://ve42.co/audible Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon I didn't say it explicitly in the video, but in my view the Bayesian trap is interpreting events that happen repeatedly as events that happen inevitably. They may be inevitable OR they may simply be the outcome of a series of steps, which likely depend on our behaviour. Yet our expectation of a certain outcome often leads us to behave just as we always have which only ensures that outcome. To escape the Bayesian trap, we must be willing to experiment. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Jeff Straathof, Donal Botkin, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Saeed Alghamdi Useful references: The Signal and the Noise, Nate Silver The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy, by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne Bayes' theorem or rule (there are many different versions of the same concept) has fascinated me for a long time due to its uses both in mathematics and statistics, and to solve real world problems. Bayesian inference has been used to crack the Enigma Code and to filter spam email. Bayes has also been used to locate the wreckage from plane crashes deep beneath the sea. Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Flourishing Views 3"
Does Water Swirl the Other Way in the Southern Hemisphere?
2 years ago En
The definitive answer about the direction water swirls in two hemispheres Sync the videos yourself: http://toiletswirl.com For the record Destin and I repeated the experiment 3-4 times each in each hemisphere and got the same results every time. The idea that water going down a drain or flushed down a toilet swirls in opposite directions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres has a long history. But few have ever done the experiment. Destin from Smarter Every Day and I performed identical experiments in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. What we found is the direction of water swirl in a toilet, sink, or bathtub is determined by other sources of angular momentum. However if the body of water is big enough, e.g. a kiddy pool, and left still for long enough (at least 24 hours), then the Coriolis effect is observable with water swirling counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. Veritasium on Instagram: http://instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: http://www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: http://twitter.com/veritasium http://www.facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: http://instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: http://www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: http://twitter.com/smartereveryday www.facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by http://eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: http://youtube.com/braincraftvideo MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (http://web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: http://www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...
The Science of Thinking
2 years ago Ru En
How the brain works, how we learn, and why we sometimes make stupid mistakes. Submit ideas: http://ve42.co/GotIdeas Apply to work with me: http://ve42.co/JoinUs Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon This video was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman Harpist: Lara Somogyi http://ve42.co/Lara Animator: Jesse Agar http://ve42.co/ThisPlace Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://incompetech.com "Sneaky Adventure" "Harlequin"
Water on the Moon?
2 years ago Ru En
NEW CHANNEL! http://youtube.com/sciencium For a long time we thought the Moon was completely dry, but it turns out there are actually three sources of lunar water. Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting the new channel! http://youtube.com/makingscience Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon References: Great history of water on the moon: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.5597.pdf Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter
2 years ago En
Spinning magnets near copper sheets create levitation! Try Audible free for 30 days: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Special thanks to Hyperloop One for showing me around. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Perry cl, Bryan Baker Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno, Edited by Trevor Carlee Obviously this "quadcopter" is a demonstration device, showing how moving magnets over a conducting surface can generate levitation. It has not been optimized to minimize losses or be an efficient mode of transport. I still think it's pretty cool. I'm used to seeing light things levitated by induced currents but not a 100+ lb machine. For more on Hyperloop One: https://hyperloop-one.com/
The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars
2 years ago Ru En
We talk about all the potentially challenging situations autonomous cars could get into but not about how human drivers are not very good. Tens of thousands die on the roads every year in collisions, most of which could be prevented by autonomous vehicles. Sponsored by BMW I wanted to make a video about autonomous cars for some time but I hadn't had the opportunity. The self-driving technology is already at a state where it can save lives if only it were more widely implemented. Links to original clips: TED-Ed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixIoDYVfKA0 BBC Newsnight: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FypPSJfCRFk&t=172s Music from http://www.epidemicsound.com "Ambient Electronic Groove," "Pet Animals 2," "The Long Ride." Filmed by Raquel Nuno Edited by Trevor Carlee
The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves
2 years ago Ru En
A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: http://ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: https://youtu.be/ViMnGgn87dg Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)
Post-Truth: Why Facts Don't Matter Anymore
2 years ago Ru En
Why we can't seem to agree on what's true when it's easier than ever to check. Videos like this are usually on 2Veritasium: http://bit.ly/2Veritasium Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon This video was filmed at a meetup in Stockholm, Sweden on Dec. 9, 2016. Huge thanks to everyone who attended - I had a great time. Sorry to those of you I missed, especially Lund and Gothenburg. Thanks to Patreon supporters (but this is a non-paid post): Meshal Alshammari, Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Ron Neal
Indestructible Coating?!
