Veritasium
An element of truth - videos about science, education, and anything else I find interesting.

149 videos
First Images of Black Holes! First Images of Black Holes!
1 week ago En
The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration observed the supermassive black holes at the center of M87 and our Milky Way galaxy (SgrA*) finding the dark central shadow in accordance with General Relativity, further demonstrating the power of this 100 year-old theory. To understand more about why the shadows look the way they do, check out: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUyH3XhpLTo I will continue updating this description with more links. Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: https://ve42.co/EHT Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/jvftAadCFRI Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/meOKmzhTcIY Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) https://youtu.be/VnsZj9RvhFU Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/Ame7fzBuFnk Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/XmvpKFSvB7A Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Scale animation by Maria Raykova
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How to Understand the Image of a Black Hole How to Understand the Image of a Black Hole
1 week ago En
We are about to see the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of the Milky Way galaxy or maybe the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 https://ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney https://ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech https://ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: https://ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: https://ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova
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Do Humans Have an Internal Compass? Do Humans Have an Internal Compass?
1 month ago En
Research has found human brains can pick up on rotations of geomagnetic-strength fields as evidenced by drops in alpha wave power following stimulus. For more, see https://ve42.co/magneto Huge thanks to: Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo, Connie Wang, and Isaac Hilburn, plus Prof. Joe Kirschvink. Their lab: https://ve42.co/maglab Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Additional filming by Whitney Clavin
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How Flexible Machines Could Save The World How Flexible Machines Could Save The World
1 month ago En
Compliant mechanisms have lots of advantages over traditional devices. SimpliSafe is awesome security. It's really effective, easy to use, and the price is great. Check out SimpliSafe here: https://simplisafe.com/veritasium I visited the Compliant Mechanisms Research group at Brigham Young University and spoke to Professor Larry Howell: https://www.compliantmechanisms.byu.edu At the above link, you can download 3D-print files to make some of the objects in the video, plus learn more about compliant mechanisms. What I learned about compliant mechanisms I summarize in the 8 P's of compliant mechanisms: 1. Part count (reduced by having flexible parts instead of springs, hinges) 2. Productions processes (many, new, different enabled by compliant designs) 3. Price (reduced by fewer parts and different production processes) 4. Precise Motion (no backlash, less wear, friction) 5. Performance (no outgassing, doesn't require lubricant) 6. Proportions (reduced through different production processes) 7. Portability (lightweight due to simpler, reduced part count designs) 8. Predictability (devices are reliable over a long period of time) Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animation by Alan Chamberlain
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Can You Recover Sound From Images? Can You Recover Sound From Images?
1 month ago En
Is it possible to reconstruct sound from high-speed video images? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass: http://bit.ly/2SmRQkk Special thanks to Dr. Abe Davis for revisiting his research with me: http://abedavis.com This video was based on research by Dr. Abe Davis and colleagues. I found out about this work years ago and was fascinated by the way he was able to capture vibration information in image-only video. I always imagined the motions of objects would be visible as when recording a tuning fork in slow motion - so deriving sound from high speed images seemed a feasible task. But the reality is much more difficult. Sound vibrations only cause objects to wiggle by about a micrometer. This is much smaller than a pixel, so the algorithm must understand the characteristics of the image. A move in one direction should cause some pixels to lighten slightly, while others darken - and this behavior is correlated along the edges of the image. So noise can be reduced because it's random over the image and there are enough places to sample that you can get it to cancel out. Something I'm wondering now is - would it be possible to capture sound in a single image? I'm thinking it would have to be an image of a large object or space because the wavelengths of typical sounds are quite long. Maybe a high frequency sound could be imaged in a suitable medium... Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
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How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma
2 months ago En
A bisected grape in the microwave makes plasma. But how does it work? A grape is the right size and refractive index to trap microwaves inside it. When you place two (or two halves) close together the fields interact with each other creating a maximum of electromagnetic energy where they touch. This creates heating, sparks, and plasma, which is further fed with energy directly by the microwaves. Huge thanks to Hamza Khattak, Prof. Pablo Bianucci and Prof. Aaron Slepkov (unavailable for the call) for chatting to me and helping me understand the physics of this cool phenomenon. Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers https://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1818350116 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks also to Steve Bosi, my original plasma collaborator. Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
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Are Negative Ions Good For You? Are Negative Ions Good For You?