2 years ago Ru En
Used in everything from bullet-proof vests to the walls of the Pentagon, polyurea's strength comes from its long-chain molecules. Check out How Ridiculous: http://bit.ly/VeHowRidiculous Snatoms magnetic molecules: http://bit.ly/VeSnatoms Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to South Bay Line-X: http://southbaylinex.com/ Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Filmed by Prashanth Venkataramanujam SFX by A Shell in the Pit
What the Fahrenheit?!
2 years ago Ru En
The crazy story of the arbitrary temperature scale used in a tiny minority of countries. Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Snatoms are available again! http://www.snatoms.com Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Celsius didn't invent Celsius: http://bit.ly/VeCelsius Video animated by Marcello Ascani: http://bit.ly/VeMarcello Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Music by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com "Modern Piano Zeta - Improbable" "Ice Demon" "Divertimento K131" "Sneaky Adventure" "Sheep May Safely Graze" "Professor and the Plant" References: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Script: As an Australian-Canadian the Fahrenheit temperature scale always seemsed a bit arbitrary. I mean why does water freeze at 32 degrees? And what exactly does zero represent? According to many sources the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting zero degrees equal to the temperature of an ice, salt, and water mixture and 100 degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature. But that isn’t true. The real story is much more interesting, and scientific... August 14th 1701 was almost certainly the worst day in the life of fifteen year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. On that day both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning. He was sent from Poland, where he lived, to Amsterdam to become an apprentice bookkeeper. But Fahrenheit couldn’t stand his apprenticeship and ran away so many times his employers put out a warrant for his arrest. Traveling from city to city around Europe, he became fascinated with scientific instruments and in particular thermometers. In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant, Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen, who happened to be the famous astronomer Ole Romer. Romer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter’s moons and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth. In other words, he found a way to accurately measure the finite speed of light. But more pertinent to this story, in 1702 Romer was housebound after breaking his leg. To pass the time he devised a new temperature scale with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees and body temperature at 22.5 degrees. This might seem odd until you consider that Romer wanted the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees (as an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60). If you take this scale, divide it in half, in half again, and in half once more, you find the freezing point of water 1/8th up the scale, and human body temperature 3/8th up the scale. So at their meeting in 1708, Fahrenheit learned of Romer’s temperature scale and adopted it as his own, adjusting it slightly because he found it “inconvenient and inelegant on account of the fractional numbers”. So he scaled them up to 8 and 24. That is the original Fahrenheit scale. He produced thermometers for some time using this scale. But then, at some later time Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on his scale by four, setting freezing point to the now familiar 32 and body temperature to 96. It’s unclear exactly why he did this. He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements but I think there was a better reason. You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker. His thermometers agreed with each other precisely, at a time when that was unheard of. He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid, which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol used in most other thermometers at the time. For these accomplishments, he was inducted into the British Royal Society. And we know he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hooke, in which he would have come across the idea that a one degree increase in temperature should correspond to a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid. And today a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000. Is this just a coincidence? We’ll probably never know for sure because as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was secretive about his methods. But I think the data strongly suggests this was the case. So what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit and Romer? By many accounts it’s the temperature of a salt, ice and water mixture. But there are different descriptions of these mixtures and none of them actually produces the temperature they’re supposed to. More likely I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter, set that as zero and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers. Now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Belize, oh and the United States of America.
Is This What Quantum Mechanics Looks Like?
2 years ago Ru En
Silicone oil droplets provide a physical realization of pilot wave theories. Check out Smarter Every Day: http://bit.ly/VeSmarter Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Huge thanks to: Dr. Stephane Perrard, Dr Matthieu Labousse, Pr Emmanuel Fort, Pr Yves Couder and their group site http://dualwalkers.com/ Prof. John Bush: http://math.mit.edu/~bush/ Dr. Daniel Harris Prof. Stephen Bartlett Looking Glass Universe: http://bit.ly/LGUVe Workgroup Bohemian Mechanics: http://www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~bohmmech/ Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Thanks to Google Making and Science for helping me pursue my #sciencegoals. If you want to try this experiment, instructions are here: link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12650-016-0383-5 The standard theory of quantum mechanics leaves a bit to be desired. As Richard Feynman put it, "I think I can safely say that no one understands quantum mechanics." This is because observations of experiments have led us to a theory that contradicts common sense. The wave function contains all the information that is knowable about a particle, yet it can only be used to calculate probabilities of where a particle will likely turn up. It can't give us an actual account of where the particle went or where it will be at some later time. Some have suggested that this theory is incomplete. Maybe something is going on beneath the radar of standard quantum theory and somehow producing the appearance of randomness and uncertainty without actually being random or uncertain. Theories of this sort are called hidden variable theories because they propose entities that aren't observable. One such theory is pilot wave theory, first proposed by de Broglie, but later developed by Bohm. The idea here is that a particle oscillates, creating a wave. It then interacts with the wave and this complex interaction determines its motion. Experiments using silicone oil droplets on a vibrating bath provide a remarkable physical realization of pilot wave theories. They give us a physical picture of what the quantum world might look like if this is what's going on - and this theory is still deterministic. The particle is never in two places at once and there is no randomness. Edited by Robert Dahlem Sound design by A Shell in the Pit
Welding in Space
2 years ago En
In space, metals can weld together without heat or melting. Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Written by Joh Howes and Derek Muller Yes, it's pronounced Gemini (ee not eye) because that's the way everyone pronounced this mission. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi References: Gemini IV transcripts: http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/gemini4.htm Gemini IV recordings: https://archive.org/details/Gemini4 (relevant clip is 1297 at about 2:00) ESA cold welding recommendations: esmat.esa.int/Publications/Published_papers/STM-279.pdf Cold welding gold nanowire: http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v5/n3/full/nnano.2010.4.html Music by Kevin MacLeod "Intrepid" http://www.incompetech.com
Galaxies From Nothing
2 years ago Ru En
All the large-scale structure in the universe may owe its existence to nothing. Sponsored by the Dyson 360 Eye Robot #ad: http://bit.ly/2cGqBRV Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Let's see how clearly I can explain this. We think of empty space as, well... empty, the epitome of nothingness. But as our understanding of physics has evolved we have realized that it's not truly empty. Space is filled with fields. There is a field for every subatomic particle. One for electrons, up quarks, down quarks, neutrinos and so on. In empty space these fields are basically zero, flat, nil. But it's impossible to make them perfectly zero so there are always some quantum fluctuations in the fields, even in a perfect vacuum. These are sometimes called virtual particles but they should really just be thought of as little disturbances in the field. Vacuum fluctuation play a role mediating the interactions of subatomic particles but they don't really have an impact on the large-scale structure of the universe, EXCEPT during inflation, right after the big bang when the universe increased in size 10^26 times. Due to this rapid expansion, those tiny fluctuations were blown up to the scale of the observable universe. And we know this by looking at the cosmic microwave background radiation where we can see slightly hotter and cooler parts of the early universe that correspond to density fluctuations. And it is these density fluctuations that allowed matter to clump together into large structures like the gigantic gas clouds that would go on to contain stars and planets. In case the video isn't clear, this is what I've been trying to say. Animations by Gustavo Rosa This video was sponsored in part by Dyson #ad
The Best and Worst Prediction in Science
2 years ago En
The best and worst predictions in science are both based on the same underlying physics Check out the Great Courses Plus: http://ow.ly/cePe303oKDM Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to: Prof. Sean Carroll Prof. Brian Schmidt Prof. Stephen Bartlett Prof. Geraint Lewis More on this topic: http://wke.lt/w/s/XDkwi Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Nathan Hansen Virtual particles are a way of talking about fields and their interactions as though particles are doing all the work. This is why there is some controversy around using the term 'virtual particles'. Some people think the term is useful, especially since in calculating with Feynman diagrams you draw all the particle interactions that are possible (and then do the calculations to get the right answer). While others feel this terminology is misleading because virtual particles don't behave like real particles and can't be observed.