2 months ago En
Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: http://bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: http://www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp http://beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"
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The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect
2 months ago En
Droplets levitate on a bath of liquid nitrogen and are spontaneously self-propelled. Thanks Audible! Start a 30-day trial and your first audiobook is free. Go to https://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500. Special thanks to Dr. Anaïs Gauthier Physics of Fluids: https://pof.tnw.utwente.nl/ Self-propulsion of inverse Leidenfrost drops on a cryogenic bath Anaïs Gauthier, Christian Diddens, Rémi Proville, Detlef Lohse, and Devaraj van der Meer PNAS January 22, 2019 116 (4) 1174-1179; published ahead of print January 22, 2019 https://www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1174 For a detailed description of the setup: http://www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/Langmuir2016.pdf And self-propulsion is also seen: http://www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/InvLeidenfrost.avi Other recent (hot) Leidenfrost experiments that might be interesting: * Leidenfrost wheels: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glRGl-eYuXo * Leidenfrost maze: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=174&v=vPZ7sx3EwUY * Leidenfrost explosions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0sp3AjgUy4 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks to Prof. Kevin McKeegan at UCLA for the liquid nitrogen Filming by Raquel Nuno Additional animations by Alan Chamberlain
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Spinning Black Holes Spinning Black Holes
3 months ago En
A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span? Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham. A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole https://ve42.co/pasham Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA
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The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites) The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)
3 months ago En
A launch mishap led to the best experimental confirmation of gravitational redshift. Get a free audiobook with a 30-day trial of Audible: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Huge thanks to Dr. Pacome Delva: https://ve42.co/pacome Dr. Sven Herrmann: https://ve42.co/sven Gravitational Redshift Test Using Eccentric Galileo Satellites: https://ve42.co/GRtest Disclaimer: It is arguable what is THE best test of general relativity because there are different ways to test the theory. This is the best confirmation of gravitational redshift, which is one of the three original tests proposed by Einstein. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Subtle Substitutes 2" "A sound Foundation 1" "Cell Research 1" "Particle Attraction 1"
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Non-Invasive Brain Surgery Non-Invasive Brain Surgery
4 months ago En
Scientists have combined ultrasound, viruses and synthetic drugs to control regions of the brain. Check out Skillshare: https://skl.sh/veritasium (first 500 get 2 months free) Special thanks to Prof. Mikhail Shapiro and Dr. Jerzy Szablowski: http://shapirolab.caltech.edu Human brains are complicated - the most complicated thing in the known universe, many people say. So far we understand little - just that certain regions of the brain appear to be involved in certain activities and certain disorders. In extreme cases this has led to the practice of removing sections of the brain, or using electrodes or optical fibers to control activation rates. What is unique about this approach is it offers a way to turn on and off specific brain regions without invasive surgery. It has promise because it combines existing technologies: micro-bubbles, ultrasound, synthetic viruses, and synthetic drugs to achieve this goal. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
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The kg is dead, long live the kg The kg is dead, long live the kg
5 months ago En
The kilogram, mole, kelvin, and ampere will be redefined by physical constants. For a limited time, get 3 months of Audible for just $6.95 a month: http://audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Will this be the last video I make about SI units? Quite possibly. There's something about being so precise and defining the systems within which science works. When we can more accurately and routinely measure a kilogram, a mole, a kelvin and an ampere, then we can make better observations, we can better detect anomalies and improve our theories. That is why this is so important to me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, James M Nicholson, Terrance Shepherd, Stan Presolski Special thanks to NIST: http://nist.gov Additional graphics by Ignat Berbeci Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
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ZERO-G Challenges of a Trip to Mars! ZERO-G Challenges of a Trip to Mars!
5 months ago En
A trip to #Mars involves radiation, muscle and bone loss, intermediate axis theorem and liquids. Check out Mars on National Geographic, Monday Nov 12 at 9/8c #sponsored When I got offered the chance to fly in another #zeroG plane, I jumped at the chance. Do you know how hard it is when you are thrust into low-gravity, like the 37% of Earth's gravity of Mars, and you have to remember what you were going to say in a 30 second window as blood floods your head? It's pretty hard. It would be even harder to actually travel to Mars. It would take about 8 months in microgravity during which time your muscles and bones would weaken substantially, even if you exercise for hours a day like the astronauts on the space station. And your heart is a muscle too so it weakens as well. Before I contemplated these rates of muscle and bone loss, I thought the major challenge with a round trip journey to Mars would be the logistics of spacecraft and having enough fuel to get back. But with the weakening of the human body, it's an open question whether anyone would really want to come back. Filmed by Steve Boxall Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com
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The Fungus on Your Head The Fungus on Your Head
5 months ago En
This fungus lives on your scalp and may affect the genes you express. Check out Head & Shoulders research on getting rid of dandruff: https://ve42.co/HS Animation by Pindex: https://ve42.co/pindex When I started this project, I wasn't sure what caused dandruff and I also didn't think much science would go into making a shampoo like Head & Shoulders. So what I learned really surprised me: There are hundreds of scientists working on this shampoo. They run crazy-sounding experiments like hanging hair near Tokyo highways to understand how real-world environments deposit dirt on hair. They use sophisticated scientific techniques like electron microscopes, nuclear magnetic resonance and gene sequencing to study dandruff on the molecular level. In fact they sequenced the entire genome of Malassezia globosa in 2002, one year after the human genome project. Their findings are published in international refereed journals. What they have found is that the Malassezia fungi create free fatty acids as byproducts of their digestion, which for some people create irritation and lead to hyper-proliferation of skin cells, flaking, histamines, inflammatory cytokines, and blood proteins reaching the surface of the skin. These findings indicate the unhealthiness of dandruff scalp and suggest a possible remedy - controlling the metabolism of the Malassezia fungi. This is achieved using different active ingredients in different products and different parts of the world, including zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, and piroctone olamine. With the reduction of irritants, the scalp actually expresses different genes, producing a signature more similar to a non-dandruff baseline scalp. Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com Music also by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com
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The Scientific Benefits of Boredom The Scientific Benefits of Boredom
6 months ago En
Boredom makes you more creative, altruistic, introspective, and helps with autobiographical planning. This video was sponsored by LastPass: http://bit.ly/2wAsdUu I feel like this video might come across as condescending but the person I'm really talking to is myself. Despite the fact that I know how useful it can be to be bored, I still find myself trying to fill every last moment with stimulus. Boredom is unpleasant - the open, unstructured thinking that can take place can also feel pointless. But now I'm made this video to remind myself how important boredom is so hopefully I'll make more time to be bored. More resources: The boredom leads people to shock themselves study: Just Think: The challenges of the disengaged mind https://wjh-www.harvard.edu/~dtg/WILSON%20ET%20AL%202014.pdf Boredom leads people to consider their future and set goals study: Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810011001978 On boredom and altruism: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ca72/0f959d3c9c31187ac30b28ecfec430bc98cc.pdf Does boredom make us more creative? https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10400419.2014.901073 Amazing filming by Raquel Nuno Music from http://epidemicsound.com "I Think I Was There" "Critical Thinking 2" "Wide Open" "Seaweed" "A Sound Foundation 1" Music also by Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Fig Leaf Rag"
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How UV Causes Cancer and Aging How UV Causes Cancer and Aging
7 months ago En
UV at ground level is non-ionizing but it damages DNA and causes photoaging - how? Also, it turns out glass doesn't block all UV (specifically UVA passes through). This is something I learned filming with the UV camera inside. Special thanks to Dr. Hayley Golbach, @hayleysgold on twitter https://twitter.com/hayleysgold Ultraviolet light causes damage to DNA, leads to cancer and photoaging: age spots and wrinkles. I was curious about this because UV is technically non-ionizing. A photon of UV doesn't have enough energy to strip an electron off atoms or molecules. However it does have enough energy to trigger photo-chemical reactions. For example, it causes pyrimidine dimers - the unauthorized covalent bonding of adjacent thymine or cytosine bases in our DNA. If these spots are not properly repaired, they may lead to mutations and cancer. Photoaging is typically the result of degradation of collagen and elastin fibers - scaffolding that supports the skin. This leads to wrinkles and saggy-looking skin. Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski, James M Nicholson, KIMoFy Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Music from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
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Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious? Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?