Is Most Published Research Wrong?
2 years ago En
Mounting evidence suggests a lot of published research is false. Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi More information on this topic: http://wke.lt/w/s/z0wmO The Preregistration Challenge: https://cos.io/prereg/ Resources used in the making of this video: Why Most Published Research Findings Are False: http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124 Trouble at the Lab: http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21588057-scientists-think-science-self-correcting-alarming-degree-it-not-trouble Science isn't broken: http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/#part1 Visual effects by Gustavo Rosa
The Illusion of Truth
2 years ago Ru En
If you repeat something enough times, it comes to feel good and true. Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Science with Hot Wheels! My vids for kids: http://bit.ly/VeHotWheels More info on cognitive ease: http://bit.ly/29OMGas This episode was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. This video was edited by Daniel Joseph Files, with music from Kevin MacLeod at http://incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "Sing Along With Jim" and "Full On". Veritasium is supported on Patreon by: Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Bryan Baker, & Imthetroublesolver 8)
Stringless Yo-Yo!
2 years ago En
How can you Yo-Yo without the string attached? Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe For more Ben Conde: http://bit.ly/VeBenConde For Beyond Slow Motion: http://bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo For more on yo-yos check out: http://bit.ly/290wR3a How to yo-yo without a string attached... So many crazy tricks and the science that makes it possible. Edited and animated by Daniel Joseph Files
Celsius Didn't Invent Celsius
2 years ago Ru En
Celsius never devised nor used the scale that now bears his name. Veritasium is now on Patreon: http://patreon.com/veritasium Special thanks to Michael Stevens of Vsauce! http://youtube.com/vsauce1 More info about Celsius and temperature scales: http://wke.lt/w/s/2I6Nu References for this video: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Special Thanks to the Uppsala University Museum I filmed this in Uppsala in the summer of 2012! So I've been thinking about this idea for a very long time. I'm glad to finally have it out there in the world.
Inside the Svalbard Seed Vault
2 years ago Ru En
A rare look inside the Svalbard Global Seed Vault which is closed ~350 days a year Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe More info on the seed vault: http://wke.lt/w/s/EKFlK My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. Special thanks to Bente Naeverdal and the Crop Trust: https://www.croptrust.org
The Northernmost Town on Earth (Svalbard in 4K)
3 years ago Ru En
Longyearbyen on Svalbard is the northernmost settlement with over 1000 residents I was nominated for a Webby! Please vote: http://bit.ly/VeWebby My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. More info on Svalbard: http://wke.lt/w/s/yiYNC Music licensed from www.cuesongs.com "After Catalunya" Spotify page: https://play.spotify.com/artist/2JnQ2AxkaRjlGCNmfkHiJd iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/artist/emphemetry/id414183064 Captions: Come take a walk with me around Longyearbyen, the largest town on the Norwegian islands of Svalbard. Parts of it look familiar, but make no mistake, this place is different. At 78 degrees North, it lies just 800 miles or 1300 kilometres from the North Pole. And with over 2,000 permanent inhabitants it is the Northernmost real town on Earth. There are only 50km of road, including the small streets between houses, so people get around the island mainly on snowmobile. In fact there are more registered snowmobiles than residents. Anyone leaving town is required to travel with a gun and someone who knows how to use it because the islands are also home to polar bears. The average daytime high is below freezing for all but four months of the year, and from the end of October to mid-February the sun doesn’t rise at all. This is the long polar night. Living here is tough. This past December an avalanche in town destroyed 10 homes, which used to be here, killing two people. So how did this cold, remote, ice-covered archipelago come to be inhabited? The hills around town are rich in coal deposits that have been mined for over 100 years. The coal was transported to the port via a series of aerial tramways some of which remain today, though they are no longer operational. Coal is a reminder that Svalbard was not always an Arctic ice world. 360 million years ago it was actually in the tropics North of the equator. A swampy area, it was covered with the precursors to modern ferns, which were much larger than they are today, reaching 10-30 metres in height. This vegetation was then covered in mud and sand and submerged under the sea. Over time it turned into the coal deposits that in the 20th century brought miners from Norway, Russia, and the US. Most of the coal mines have now closed and the economy is gradually shifting towards tourism, education and research. Tourists take trips on snowmobiles and dog sleds. There is a university centre in Svalbard, which offers semester courses in biology, physics and geology. And up on the side of a mountain is the Svalbard Global seed vault… but that’s a story for another time. The locals tell me that interest in the region from different nations is increasing. As the globe warms and Arctic ice shrinks, trade routes are opening up across the North. And Svalbard is strategically placed between North America, Asia and Europe. One day in the future Svalbard may no longer be as cold or remote as it once was. But for now it is a reminder of how through our ingenuity people can live in the most inhospitable of places. Shot with a DJI Phantom 4 drone
Science of Laser Hair Removal in SLOW MOTION
3 years ago En
We also made a video about laser cooling! http://bit.ly/PhysGirl Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Check out Beyond Slow Motion: http://bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo More on this topic: http://wke.lt/w/s/ef3eV Special thanks to Laser Away in Santa Monica for helping make this happen - your staff was awesome! http://bit.ly/VeLaserAway Research and filming by Raquel Nuno and Aaron White.
Why Anecdotes Trump Data
3 years ago En
A story is worth a thousand data points. My second channel: http://bit.ly/2veritasium More info on this topic: http://wke.lt/w/s/TzNC0
Why Do These Liquids Look Alive?
3 years ago Ru En
Why do droplets of food coloring attract, repel, and chase each other? Snatoms molecular models: http://igg.me/at/snatoms More about this topic: http://wke.lt/w/s/VRjRQ Original paper on droplets: http://stanford.edu/~manup/docs/Cira_DancingDroplets.pdf Marangoni Flow: http://web.mit.edu/2.21/www/Lec-notes/Surfacetension/Lecture4.pdf Surface Energy: https://itf.fys.kuleuven.be/~joi/papers/Wetting%20and%20spreading.pdf Filming and master pipetting by Raquel Nuno Research and writing by Aaron White
What Exactly is the Present?