7 months ago En
The nutrient content of food is declining. Is it because of soil depletion, selective breeding, or... something else? Watch my new documentary, VITAMANIA: http://ve42.co/vita I came across this story as I was making the film Vitamania. When you ask sellers of vitamins why you should take vitamin supplements even if you eat a healthy diet, they will say because our food doesn't contain all the nutrients it once did. This is supposedly due to soil depletion, cold storage, food ripening off the vine, and global transport of out-of-season foods. And to an extent this is true. Foods contain the greatest amount of nutrients if they are eaten soon after they are harvested. An unexpected source of nutrient decline is the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes plants to grow faster and bulk up on carbs but at the expense of other nutrients, so in percentage terms the amount of nutrients are actually declining. For now this decline is modest so supplementing with vitamin pills is probably unnecessary for most people with a healthy diet but it may be a concern in future. Thanks to Kate Pappas & Chris Kamen for writing, producing and filming this video with me Edited by Lucy McCallum Sound mix by Wayne Hyett Fact Checking by Calvin Lee and Claire Smith Thanks to the Collingwood Children’s Farm and Glenn Fitzgerald from the University of Melbourne & Agriculture Victoria Further Reading: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215/?ncbi_mmode=std http://soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/ https://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-24/scientists-warning-rice-may-become-less-nutritious/9792822
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Can You Overdose on Vitamins? Can You Overdose on Vitamins?
8 months ago En
Vitamins are 13 molecules essential for life that our bodies can't make themselves. Watch Vitamania here: https://ve42.co/vita Now available worldwide, except France and Germany where it will be broadcast on ARTE soon. Subscribe on the Vitamania website for updates. Use #vitamania to join the conversation on Twitter and Facebook. Vitamania is a Genepool Productions feature documentary for SBS Australia, CuriosityStream, and ARTE France. Principal production investment from Screen Australia, in association with Film Victoria.
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The Truth About Veritasium The Truth About Veritasium
10 months ago En
The truth, with photons. I hope I've articulated everything clearly in this video. If not, I'll clarify in comments. Thanks to everyone who appears in this video and thanks to everyone who watches this video! Veritasium is of course a combination of the latin 'veritas' meaning truth, and the common element ending 'ium'. I guess this is my version of the 'draw my life' craze that rolled through YouTube many years ago. Except I wanted to tell my story with the actual moments, the photons, the stored magnetic states. There's something about that which is so important to me (because I think the alternative involves fooling yourself) which is why I'm so fascinated by film and video. One of my inspirations for the name Veritasium came from the end of the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, in which he writes: "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,—that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski Music from http://epidemicsound.com Magnified X1 - Gunnar Johnsen Fluorescent Lights - Martin Gauffin Dissolving Patterns - Ebb & Flod Luna - Ebb & Flod Additional music by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com Sneaky Snitch
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How Neutrons Changed Everything How Neutrons Changed Everything
11 months ago En
Without neutrons, harnessing nuclear energy would be impossible. Try Audible free for 30 days: http://audible.com/veritasium I have a new documentary coming out in a few months - sign up here to be notified and see a sneak preview: http://vitamaniathemovie.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow A few years ago I made a documentary about uranium, radioactivity and radiation. I always thought of the characters in our story as the scientists and maybe the uranium nucleus itself. It was only through making the documentary that I realized the real hero of the story is the neutron. Without a neutral nuclear particle, it would be virtually impossible to release the energy from the nucleus. But with it, and the idea of a chain reaction, nuclear energy went from science fiction to reality. That is something I had not grasped as clearly before and it motivated me to make this video. Filmed by Raquel Nuno.
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The Threat of AI Weapons The Threat of AI Weapons
2 years ago En
Will artificial intelligence weapons cause World War III? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiJTq11kqdw This animated clip is from my friends at http://ve42.co/pindex2 New series! http://vrv.co/paradigms I'm not sure how alarmed to be about artificial intelligence. Personally I think it's really hard to predict when we'll create a machine that essentially has consciousness. That's because we don't know what consciousness is, how it works, what's required to create it etc. So It might be technologically around the corner or a hundred years away. What I do think is more predictable is the development of autonomous weapons that use AI to be the most effective killing machines of all time. That is scary. As outline by people like Musk and Hawking, this threat is clear and present so we should address it. I would like to see us agree as a species not to develop these sorts of weapons because if any one state does develop them, they would be very hard to stop.
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Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To Me?! Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To Me?!
2 years ago En
Mosquitoes are attracted to me and it's likely due to my genes. This video is sponsored by 23andMe https://23andme.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Immo Hansen and team: http://ve42.co/hansen References: Genome Wide Association Study for self-reported mosquito attractiveness: http://ve42.co/MossieGWAS The twin study showing correlated attractiveness is stronger for identical twins: http://ve42.co/MossieTwins Some things we know make mosquitoes more attracted to you: Exercising, higher metabolism, higher body temperature, more body odor, being pregnant, type O blood, infrequent bathing, lactic acid, ammonia, acetone. There are a number of folk remedies people believe protect them from mosquito bites like drinking alcohol, eating garlic, or taking vitamin B. These do not appear to provide any benefit in lab studies and in fact drinking alcohol is associated with increased mosquito activity because it causes blood vessels near the surface of the skin to dilate. And apparently some of your attractiveness to mosquitos is simply genetic. This may be mediated through your immune system, which is what a lot of the genes identified were associated with. Molecular models are microSnatoms: http://snatoms.com Filming in New Mexico by Raquel Nuno Animations by Jacqui Robertson The opinions and conclusions drawn in this video are those of Veritasium and not 23andMe.
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This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry
2 years ago En
Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: http://WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: http://phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: http://www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: http://ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
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World's First Car! World's First Car!
2 years ago En
I got to drive the world's first car (replica), patented by Benz in 1886 Check out the series on new safety features: http://ve42.co/MB This video is sponsored by Mercedes-Benz, who invited me to come to Stuttgart to see their latest cars, crash test facilities and experience the innovations they are working on. Physics is something that is directly applicable to car safety. Cars go fast, but they also sometimes collide with obstacles, which brings them to a sudden stop, subjecting the car and occupants to very high accelerations, which can cause injury or death. So the major idea to improve car safety is to reduce these accelerations and there are a number of ways to do this: Passive safety: Seat belts: keep passengers in the vehicle, preventing them from continuing with constant velocity, flying through the windshield and suffering a worse deceleration when they make contact with the road. Crumple zones: increase the distance over which deceleration occurs, thereby reducing peak magnitude of deceleration. Air bags: increase the distance over which the head decelerates, again reducing peak magnitude of deceleration of the head. Active Safety: Anti-lock braking system: rather than 'locking' the wheels as can happen if you slam on the brakes with a traditional braking system leading to the tires skidding across the road, ABS attempts to control the amount of braking so that the tires always roll with static friction in contact with the road. This increases the backward frictional force that can be applied to the tires, again increasing the distance over which deceleration occurs, and it gives the driver an opportunity to steer to avoid the collision (hence why it's referred to as an active safety system). Special thanks to Mercedes for having me visit facilities in Stuttgart. I had a lot of fun making these videos so please do check out the series on Mercedes Benz's channel: http://ve42.co/MB Filmed by Simon Schneider Edited by Hoplite Creative and Trevor Carlee
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Your Amazing Molecular Machines Your Amazing Molecular Machines
2 years ago Ru En
These are the molecular machines inside your body that make cell division possible. Animation by Drew Berry at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. http://wehi.tv Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Joshua Abenir, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Every day in an adult human roughly 50-70 billion of your cells die. They may be damaged, stressed, or just plain old - this is normal, in fact it’s called programmed cell death. To make up for that loss, right now, inside your body, billions of cells are dividing, creating new cells. And cell division, also called mitosis, requires an army of tiny molecular machines.DNA is a good place to start - the double helix molecule that we always talk about. This is a scientifically accurate depiction of DNA. If you unwind the two strands you can see that each has a sugar phosphate backbone connected to the sequence of nucleic acid base pairs, known by the letters A,T,G, and C. Now the strands run in opposite directions, which is important when you go to copy DNA. Copying DNA is one of the first steps in cell division. Here the two strands of DNA are being unwound and separated by the tiny blue molecular machine called helicase. It literally spins as fast as a jet engine! The strand of DNA on the right has its complimentary strand assembled continuously but the other strand is more complicated because it runs in the opposite direction. So it must be looped out with its compliment strand assembled in reverse, section by section. At the end of this process you have two identical DNA molecules, each one a few centimeters long but just a couple nanometers wide. To prevent the DNA from becoming a tangled mess, it is wrapped around proteins called a histones, forming a nucleosome. These nucleosomes are bundled together into a fiber known as chromatin, which is further looped and coiled to form a chromosome, one of the largest molecular structures in your body. You can actually see chromosomes under a microscope in dividing cells - only then do they take on their characteristic shape. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals. This footage is from a time lapse. You can see how the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell. When everything is right they are pulled apart into the two new daughter cells, each one containing an identical copy of DNA. As simple as it looks, this process is incredibly complicated and requires even more fascinating molecular machines to accomplish it. Let’s look at a single chromosome. One chromosome consists of two sausage-shaped chromatids - containing the identical copies of DNA made earlier. Each chromatid is attached to microtubule fibers, which guide and help align them in the correct position. The microtubules are connected to the chromatid at the kinetochore, here colored red. The kinetochore consists of hundreds of proteins working together to achieve multiple objectives - it’s one of the most sophisticated molecular mechanisms inside your body. The kinetochore is central to the successful separation of the chromatids. It creates a dynamic connection between the chromosome and the microtubules. For a reason no one’s yet been able to figure out, the microtubules are constantly being built at one end and deconstructed at the other. While the chromosome is still getting ready, the kinetochore sends out a chemical stop signal to the rest of the cell, shown here by the red molecules, basically saying this chromosome is not yet ready to divide The kinetochore also mechanically senses tension. When the tension is just right and the position and attachment are correct all the proteins get ready, shown here by turning green. At this point the stop signal broadcasting system is not switched off. Instead it is literally carried away from the kinetochore down the microtubules by a dynein motor. This is really what it looks like. It has long ‘legs’ so it can avoid obstacles and step over the kinesins, molecular motors walking the other direction. Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
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Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays
2 years ago Ru En
The merging of two neutron stars was detected by gravitational waves and then by telescopes in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a historic detection as it demonstrates: - the first gravitational waves detected from inspiraling neutron stars - the first joint observation by gravitational wave and electromagnetic wave astronomy - identification of a gamma ray burst in conjunction with merging neutron stars - how gravitational waves and gamma rays can be used together to locate their source All evidence so far indicates that the data support General Relativity. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Graphics from: Jets and Debris from a Neutron Star Collision This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue). Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab Virgo Helps Localize Gravitational-Wave Signals Sky localizations of gravitational-wave signals detected by LIGO beginning in 2015 (GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, GW170104), and, more recently, by the LIGO-Virgo network (GW170814, GW170817). After Virgo came online in August 2017, scientists were better able to localize the gravitational-wave signals. The background is an optical image of the Milky Way. The localizations of GW150914, LVT151012, and GW170104 wrap around the celestial sphere, so the sky map is shown with a translucent dome. Credit: LIGO/Virgo/NASA/Leo Singer (Milky Way image: Axel Mellinger) Variety of Gravitational Waves and a Chirp The signal measured by LIGO and Virgo from the neutron star merger GW170817 is compared here to previously detected binary black hole mergers. All signals are shown starting at 30 Hertz, and the progression of GW170817 is shown in real time, accompanied by its conversion to audio heard at the end of the movie. GW170817 was observable for more than 30 times longer than any previous gravitational-wave signal. Credit: LIGO/University of Oregon/Ben Farr LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists and some 100 institutions from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian collaboration OzGrav. Additional partners are listed at http://ligo.org/partners.php The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.