3 years ago En
What is the specious present? And how do our brains perceive time? Get a 30-day free trial on Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe More info about this topic: http://wke.lt/w/s/z8TeR
The Speed of Life
3 years ago En
Why does time appear to speed up as we get older? Can we slow it down? Thanks to the National Geographic Channel for sponsoring this video! The new season of Brain Games starts Sunday, February 14th at 9/8c - http://po.st/90S7Ow Brain Games is an Emmy-nominated TV series that explores the inner workings of the human mind through experiments and interactive games. Did you know it's estimated that you have more than a dozen senses in addition to the standard five? One of those is a sense of time or chronoception. Tune in to the new season of Brain Games to learn about all of your senses, and more, starting Sunday, February 14 at 9/8c References: Ageing and duration judgement: http://bit.ly/1TRN0cr Nerve conduction velocity slowing with age: http://bit.ly/23Wq6oE Experiments with rats suggest time perception is distributed across brain: http://bit.ly/1T6IjdO Time perception with repeated stimuli: http://bit.ly/1TRNbo5 Energy usage in brain with age: http://bit.ly/1nXliOU Time perception in moments of fear / danger: http://bit.ly/1RoK7Ps http://1.usa.gov/1TRNa3w http://bit.ly/1Q8tDvW Attention’s relation to time perception and recollection of perceived time: http://bit.ly/20odeD8 http://bit.ly/1TRNfEf
How Long Will You Live?
3 years ago Ru En
Cell biology gives clues to why we age and lobsters don't. I made another video! The future of energy: http://bit.ly/1MAiJKm Check out Breakthrough, Sundays at 9/8c on Nat Geo with GE #ad Animations are from Emmy-winning film 'Immortal', reproduced here courtesy of December Media and Genepool Productions (previously Pemberton Films) Check out Immortal here: http://bit.ly/VeImmortal Find out more about telomeres and telomerase here: http://bit.ly/WakeTelomeres Special thanks to Dr. Fiona Ginty, Principal Scientist in the Life Sciences and Molecular Diagnostics Group at GE. Her research focuses on imaging different proteins within the cell. It's both a very powerful technique and it's beautiful. Filmed by Raquel Nuno and Vasilios Sfinarolakis Aging makeup by Heather Grippaldi: http://bit.ly/1Xebikh Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com "Past the Edge" and "Lightless Dawn"
Snatoms! The Magnetic Molecular Modeling Kit
3 years ago En
I've created an educational product to help people learn chemistry! You can buy it here: http://www.snatoms.com
The Brightest Part of a Shadow is in the Middle
3 years ago Ru En
Why is there a bright spot behind spherical objects? Be the first to find out about new projects: http://www.veritasium.com Filmed by Nathan Watkins and Raquel Nuno, animation by Meg Rosenburg. Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com 'Scissors' 'Mirage' ' Marty Gots a Plan'. Special thanks to Laura Vican for helping with the experiment. References: http://www.princeton.edu/~rvdb/images/Questar/PoissonSpot.html Why Toast Lands Jelly-side Down: Zen and the Art of Physics Demonstrations By Robert Ehrlich
Is Glass a Liquid?
3 years ago En
Stained glass is thicker at the bottom - so is it a liquid? Earth's mantle enables plate tectonics, so is it a liquid? Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Sign up for the mailing list: http://www.veritasium.com Pitch drop experiment: http://www.thetenthwatch.com Thanks to Meg Rosenburg for scripting and animation, Raquel Nuno for filming and Aaron White for script consultation.
The Science of Six Degrees of Separation
3 years ago En
Are all people on Earth really connected through just six steps? SEND ME AN EMAIL: 1. Do not send it directly to me unless you know me. 2. Send the email to someone you have met IN PERSON and know on a first name basis AND THEY KNOW YOU. 3. Make the subject line 'Six Degrees of Veritasium' 4. Explain that you're trying to get this email to me and ask them to forward it on to me (only if they know me IRL) or someone they know who might know me. 5. If your email reaches me by Sept. 1, 2015 I will email you back and ask for your address so I can send you a postcard. Animations in this video by The Lyosacks: https://www.youtube.com/user/TheLyosacks There are some great books on this topic: Duncan Watts, Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, Linkds: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else And here are articles I referred to: Milgram's small world experiment: http://www.uvm.edu/~pdodds/files/papers/others/1969/travers1969.pdf http://snap.stanford.edu/class/cs224w-readings/milgram67smallworld.pdf Granovetter, Strength of Weak Ties: https://sociology.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/the_strength_of_weak_ties_and_exch_w-gans.pdf
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