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Schlieren Imaging in Color! Schlieren Imaging in Color!
2 years ago Ru En
How Schlieren imaging works in color, black and white and slow-mo. Get a free audiobook with a 30 day free trial at http://www.audible.com/veritasium Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Filming by Raquel Nuno Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit
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ECLIPSE 2017 ECLIPSE 2017
2 years ago En
The total solar eclipse from Madras, Oregon on August 21, 2017. As the moon passed in front of the sun turning day to night and revealing the sun's corona, apparently all I could think to say was 'Oh my goodness!' Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Ron Neal, Zach Mueller, Jeff Straathof, Curational, Tony Fadell Everyone says not to photograph your first solar eclipse and I think they might be right. I was focused on getting the exposure right for Bailey's beads and the diamond ring, plus making sure to get the corona and solar flares. This was a bit stressful but I'm delighted with the results. This video originally included more info but since I'm uploading from Madras where the internet is sluggish, I cut out three minutes so the upload would happen before I had to leave for my flight. Special thanks also to Dr. Teagan Wall for sharing this experience with me and Raquel Nuno for inspiring me to come to Oregon. Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Spinning Earth 2" and Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com "Big Mojo"
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How We're Redefining the kg How We're Redefining the kg
2 years ago En
In 2018 the kg will be defined by Planck's constant, not a hunk of metal. Try a free book from Audible for 30 days http://ve42.co/audible Special thanks to the staff at NIST who made this possible: Darine Haddad, Jon Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, and Ben Stein. Additional footage and animations by Sean Kelley, Jennifer Lauren Lee, and Frank Seifert. I have been obsessed with measurement for a long time and I'm not sure quite how it happened. The world's roundest object played a role in this. I guess I'm just fascinated by how difficult it is to pin down a quantity like a kilogram. A physical object seemed like a good idea until the mass of the international prototype kilogram wasn't as constant as expected. These methods of the Kibble balance and silicon sphere have shown better precision than 20 parts per billion, making them superior to the old method. The agreement between Avogadro approaches Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Interferometer video by TSG Physics: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-u3IEgcTiQ Music from http://epidemicsound.com "ExperiMental1" by Gunnar Johnsén Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
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Hydrodynamic Levitation! Hydrodynamic Levitation!
2 years ago Ru En
On a stream of water you can levitate light balls of all sizes and even disks and cylinders. The mechanism is not the Bernoulli effect... Want to make this at home? https://youtu.be/BppcHF2EdAY My friend Blake from InnoVinci emailed me with a cool idea for a video and footage of levitating balls in water streams. Initially it was tough to explain the physics of what was going on. The standard Bernoulli effect relies on the object being completely immersed in the upward-flowing fluid. But in this case the water seems to form a single stream around the object and it's deflected away and down from the stream. By Newton's third law, the force on the water by the ball is equal and opposite to the force of the water back on the ball, pushing it up into the stream. There is a stable equilibrium position because if the ball moves into the stream, it "cuts off" the water going over the ball so it drifts out. If it drifts out too far, then lots of water passes over the ball, pushing it back into the stream. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops http://hollywoodspecialops.com Music from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Colored Spirals 3" "Magnified X 3" "In Orbit 2" "ExperiMental 1"
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Seeing the Invisible: Schlieren Imaging in SLOW MOTION Seeing the Invisible: Schlieren Imaging in SLOW MOTION
2 years ago Ru En
This is what the world would look like if you could see invisible air currents, temperature gradients, and differences in pressure or composition of the air. Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I first saw a Schlieren imaging setup around ten years ago in Melbourne. I was immediately fascinated by the way I could see the warm air coming off my hand. I hadn't expected the currents to be moving that fast or to be so visible. This was a tricky setup to get right because alignment is very important and here I'm just working with what I had lying around the house mostly (plus the mirror). For the best Schlieren photography, making sure the mirror is stable is essential. I want to improve my setup so the mirror doesn't wobble back and forth too much creating the pulsing light and dark sections of this video. The relationship between index of refraction of air and temperature, pressure, humidity and wavelength is complicated. This website will calculate it for you: http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Ciddor.asp Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops: http://www.hollywoodspecialops.com Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit: http://www.ashellinthepit.com Filmed by Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Blake Nichols for assistance
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Sandwich Bag Fire Starter Sandwich Bag Fire Starter
2 years ago En
Grant Thompson - the King of Random - teaches me how to start a fire with a Sandwich bag. And we tried to melt glass in my backyard: https://goo.gl/zb0uE0 Check out his channel: http://ve42.co/KoR The intensity of sunlight on Earth is about 1300 Watts per square meter. When you focus the sun's rays using a magnifying glass (or in this case sphere of water) you can increase the intensity roughly ten thousand fold. This increases the temperature of wood to its autoignition point starting the reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere. By protecting the hot embers and adding more energy and fuel, you can get these hot coals to start a roaring fire. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon
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NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery! NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!
2 years ago En
Scientists have JUST published this new observation. On January 4th, 2017 they detected the merger of two black holes 3 billion light-years away. This marks the furthest detection they've been able to make and increases confidence that these events will be seen with increasing frequency as the LIGO interferometers become more sensitive to low amplitude gravitational waves (as sources of noise are eliminated). Special thanks to: Prof. Rana Adhikari Prof. David Reitze Resources by: Binary Neutron Star merger: Relastro @ ITP - Goethe University, Frankfurt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nOTXC4FG9gU Numerical simulation of black hole merger: S. Ossokine/A. Buonanno/T. Dietrich (MPI for Gravitational Physics)/R. Haas (NCSA)/SXS project Artist's impression of merger and chart: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet) Simulation of black hole merger: SXS Collaboration Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Sound Recording by Raquel Nuno
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World's Heaviest Weight World's Heaviest Weight
2 years ago En
How do you measure big forces accurately? By calibrating your force transducer on the world's biggest weight - 1,000,000 pounds of force. This machine ensures planes don't break apart, jets provide required thrust, and rockets make it to their destination. Thanks to the people at NIST for showing me around: Rick Seifarth and Ben Stein. Animations here are by Sean Kelley and additional footage by Jennifer Lauren Lee. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Before visiting NIST in Washington DC I had no idea machines like this existed. Surely there's an accurate way to measure forces without creating such a huge known force?! Nope. This appears to be the best way, with a stack of 20 x 50,000 lb masses creating a maximum force of 4.45 MN or 1,000,000 pounds of force. I also wouldn't have thought about all the corrections that need applying - for example buoyancy subtracts about 125 pounds from the weight of the stack. Plus the local gravitational field strength must be taken into account. And, the gravitational field varies below grade. All of this must be taken into account in order to limit uncertainty to just five parts per million (.0005%) Music from The Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
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The Next Mission to Mars: Mars 2020 The Next Mission to Mars: Mars 2020
2 years ago En
In 2020, NASA will send a new rover to the Martian surface with one of its objectives to search for evidence of ancient life on the planet. I made this clip as a correspondent for Bill Nye Saves the World on Netflix. Touring the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in Pasadena was an awesome experience. I didn't think we were going to get into the control room but we got lucky. Some of the greatest moments in the history of space exploration have taken place there. They have a giant vacuum chamber where they can take the rover down to the atmospheric pressure on Mars (roughly .01x Earth's atmosphere) and test all of the devices to make sure there are no electrical discharges due to the reduced pressure. I also enjoyed seeing how the rocks will be cored and stored in tubes and deposited on the Martian surface awaiting pickup by the following mission. Images courtesy of NASA. Filmed by Raquel Nuno from 3:30 onwards. Music: http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
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The American Kilogram The American Kilogram
2 years ago En
The US signed the metre convention and bases all customary units on SI standards. As an aside, the Utah constitution from 1895 required the metric system to be taught in schools. This requirement was repealed in 1987. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Huge thanks to NIST, Ben Stein and Patrick Abbott. https://www.nist.gov/ https://www.nist.gov/pml/weights-and-measures/si-units-mass Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Back in 1875 The US signed the Metre Convention, which basically committed the country to use the metric system. In return, French scientists sent two platinum-iridium cylinders that weigh 1kg to the US in 1889 (known by their designations K4 and K20 from a set of 40 identical objects that were produced and sent around the world). So even though everything you see and buy in the US is usually reported in pounds, all weights are traceable back to the K20 kilogram (by applying a conversion factor to get to pounds). When I was in DC a few weeks ago, I visited the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and got up close with K20, which is still kept there and used to calibrate all mass standards in this country. I thought it was pretty cool. Edited by Bill Connor
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Fire in ZERO-G!! Fire in ZERO-G!!
2 years ago En
In a zero-g plane I experimented with flames and slinkies with surprising results. Check out e-penser's video: http://ve42.co/EPzeroG Check out Physicsgirl's video: http://ve42.co/PGzeroG Thanks to Novespace: http://ve42.co/novespace Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Nick Luchsinger, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen The zero-g plane allows for a lot of experiments to be conducted without the expense of getting equipment into orbit. Apparently 80% of microgravity research can be performed in a zero-gravity plane, which is much cheaper than going to space. The flame from the lighter seemed much lazier in zero-g because without weight there is no buoyant force and therefore no convection. This makes the process of combustion more challenging because it's difficult for oxygen to reach the fuel. Music from the Epidemic Sound: http://ve42.co/epidemic "Serene Story 2" "In Orbit 2"
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The Sun Sneeze Gene The Sun Sneeze Gene
2 years ago En
I have the photic sneeze reflex so I sneeze when I look at bright light. Check out 23andMe: http://ve42.co/23andme *So technically the single nucleotide swap (C instead of T) is not actually in a gene per se but in an intergenic region on chromosome 2. It's also not clear exactly how this affects physiology or causes the sun sneeze but there is correlative evidence that every copy of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with a 1.3x increase in likelihood of having the photic sneeze reflex. I have wanted to make a video about sun-sneezing for a long time. It is something I've experienced my whole life. When I go from a dark room indoors into full sunlight I invariably sneeze. I thought everyone did it. So my original question was why do people sneeze when they see bright light? That led me to consider what possible evolutionary advantages there could be to sneezing in sunlight. The obvious advantage to me is that sunlight kills pathogens of which there may be many in your snot or mucus. So sneezing in sunshine is a much better idea than sneezing inside a dark, damp cave where you may be living. For more info, check out: Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000993 Filmed by Raquel Nuno
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4 Revolutionary Riddles Resolved! 4 Revolutionary Riddles Resolved!
3 years ago En
The solution to 4 rotation-related riddles, including the mystery cylinder, bike pedal pulling puzzle, track problem, and train part going backwards. Thank you to everyone who responded, liked, shared, or made a video response. Please fill out this short survey for research: http://ve42.co/Rresearch Special thanks to: Mathematician George Hart: http://georgehart.com/ For allowing me to use excerpts from his pedal pulling puzzle solution: http://ve42.co/ppp Petr Lebedev for combing through thousands of comments and providing the stats I gave in this video. Video responses I used in this video (or watched): everWonder? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ub2Cuclh1M A Random Nerdy Channel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9RB9TrZGps The Physics DoJo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pns0LCGLu9k Oblivious Jim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12WZIMEPi1A Armchair Explorers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1yX_LTqtms MrEngineeringGuy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRF82Rx9_YI Professor Cubers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOd5orH-jfM Scoop Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzLO6GqmfhI A few notes on the puzzle: 1. A half-full container of honey does pretty well in reproducing the behaviour of the mystery cylinder. I wonder if the motion is a little smoother or more periodic with the ping-pong balls because they move as organized objects - also the delays between motion seemed to be longer with them than without ping pong balls. 2. For the average speed track problem, every time I said velocity I meant speed. Sorry to the pedants out there who are perhaps looking for some trick answer due to displacement being zero when you run around a track. 3. Although a lot of people identified it was something about a train's wheels that move backwards, fewer identified that specifically it was the part of the flange below the rail. Some simply said the bottom half of the wheel. 4. The bicycle question is perhaps the most complex of these riddles. If you tried it with a bike you likely found that it went backwards. But what happens if you sit on the bike and only push backwards on the bottom pedal. The answer might surprise you so give it a shot!
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4 Revolutionary Riddles 4 Revolutionary Riddles
3 years ago Ru En
Can you solve these four rotation-related riddles? Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Test yourself playlist: http://ve42.co/testurself Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I came across these four physics puzzles over the years in discussions with Neil deGrasse Tyson (riddle 4: which part(s) of a moving train are going backwards with respect to the ground?), Simon Pampena (riddle 2: run around a track twice, the first time slowly, the second time much faster so that the average for the two laps is twice the speed of the first lap). Someone tweeted me a video of the mystery cylinder rolling down the ramp in riddle 1 (sorry I'm not sure who it was). Riddle three about a bicycle going forward or backward when it's bottom peddle is pulled back was brought to me by a number of people and I appreciate all of their help! Filmed by Raquel Nuno. Thanks to everyone at the Palais de la Decouverte! I've had this footage for five years and am only finally releasing it now. I wanted to talk about the way grass grows on a spinning turntable but I couldn't locate the footage...
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The Bayesian Trap The Bayesian Trap
3 years ago Ru En
Bayes' theorem explained with examples and implications for life. Check out Audible: http://ve42.co/audible Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon I didn't say it explicitly in the video, but in my view the Bayesian trap is interpreting events that happen repeatedly as events that happen inevitably. They may be inevitable OR they may simply be the outcome of a series of steps, which likely depend on our behaviour. Yet our expectation of a certain outcome often leads us to behave just as we always have which only ensures that outcome. To escape the Bayesian trap, we must be willing to experiment. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Jeff Straathof, Donal Botkin, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Saeed Alghamdi Useful references: The Signal and the Noise, Nate Silver The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy, by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne Bayes' theorem or rule (there are many different versions of the same concept) has fascinated me for a long time due to its uses both in mathematics and statistics, and to solve real world problems. Bayesian inference has been used to crack the Enigma Code and to filter spam email. Bayes has also been used to locate the wreckage from plane crashes deep beneath the sea. Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Flourishing Views 3"
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Does Water Swirl the Other Way in the Southern Hemisphere? Does Water Swirl the Other Way in the Southern Hemisphere?
3 years ago En
The definitive answer about the direction water swirls in two hemispheres Sync the videos yourself: http://toiletswirl.com For the record Destin and I repeated the experiment 3-4 times each in each hemisphere and got the same results every time. The idea that water going down a drain or flushed down a toilet swirls in opposite directions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres has a long history. But few have ever done the experiment. Destin from Smarter Every Day and I performed identical experiments in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. What we found is the direction of water swirl in a toilet, sink, or bathtub is determined by other sources of angular momentum. However if the body of water is big enough, e.g. a kiddy pool, and left still for long enough (at least 24 hours), then the Coriolis effect is observable with water swirling counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. Veritasium on Instagram: http://instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: http://www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: http://twitter.com/veritasium http://www.facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: http://instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: http://www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: http://twitter.com/smartereveryday www.facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by http://eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: http://youtube.com/braincraftvideo MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (http://web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: http://www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...
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The Science of Thinking The Science of Thinking
3 years ago Ru En
How the brain works, how we learn, and why we sometimes make stupid mistakes. Submit ideas: http://ve42.co/GotIdeas Apply to work with me: http://ve42.co/JoinUs Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon This video was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman Harpist: Lara Somogyi http://ve42.co/Lara Animator: Jesse Agar http://ve42.co/ThisPlace Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://incompetech.com "Sneaky Adventure" "Harlequin"
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Water on the Moon? Water on the Moon?
3 years ago Ru En
NEW CHANNEL! http://youtube.com/sciencium For a long time we thought the Moon was completely dry, but it turns out there are actually three sources of lunar water. Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting the new channel! http://youtube.com/makingscience Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon References: Great history of water on the moon: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.5597.pdf Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music from http://epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
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Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter
3 years ago En
Spinning magnets near copper sheets create levitation! Try Audible free for 30 days: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Special thanks to Hyperloop One for showing me around. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Perry cl, Bryan Baker Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno, Edited by Trevor Carlee Obviously this "quadcopter" is a demonstration device, showing how moving magnets over a conducting surface can generate levitation. It has not been optimized to minimize losses or be an efficient mode of transport. I still think it's pretty cool. I'm used to seeing light things levitated by induced currents but not a 100+ lb machine. For more on Hyperloop One: https://hyperloop-one.com/
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The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars
3 years ago Ru En
We talk about all the potentially challenging situations autonomous cars could get into but not about how human drivers are not very good. Tens of thousands die on the roads every year in collisions, most of which could be prevented by autonomous vehicles. Sponsored by BMW I wanted to make a video about autonomous cars for some time but I hadn't had the opportunity. The self-driving technology is already at a state where it can save lives if only it were more widely implemented. Links to original clips: TED-Ed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixIoDYVfKA0 BBC Newsnight: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FypPSJfCRFk&t=172s Music from http://www.epidemicsound.com "Ambient Electronic Groove," "Pet Animals 2," "The Long Ride." Filmed by Raquel Nuno Edited by Trevor Carlee
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The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves
3 years ago Ru En
A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: http://ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: https://youtu.be/ViMnGgn87dg Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)
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Post-Truth: Why Facts Don't Matter Anymore Post-Truth: Why Facts Don't Matter Anymore
3 years ago Ru En
Why we can't seem to agree on what's true when it's easier than ever to check. Videos like this are usually on 2Veritasium: http://bit.ly/2Veritasium Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon This video was filmed at a meetup in Stockholm, Sweden on Dec. 9, 2016. Huge thanks to everyone who attended - I had a great time. Sorry to those of you I missed, especially Lund and Gothenburg. Thanks to Patreon supporters (but this is a non-paid post): Meshal Alshammari, Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Ron Neal
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Indestructible Coating?! Indestructible Coating?!
3 years ago Ru En
Used in everything from bullet-proof vests to the walls of the Pentagon, polyurea's strength comes from its long-chain molecules. Check out How Ridiculous: http://bit.ly/VeHowRidiculous Snatoms magnetic molecules: http://bit.ly/VeSnatoms Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to South Bay Line-X: http://southbaylinex.com/ Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Filmed by Prashanth Venkataramanujam SFX by A Shell in the Pit
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What the Fahrenheit?! What the Fahrenheit?!
3 years ago Ru En
The crazy story of the arbitrary temperature scale used in a tiny minority of countries. Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe Snatoms are available again! http://www.snatoms.com Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Celsius didn't invent Celsius: http://bit.ly/VeCelsius Video animated by Marcello Ascani: http://bit.ly/VeMarcello Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Music by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com "Modern Piano Zeta - Improbable" "Ice Demon" "Divertimento K131" "Sneaky Adventure" "Sheep May Safely Graze" "Professor and the Plant" References: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Script: As an Australian-Canadian the Fahrenheit temperature scale always seemsed a bit arbitrary. I mean why does water freeze at 32 degrees? And what exactly does zero represent? According to many sources the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting zero degrees equal to the temperature of an ice, salt, and water mixture and 100 degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature. But that isn’t true. The real story is much more interesting, and scientific... August 14th 1701 was almost certainly the worst day in the life of fifteen year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. On that day both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning. He was sent from Poland, where he lived, to Amsterdam to become an apprentice bookkeeper. But Fahrenheit couldn’t stand his apprenticeship and ran away so many times his employers put out a warrant for his arrest. Traveling from city to city around Europe, he became fascinated with scientific instruments and in particular thermometers. In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant, Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen, who happened to be the famous astronomer Ole Romer. Romer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter’s moons and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth. In other words, he found a way to accurately measure the finite speed of light. But more pertinent to this story, in 1702 Romer was housebound after breaking his leg. To pass the time he devised a new temperature scale with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees and body temperature at 22.5 degrees. This might seem odd until you consider that Romer wanted the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees (as an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60). If you take this scale, divide it in half, in half again, and in half once more, you find the freezing point of water 1/8th up the scale, and human body temperature 3/8th up the scale. So at their meeting in 1708, Fahrenheit learned of Romer’s temperature scale and adopted it as his own, adjusting it slightly because he found it “inconvenient and inelegant on account of the fractional numbers”. So he scaled them up to 8 and 24. That is the original Fahrenheit scale. He produced thermometers for some time using this scale. But then, at some later time Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on his scale by four, setting freezing point to the now familiar 32 and body temperature to 96. It’s unclear exactly why he did this. He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements but I think there was a better reason. You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker. His thermometers agreed with each other precisely, at a time when that was unheard of. He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid, which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol used in most other thermometers at the time. For these accomplishments, he was inducted into the British Royal Society. And we know he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hooke, in which he would have come across the idea that a one degree increase in temperature should correspond to a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid. And today a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000. Is this just a coincidence? We’ll probably never know for sure because as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was secretive about his methods. But I think the data strongly suggests this was the case. So what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit and Romer? By many accounts it’s the temperature of a salt, ice and water mixture. But there are different descriptions of these mixtures and none of them actually produces the temperature they’re supposed to. More likely I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter, set that as zero and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers. Now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Belize, oh and the United States of America.
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